Polymerase Chain Reaction-PCR

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Polymerase Chain Reaction-PCR

  1. 1. Polymerase Chain Reaction- PCR By: Olivia Cade
  2. 2. What IS PCR?• A method used to quickly produce a good amount of identical genetic material for studying and analyzing• Basically, it’s used to make many copies of genes in a quick and easy way so scientists can observe them
  3. 3. A Brief History• Developed in 1983 by Kary Mullis• The first announcement of PCR was made in October of 1985 That guy• In 1986, Edward Blake ( a forensics scientist) collaborated with the FBI to apply the process of PCR to criminal evidence• Rights to the PCR patents were sold to Hoffman-La Roche on July 23rd, 1991
  4. 4. Where or When is it used?• Diagnosis of hereditary diseases, paternity testing, DNA fingerprinting, forensic science, and so much more!
  5. 5. Summary of Steps• 1. Denaturation- The ‘melting’ of DNA into separate strands• 2. Annealing- Primers bind to the complementary sequences on the lone strands of DNA• 3. Extension-Continuation of annealing, creates copies• Repeat
  6. 6. Step One• Denaturing-Heated to 94 degrees Celsius-Bonds that are joining the two strands of DNAtogether break-Enables DNA to separate into lone strands
  7. 7. Step Two• Annealing-Cooled to 54 degrees Celsius-Primers bind to their complementarysequences on the single strands of DNA
  8. 8. Step Three• Extension-Sample is heated again to around74 degrees Celsius-DNA polymerase begins making anew strand of DNA by joiningonto the primers-Adds dNTPS (DNA’s monomer) tothe original strand, creates a copyof the target sequence

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