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How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part III

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Part three in a series of three: Full of examples of behavioural change that create, or can create, sustainable actions. Includes measurement of success and the name of the corresponding behavioural quirk(s).

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How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part III

  1. 1. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />February 2010<br />Oliver Payne,Founder, CEO, The Hunting Dynasty<br />Colwyn Elder, Partner, Director of Planning & Strategy<br />, <br />
  2. 2. 13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />
  3. 3. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />
  4. 4. 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure<br />
  5. 5. 16. Don’t ask anything – then go public<br />
  6. 6. 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future<br />
  7. 7. 18. Ask kinetically<br />
  8. 8. 19. Make the question irrelevant <br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
  11. 11. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />
  12. 12. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />
  13. 13. 13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />
  14. 14. 13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />Easy rider<br />yourbikeishot.com have made a downloadable notice to put on other people’s bicycles, reinforcing bikes and bike riding as an activity that has a positive influence on one’s social standing<br />
  15. 15. 13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />(Herd instinct)<br />Social norms<br />Easy rider<br />yourbikeishot.com have made a downloadable notice to put on other people’s bicycles, reinforcing bikes and bike riding as an activity that has a positive influence on one’s social standing<br />
  16. 16. 13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />c. A ball of energy<br />Attempts by Southern California Edison to notify people of their energy use with e-mails and text messages did no good. <br /> <br />Chicago Tribune | A gentle prod to go green<br />
  17. 17. 13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />c. A ball of energy<br />They tried an Ambient Orb – a<br />personal energy meter in the<br />shape of a little ball:<br /><ul><li>It glows red when people are using lots of energy
  18. 18. It glows green when their use is modest.</li></ul>Chicago Tribune | A gentle prod to go green<br />
  19. 19. 13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />c. A ball of energy<br />They tried an Ambient Orb – a<br />personal energy meter in the<br />shape of a little ball:<br />Within weeks users of the orb<br />reduced their energy consumption<br />during peak times by 40%<br />Chicago Tribune | A gentle prod to go green<br />
  20. 20. 13. Let the feedback ask the question<br />Social norms<br />Loss aversion<br />c. A ball of energy<br />They tried an Ambient Orb – a<br />personal energy meter in the<br />shape of a little ball:<br />Within weeks users of the orb<br />reduced their energy consumption<br />during peak times by 40%<br />Chicago Tribune | A gentle prod to go green<br />
  21. 21. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />
  22. 22. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />
  23. 23. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />
  24. 24. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />a. Towel reuse <br />In an upscale hotel in Phoenix, USA one of these cards was placed in guestrooms urging towel reuse: <br />1. Help Save The Environment – (respect for nature) <br />2. Help Save Resources For Future Generations – (saving energy)<br />3. Partner With Us To Help Save The Environment – (co-operate)<br />4. Join Your Fellow Citizens In Helping To Save The Environment – (what other guest do in that room)<br />US Government Subcommittee on Research & Science Education :: September 25, 2007<br />The Contribution of the Social Sciences to the Energy Challenge<br />
  25. 25. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />a. Towel reuse <br />In an upscale hotel in Phoenix, USA one of these cards was placed in guestrooms urging towel reuse: <br />1. Help Save The Environment – (respect for nature) <br />2. Help Save Resources For Future Generations – (saving energy)<br />3. Partner With Us To Help Save The Environment – (co-operate)<br />4. Join Your Fellow Citizens In Helping To Save The Environment – (what other guest do in that room)<br />Only this message reinforces a social norm <br />US Government Subcommittee on Research & Science Education :: September 25, 2007<br />The Contribution of the Social Sciences to the Energy Challenge<br />
  26. 26. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />a. Towel reuse <br />In an upscale hotel in Phoenix, USA one of these cards was placed in guestrooms urging towel reuse: <br />1. Help Save The Environment – (respect for nature) <br />2. Help Save Resources For Future Generations – (saving energy)<br />3. Partner With Us To Help Save The Environment – (co-operate)<br />4. Join Your Fellow Citizens In Helping To Save The Environment – (what other guest do in that room)<br />Guests exposed to this message were 34% more likely to recycle their towels<br />US Government Subcommittee on Research & Science Education :: September 25, 2007<br />The Contribution of the Social Sciences to the Energy Challenge<br />
  27. 27. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />Social norms<br />a. Towel reuse <br />In an upscale hotel in Phoenix, USA one of these cards was placed in guestrooms urging towel reuse: <br />1. Help Save The Environment – (respect for nature) <br />2. Help Save Resources For Future Generations – (saving energy)<br />3. Partner With Us To Help Save The Environment – (co-operate)<br />4. Join Your Fellow Citizens In Helping To Save The Environment – (what other guest do in that room)<br />Guests exposed to this message were 34% more likely to recycle their towels<br />US Government Subcommittee on Research & Science Education :: September 25, 2007<br />The Contribution of the Social Sciences to the Energy Challenge<br />
  28. 28. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />b. Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)<br />In Australia, tax-payers were informed that that normal practice was honesty in tax returns<br />HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research<br />
  29. 29. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />b. Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)<br />In Australia, tax-payers were informed that that normal practice was honesty in tax returns <br />Deductions plunged by 47%<br />(over $800 million Aus$ extra revenue)<br />HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research<br />
  30. 30. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />b. Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)<br />Minnesota tried to increase honesty on tax returns with 4 types of intervention: <br />Taxes go to good works<br />Threats risk of punishment<br />How to get help if confused<br />Told that 90% of people complied in full<br />HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research<br />
  31. 31. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />b. Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)<br />Minnesota tried to increase honesty on tax returns with 4 types of intervention: <br />Taxes go to good works<br />Threats risk of punishment<br />How to get help if confused<br />Told that 90% of people complied in full<br />This was the only intervention to work<br />HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research<br />
  32. 32. 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)<br />Social norms<br />b. Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)<br />Minnesota tried to increase honesty on tax returns with 4 types of intervention: <br />Taxes go to good works<br />Threats risk of punishment<br />How to get help if confused<br />Told that 90% of people complied in full<br />This was the only intervention to work<br />HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research<br />
  33. 33. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />
  34. 34. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />
  35. 35. 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure<br />
  36. 36. 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure<br />Competitive Dad<br />When a Jeep driver got a Prius he became fixated with stretching his<br />mileage as far as possible<br />For Hybrid Drivers, Every Trip Is a Race for Fuel Efficiency | Washington Post | 2008<br />
  37. 37. 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure<br />Competitive Dad<br />When a Jeep driver got a Prius he became fixated with stretching his<br />mileage as far as possible<br /><ul><li>His record is 57.4 mpg
  38. 38. More than double the 27.5 mpg that non-hybrid cars are required to deliver under US law</li></ul>For Hybrid Drivers, Every Trip Is a Race for Fuel Efficiency | Washington Post | 2008<br />
  39. 39. 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure<br />Competitive Dad<br />When a Jeep driver got a Prius he became fixated with stretching his<br />mileage as far as possible<br /><ul><li>His record is 57.4 mpg
  40. 40. More than double the 27.5 mpg that non-hybrid cars are required to deliver under US law</li></ul>“It has totally changed my driving in that for the first time I’m completely cognizant of how the car works.” <br />(Washington Post)<br />Loss aversion<br />For Hybrid Drivers, Every Trip Is a Race for Fuel Efficiency | Washington Post | 2008<br />
  41. 41. 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure<br />Switched on<br />In 1923 a study was carried out at Hawthorne Works, Illinois to see if<br />workers would become more productive in:<br />Higher levels of light <br />Lower levels of light <br />The Hawthorn Effect | Bad Science | Ben Goldachre | pp 139 <br />
  42. 42. 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure<br />Switched on<br />In 1923 a study was carried out at Hawthorne Works, Illinois to see if<br />workers would become more productive in:<br />Higher levels of light <br />Lower levels of light <br />The workers' productivity improved when ANY changes were made<br />The Hawthorn Effect | Bad Science | Ben Goldachre | pp 139 <br />
  43. 43. 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure<br />Switched on<br />In 1923 a study was carried out at Hawthorne Works, Illinois to see if<br />workers would become more productive in:<br />Higher levels of light <br />Lower levels of light <br />The workers' productivity improved when ANY changes were made<br />Exposure effect<br />The Hawthorn Effect | Bad Science | Ben Goldachre | pp 139 <br />
  44. 44. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />
  45. 45. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />
  46. 46. 16. Don’t ask anything – other than they go public<br />
  47. 47. 16. Don’t ask anything – other than they go public<br />a. A clean win<br />Los Angeles restaurants required to display hygiene grades <br /> in their windows <br />HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research<br />
  48. 48. 16. Don’t ask anything – other than they go public<br />a. A clean win<br />Los Angeles restaurants required to display hygiene grades <br /> in their windows <br /><ul><li> Many made hygiene improvements
  49. 49. C-graded restaurants lost revenue
  50. 50. A-grade ratings up from 58% to 83% </li></ul> (mostly from consumer choice)<br /><ul><li> Food-borne-illness hospitalisations decreased by up to 20% </li></ul>HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research<br />
  51. 51. 16. Don’t ask anything – other than they go public<br />a. A clean win<br />Los Angeles restaurants required to display hygiene grades <br /> in their windows <br />Social norms<br /><ul><li> Many made hygiene improvements
  52. 52. C-graded restaurants lost revenue
  53. 53. A-grade ratings up from 58% to 83% </li></ul> (mostly from consumer choice)<br /><ul><li> Food-borne-illness hospitalisations decreased by up to 20% </li></ul>HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research<br />
  54. 54. 16. Don’t ask anything – other than they go public<br />b. S’up?<br />Wattson is a personal energy meter from<br />design firm, DIY Kyoto<br />Derek Foster developed the WattsUp<br />application to record users’ live and historical<br />household energy consumption via the<br />Wattson monitor – and then transmits the data<br />to Facebook<br />Microsoft Windows Developer Center | Featured Application – WattsUp<br />
  55. 55. 16. Don’t ask anything – other than they go public<br />b. S’up?<br />“By using Facebook as the delivery platform it [WattsUp] introduces social psychology elements such as peer-pressure and normative behaviour between friends which can introduce competitiveness to reduce energy usage.”<br />Derek Foster, post-graduate, University of York<br />Microsoft Windows Developer Center | Featured Application – WattsUp<br />
  56. 56. 16. Don’t ask anything – other than they go public<br />Social norms<br />b. S’up?<br />“By using Facebook as the delivery platform it [WattsUp] introduces social psychology elements such as peer-pressure and normative behaviour between friends which can introduce competitiveness to reduce energy usage.”<br />Derek Foster, post-graduate, University of York<br />Microsoft Windows Developer Center | Featured Application – WattsUp<br />
  57. 57. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />
  58. 58. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />
  59. 59. 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future<br />
  60. 60. 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future<br />a. Water water everywhere<br />A shower timer asks for us to commit to a length of time using our clear-thinking rational brain, rather than leaving the decision to our pleasure-demanding ‘me, now’ brain<br /> <br />HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research<br />
  61. 61. 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future<br />Temporal discounting<br />a. Water water everywhere<br />A shower timer asks for us to commit to a length of time using our clear-thinking rational brain, rather than leaving the decision to our pleasure-demanding ‘me, now’ brain<br />  <br />‘time-inconsistent preferencing’ is a recognition that we can prefer one outcome in a low-stimulus (i.e. reflective) context, and a different outcome in a high-stimulus (i.e. tempting) context.<br />HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research<br />
  62. 62. 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future<br />b. Do a good turn<br />Will you wash your clothes in colder water?<br /><ul><li>80% of washing machine’s energy heats water
  63. 63. Switching from 40°to 30°saves 40% of washing machine’s energy
  64. 64. Ariel created powder to wash at 30°</li></ul>Do a good turn<br />
  65. 65. 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future<br />b. Do a good turn<br />Will you wash your clothes in colder water?<br /><ul><li>80% of washing machine’s energy heats water
  66. 66. Switching from 40°to 30°saves 40% of washing machine’s energy
  67. 67. Ariel created powder to wash at 30°</li></ul>“Did you know that if every household in London turned to 30°, there would be enough money saved to pay 24,769 families fuel & power bills for a full year”<br />Do a good turn<br />
  68. 68. 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future<br />b. Do a good turn<br />Will you wash your clothes in colder water?<br /><ul><li>The illustration of creating a commitment is key
  69. 69. The actual effect of turning to 30°is small</li></ul>“Did you know that if every household in London turned to 30°, there would be enough money saved to pay 24,769 families fuel & power bills for a full year”<br />Do a good turn<br />
  70. 70. 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future<br />b. Do a good turn<br />Will you wash your clothes in colder water?<br /><ul><li>The illustration of creating a commitment is key
  71. 71. The actual effect of turning to 30°is small</li></ul>The maths:<br />There are 3,000,000 homes in London<br /> (Office for National Statistics, 2001)<br />Saving 24,769 families fuel & power <br />= 0.83% of total fuel & power need <br />“Did you know that if every household in London turned to 30°, there would be enough money saved to pay 24,769 families fuel & power bills for a full year”<br />Do a good turn<br />
  72. 72. 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future<br />Temporal discounting<br />b. Do a good turn<br />Will you wash your clothes in colder water?<br /><ul><li>The illustration of creating a commitment is key
  73. 73. The actual effect of turning to 30°is small</li></ul>The maths:<br />There are 3,000,000 homes in London<br /> (Office for National Statistics, 2001)<br />Saving 24,769 families fuel & power <br />= 0.83% of total fuel & power need <br />“Did you know that if every household in London turned to 30°, there would be enough money saved to pay 24,769 families fuel & power bills for a full year”<br />Do a good turn<br />
  74. 74. 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future<br />Put a contract on yourself<br />STICKK.com enables users to form commitment contracts to help them achieve their personal goals. These goals may be to lose weight, run a marathon, etc<br />STICKK.com<br />
  75. 75. 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future<br />Put a contract on yourself<br />The Commitment Contract concept is based on two well known principles of behavioural economics: <br /><ul><li>People don't always do what they claim they want to do, and
  76. 76. Incentives get people to do things</li></ul>STICKK.com<br />
  77. 77. 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future<br />Temporal discounting<br />Put a contract on yourself<br />The Commitment Contract concept is based on two well known principles of behavioural economics: <br /><ul><li>People don't always do what they claim they want to do, and
  78. 78. Incentives get people to do things</li></ul>STICKK.com<br />
  79. 79. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />
  80. 80. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />
  81. 81. 18. Ask kinetically<br />
  82. 82. 18. Ask kinetically<br />a. Lights. Out.<br />Communicating ‘turn off the lights’ in a hotel is tricky – the guest derives no personal benefit (either delayed or short-term) by turning off lights, etc<br />So what do you say?<br />?<br />A gentle prod to go green: Turning wishes into actions a matter of showing people the way | Chicago Tribune | Thaler, Sunstein | 2008<br />
  83. 83. 18. Ask kinetically<br />a. Lights. Out.<br />Link to an action that is in the interests of the guest:<br />“In some hotel rooms, guests are required to insert their room key card into a slot by the door to turn on the lights and air conditioning. When they leave the room and take their key, the lights and AC are automatically turned off.”<br /> Chicago Tribune <br />A gentle prod to go green: Turning wishes into actions a matter of showing people the way | Chicago Tribune | Thaler, Sunstein | 2008<br />
  84. 84. 18. Ask kinetically<br />c. Square peg<br />Architect Shigeru Ban is well-known for his innovative use of paper as a structural element. <br /> <br /> <br />Can he minimise the amount of wasted<br /> lavatory paper?<br />Squared Toilet Paper = Less Waste | TreeHugger | Kimberley D. Mok | 2009<br />
  85. 85. 18. Ask kinetically<br />c. Square peg<br /> <br />Make the tube square instead of round<br /> - Each tug is met with resistance<br /> - Only take what you really need<br />Can he minimise the amount of wasted<br /> lavatory paper?<br />Squared Toilet Paper = Less Waste | TreeHugger | Kimberley D. Mok | 2009<br />
  86. 86. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />
  87. 87. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />
  88. 88. 19. Make the question irrelevant <br />
  89. 89. 19. Make the question irrelevant <br />a. The answer on a plate<br />Smarter Lunchrooms’ mission is to design sustainable <br />research-based lunchrooms that subtly guide smarter choices.<br />  <br />How do they make their healthy menu more popular?<br />Smarter Lunchrooms<br />
  90. 90. 19. Make the question irrelevant <br />a. The answer on a plate<br />Smarter Lunchrooms’ mission is to design sustainable <br />research-based lunchrooms that subtly guide smarter choices.<br />  <br />They make the plates smaller, making the food look a lot bigger, <br />and a lot better value<br />Smarter Lunchrooms<br />
  91. 91. 19. Make the question irrelevant <br />a. The answer on a plate<br />Smarter Lunchrooms’ mission is to design sustainable <br />research-based lunchrooms that subtly guide smarter choices.<br />  <br />They make the plates smaller, making the food look a lot bigger, <br />and a lot better value<br />Smarter Lunchrooms<br />
  92. 92. 19. Make the question irrelevant <br />Selective perception<br />a. The answer on a plate<br />Smarter Lunchrooms’ mission is to design sustainable <br />research-based lunchrooms that subtly guide smarter choices.<br />  <br />They make the plates smaller, making the food look a lot bigger, <br />and a lot better value<br />Smarter Lunchrooms<br />
  93. 93. 19. Make the question irrelevant <br />b. As clear as day<br />How do you create energy efficiency at home?<br />Solar<br />Wind<br />Insulation<br />Feedback metering<br />Pricing<br /> <br />
  94. 94. 19. Make the question irrelevant <br />b. As clear as day<br />How do you create energy efficiency at home?<br />During his time as Ambassador to France from 1776–1785, Benjamin Franklin suggested Parisians economise on candles by rising earlier to use morning sunlight…<br /> <br />Daylight savings time | Nudge pp 51 <br />
  95. 95. 19. Make the question irrelevant <br />b. As clear as day<br />How do you create energy efficiency at home?<br />In 1916 Germany and its World War I allies were the first European nations to move the clocks forwards and backwards as a way to conserve coal during wartime… <br /> <br />Daylight savings time | Nudge pp 51 <br />
  96. 96. 19. Make the question irrelevant <br />b. As clear as day<br />How do you create energy efficiency at home?<br />Britain, most of its allies, and many European neutrals soon followed.<br /> <br />Daylight savings time | Nudge pp 51 <br />
  97. 97. 19. Make the question irrelevant <br />Social norms<br />b. As clear as day<br />British Summer Time (BST) starts on the last Sunday in March and ends on the last Sunday in October<br /> <br />Daylight savings time | Nudge pp 51 <br />
  98. 98.
  99. 99. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part III<br />
  100. 100. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Thank you<br />(look out for part I & II)<br />
  101. 101. Part I & II – Ready to download now><br />

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