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Presentation rmc

  1. 1. <ul><ul><li>REGIONAL METROLOGY CONFERENCE 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ELECTRICAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INSTRUMENTATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By: A. Ochieng </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> 08. 10. 2008 </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><ul><li>INSTRUMENTATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. INTRODUCTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEFINITION : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumentation is the branch of science that deals with measurement and control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a specialization focused on the principle and operation of measuring instruments which are used in design and configuration of automated systems. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>2 Instrument Composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An instrument consists of; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>system under measurement or measurand, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sensors/transducers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>signal conditioners, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>signal processors and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effectuator / output (display, recording or storage). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>2.1 These measured values include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure - flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>temperature - level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>position, speed, vibration or acceleration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>density - viscosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>radiation - current </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>voltage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inductance - capacitance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frequency - resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chemical composition </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The can be an output in the form of: </li></ul><ul><li>-analogue or digital readout, </li></ul><ul><li>-graphical display </li></ul><ul><li>-or video display. </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 Control </li></ul><ul><li>examples : </li></ul><ul><li>Device Field Parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Valve Flow, Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Relay Voltage, Current </li></ul><ul><li>Solenoid Physical Location, Level </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit breaker Voltage, Current </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>3.0 INSTRUMENT OPERATION </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments mode of operation may be either </li></ul><ul><li>-manual, </li></ul><ul><li>-semi-automatic or </li></ul><ul><li>-automatic </li></ul><ul><li>This depends on the purpose and technology at the time of manufacture </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>4.0 Instrument Failure </li></ul><ul><li>Failures may be categorised as:- </li></ul><ul><li>- intermittent or permanent, </li></ul><ul><li>- partial or complete, </li></ul><ul><li>- sudden or gradual, </li></ul><ul><li>- Catastrophic or degrading. </li></ul><ul><li>- Random, time-dependent or failure soon after being put into use (infant mortality). </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The common causes of instrument faults are: </li></ul><ul><li>4.1 Improper Operation in usage </li></ul><ul><li>- due to not inadequate training </li></ul><ul><li>- not following procedures </li></ul><ul><li>- ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>- lack of exposure </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>4.2 Incorrect Installation </li></ul><ul><li>Can result in incorrect measurements or malfunction which can be costly and time consuming . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>4.3 Careless handling and misuse </li></ul><ul><li>Improper handling, storage and misuse </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>This could include </li></ul><ul><li>-damage during transportation or movement , </li></ul><ul><li>-accumulation of dust, </li></ul><ul><li>-operation under harsh environments </li></ul><ul><li>-Spillage of corrosive substances </li></ul><ul><li>-leaving instrument powered /on for extended period of time. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>4.4 Ageing </li></ul><ul><li>-Mechanical parts wear and tear, </li></ul><ul><li>-Electronic components like transistors age, wear out or degenerate </li></ul><ul><li>These parts need to be replaced in time by qualified, experienced and skilled personnel. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>4.5 Poor design or construction </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent weaknesses or defects due to </li></ul><ul><li>- poor designs </li></ul><ul><li>- construction using low quality materials or components </li></ul><ul><li>- or bad processes can results in failure of instruments in usage. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>4.6 Environment </li></ul><ul><li>- Physical (temperature, humidity, pressure, vibration etc) chemical (gases, acids, alkalis) and </li></ul><ul><li>- biological (fungi), factors can cause instrument to fail. </li></ul><ul><li>- Electrical and pneumatic power fluctuations or lightning may also lead to failures. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>5. Repair & Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>5.1 Repairs </li></ul><ul><li>- This is corrective maintenance done on an instrument which has broken down. </li></ul><ul><li>- This entails faultfinding or trouble-shooting and then fixing the problem. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>5.2 Equipment Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>- Maintenance is a process of keeping an instrument in a state fit for carrying out measurements by either </li></ul><ul><li>- preventing it from failing to function properly or </li></ul><ul><li>restoring it to the desired proper operating state after failure. </li></ul><ul><li>- Maintenance includes tests, measurements, adjustments, and parts replacement , performed specifically to prevent faults from occurring. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Benefits to preventive maintenance: </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of downtime </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure instrument is performing according to the manufacturers’ specification. </li></ul><ul><li>Extend the useful life of the instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid premature capital expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>Less probability of a costly breakdown </li></ul><ul><li>More reliable instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Increased likelihood that the instrument will maintain its specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Minimization of potential contamination issues </li></ul><ul><li>A safer instrument for staff </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>5.2.1. Preventive Maintenance (planned) </li></ul><ul><li>This is planned maintenance aimed at the timely overcoming of the causes that lead to operational degradation of an instrument. </li></ul><ul><li>It can either be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scheduled or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>condition based (predictive) maintenance. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li> Scheduled Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>-Periodic, planned, regular and routine </li></ul><ul><li>- Carried out on a functioning instrument or system to forestall the occurrence of a breakdown which may occur in future </li></ul><ul><li>-The daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly or yearly </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li> Condition based or Predictive Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>- This entails optimum or continuous monitoring of selected characteristics - vibration, pressure, temperature etc. - of sensitive and critical instruments </li></ul><ul><li>- to predict or detect deviant abnormal occurrences </li></ul><ul><li>- offers cost savings over routine or time-based preventive maintenance because tasks are performed only when warranted. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>5.2.2 Corrective (unplanned/ breakdown / curative) Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>- This maintenance is carried out when an instrument has ceased to work or broken down. </li></ul><ul><li>- It is corrective in that action is taken after actual failure. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>5.2.3 Modification </li></ul><ul><li>modified or improved by </li></ul><ul><li>- change to the design or </li></ul><ul><li>- substitution of parts with better ones. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>This may be due to the need to </li></ul><ul><li>-avoid repeat of earlier critical failure, </li></ul><ul><li>-reduce the frequency of failures, </li></ul><ul><li>-access to better parts and components </li></ul><ul><li>-or the extension or conversion of the use of the instrument. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>6.0 INSTRUMENT WRITE-OFF, DISPOSALS OR REPLACEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments may be written-off, replaced or put out of service when : </li></ul><ul><li>-when it is no longer cost-effective to maintain/operate </li></ul><ul><li>-non-availability of spare parts, </li></ul><ul><li>-obsolete technology, </li></ul><ul><li>- legal - regulatory requirements, </li></ul><ul><li>-lack of know-how, </li></ul><ul><li>-lack of qualified and competent personnel, </li></ul><ul><li>-advances in technology or policy </li></ul><ul><li>-environment safety concerns, </li></ul><ul><li>-design concepts like inbuilt obsolescence, </li></ul><ul><li>-operating costs </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>6.2 Disposal </li></ul><ul><li>This may be through sale , scraping , donation or relocation . </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>INSTRUMENTATION AT KEBS </li></ul><ul><li>Primary responsibility: </li></ul><ul><li>-Repair and maintenance of test, measurement and analytical instruments and equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>-Design and development </li></ul><ul><li>-Installation and commissioning </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>EQUIPMENT SERVICED </li></ul><ul><li>These include: </li></ul><ul><li>-Laboratory equipments/Instruments such as: </li></ul><ul><li>- Carbon sulphur analyzers - Photometers, </li></ul><ul><li>- Autoclaves - Chromatographs </li></ul><ul><li>- Ovens - Echographs </li></ul><ul><li>- Polarimeters - X-ray equipment </li></ul><ul><li>- Electronic/mechanical analytical balances </li></ul><ul><li>- Testing machines (textile, tensile, compression, hardness, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>- Spectrophotometers </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Industrial instruments such as: </li></ul><ul><li>-Industrial weighing scales/machines </li></ul><ul><li>-Process monitoring and control instruments e.g. temperature controllers, </li></ul><ul><li>-X-rays equipment, </li></ul><ul><li>-tensile and compression testers </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Telecommunication Instruments : </li></ul><ul><li>- Oscilloscopes </li></ul><ul><li>- Signal generators </li></ul><ul><li>- Pulse generators </li></ul><ul><li>- Power meters </li></ul><ul><li>- Spectrum analyzers </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Commercial and Trade Instruments such as: </li></ul><ul><li>-Flow meters (water meters etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>-Energy meters, etc </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>ENGINEERING /MECHANICAL WORKSHOP </li></ul><ul><li>3.1 Preparation of samples </li></ul><ul><li>Samples prepared include: - </li></ul><ul><li>- Welding rods, tensile and impact samples </li></ul><ul><li>- Chippings for chemical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>- Hardness test samples </li></ul><ul><li>- Other samples </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>3.2 Support primary calibration laboratory. </li></ul><ul><li>- Machining and fabrication of spare for equipment e.g. adaptors for pressure testing. </li></ul><ul><li>- Engraving of dipsticks and scales in volume measurements. </li></ul><ul><li>- Design and development of testing rigs required in calibration e.g. a tensiometer Force laboratory, </li></ul><ul><li>- Development of calibration benches e.g. in Photometry lab </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>3.4 Fabrication works </li></ul><ul><li>- Fabrication of metallic doors, barriers widow grills etc </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Machining Work and Other Metal Works </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the main machines found in the section are: </li></ul><ul><li>- Lathe machines </li></ul><ul><li>- Milling machines </li></ul><ul><li>- Welding machines </li></ul><ul><li>- Engraving machines </li></ul><ul><li>- Power saw </li></ul><ul><li>- Guillotine machines </li></ul><ul><li>- Grinding machines e.t.c. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>