Introduction This presentation is for you, the student, to gain knowledge about the states of matter. Within each category is… • a definition of each state of matter, • information about water as each state, • information about physical and chemical changes, • and a short quiz to test your knowledge After you have gone through the four sections, proceed to the quiz.Menu Credits
SolidDefinition: A solid is matter that hasdefinite size and shape.A Solid…• retains a fixed volume and shape (rigid - particles locked into place)• is not easily compressible(little free space between particles)•does not flow easily(rigid - particles cannot move/slide past oneanother)
SolidWater as a solid.Ice, snow, and frost are examples of water in thesolid state. Liquid water freezes at 0 degreesCelsius. Winter is a season that you see a lot ofsolid water. Other examples of solid water are icecubes, icicles, ice on a skating rink.
LiquidDefinition: A liquid takes the shape of any container.A Liquid…• assumes the shape of the part of the containerwhich it occupies(particles can move/slide past one another)•not easily compressible(little free space between particles)•flows easily(particles can move/slide past one another)
LiquidWater as a liquid.Liquid water is found in many places. You seeliquid water coming out of the faucet, when it rains,and running in a river. Pure liquid water is free ofsalt, rocks, soil, and garbage.
GasDefinition: Gas is matter that has no definite shape.Gases take the shape of whatever container theyare in .A Gas…• assumes the shape and volume of its container(particles can move past one another)•compressible(lots of free space between particles)•flows easily(particles can move past one another)
GasWater as a gas.Water in the liquid state may change to water inthe gaseous state. Water evaporates to turn into agas. Gases are colorless and odorless. You cannotsee gas ,but sometimes you can hear it and smellit.
ChangesChanges in matter occur fordifferent reasons and underdifferent circumstances.These two types ofchanges are PHYSICALand CHEMICAL changes.
ChangesCHEMICAL change happens when substancesare changed into different substances. Anotherwords, the composition of the substance changes.There are different ways to tell if matter has gonethrough a chemical change. We can look to see if…• the color has changed,• the odor has changed,• there is a light at the sight of the change,• there is a production of other substances, and• energy is absorbed or released.
ChangesChanges in color can indicate a chemical change.As in the case of autumn leaves, a change in coloris a clue to indicate a chemical change.Perhaps you have found a half eaten apple thatturns brown. The reason is that a chemical changehas occurs when food spoils.
ChangesChanges in odor indicates a chemical change.It only takes one experience with a rotten egg tolearn that they smell different that fresh eggs. Wheneggs and food spoil, they undergo a chemicalchange. The change in odor is a clue to thechemical change.As wood burns, it turns into a pile of ashes andgases that rise into air. This smell is veryrecognizable. After the wood is burned, it cannot berestored to its original form as a log.
ChangesIf there is a light at the site of thechange, it is a chemical reaction.The explosion of a firework is a chemicalchange.
ChangesWhen another substance is produced it is a chemicalchange.The formation of a gas is a clue to chemical changes.The bubbles of gas that you observed form when anantacid is dropped into water is an example of change.Another clue that a chemical change has occurred isthe formation of a solid. A solid that separates out ofsolution during a chemical change is called aprecipitate.
ChangesWhen the absorption and the release of energyoccurs it is an indication of a chemical change.When you bake a cake, energy is absorbed by thebatter as it changes form a runny mix into a cake.
ChangesPhysical changes are relatively easy to identify. Ifonly the form of a substance changes, you haveobserved a physical change.A common physical change occurs when matterchanges from one phase to another. When an icecube melts for example, it becomes liquid water.The solid ice and liquid water have the samecomposition. The only difference is the form.
ChangesSo what is the difference?Think about ice for a moment. After icemelts into liquid water, you can refreeze itinto solid ice if the temperature drops.Freezing and melting are physical changes.The substances produced during chemicalchanges however cannot easily changeback into the original substances.The most important thing for your toremember is that in a physical change thecomposition of a substance does notchange and in a chemical change thecomposition of a substance does change.
ChangesDifferent things can cause thesetypes of changes.MeltingBoilingCondensingFreezing
ChangesMeltingmelting occurs when a substance changesfrom a solid to a liquid by raising thetemperature or making it hotter.
ChangesBoilingboiling is when a substance changes from aliquid to a gas by raising the temperature ofthe liquid or making it hotter.
ChangesCondensingcondensation is when a gas changesto a liquid due to the change intemperature.
ChangesFreezingfreezing is when a liquid changes to asolid by bringing the temperature of theliquid down or colder.
Quiz Instructions: 1. Read the question completely. 2. Eliminate any answer possible. 3. Click the one you choose to answer. 4. Click arrow to begin quiz.Menu
1. A _____ is matter that has definite size and shape. A. liquid B. solid C. volume D. gas
Creditsimages on slides 4, 7, 10 fromhttp://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=physical-science-at-glencliff-structure-properties-matterinformation from slides 4-12 fromhttp://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/atoms/states.html http://science.pppst.com/favicon.icoimage from slide 5 fromhttp://www.cs.utexas.edu/~fussell/courses/cs384g/projects/raytracing/ray_examples/image from slide 5 from http://www.refmet.com/image from slide 5 from http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00461/igneous.htmimage from slide 5 from http://green.psu.edu/psuDoing/recycling/plasticcontainers.aspimage from slide 5 from http://chirobeans.wordpress.com/2012/02/23/why-is-icing-my-back-so-important/information from slides 6, 9, 12 from http://www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/textbook/slg.htmlimage from slide 6Flickriver: Most interesting photos tagged with of4mximages from slide 9 from http://www.futurity.org/science-technology/putting-on-the-squeeze-to-%E2%80%98freeze%E2%80%99-water/images from slide 12 from http://www.dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=17553
Creditsimages on slide 1 from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/images/?CTT=6&ver=14&app=powerpnt.exeimages on slide 8 from http://www.exercise4weightloss.com/drinking-water.htmlimage from slide 11 from http://sitemaker.umich.edu/section4group1/hydrogen_powerinformation and pictures from slides 13-26 from http://www.ric.edu/faculty/ptiskus/chemical/http://www.glass-rite.com/2011/11/15/got-condensation-2/image from slide 26 from http://www.freeimageslive.co.uk/free_stock_image/frozenwatersheet02287jpgimage from slide 22 from http://whatscookingamerica.net/boilpoint.htmTEKS: 5th grade science(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and thoseproperties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:(A) classify matter based on physical properties, including mass, magnetism, physical state (solid, liquid,and gas), relative density (sinking and floating), solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulatethermal energy or electric energy; Menu Start