Don Mock - Target Tones


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Don Mock - Target Tones

  1. 1. gs Llnes .... tc 37 38 ExecufiveProducer:RogerHutchlnson Production Coordinator: AaronStang MusicEngravlng Layout:RoySollenb¤rger & BookCoverDesign: Klucar Joe cover Photo:Glbson MarfinoModel,courtesyof Glbson Pat Gultars dlstrlbutedby warnerBros.publlcaflons Excluslvely 15800NW48th Avenue, Miaml,FL330{4 @2oo3cuttar AxtsInc. P.O. 31729, Box Seatfle, 98103-1729 WA hternatlonalcopyrtghtsecured. MadeIn u.s.A. A[ RightsRaserved. (bookandlor cD} maybe reproduced,warning:t{o part of thls publlcation storedor transmttted, wholeor In part, In uYany meanswhatsoever, wlthout prlor wrltten permisslonffom the Publlsher.unauthofizedusels a
  2. 2. Introduction Guitarists studying jazz often run into the problem of how to get a jazz or bebop sound intotheir playing. Its important to get down scalesand arpeggiosand know music theory but how do you get to the next level? For most musicians,the next level is learningmelodies. Knowing tons of scalesand arpeggiosdoesnt at all guaranteethat you can suddenly play melodically. A few proven approaches learning to play melodi- to cally are to learn lines from recordings of top players or from transcriptionsof their solos.Careful listeningto classicalmusic and studyingthe greatcomposers also offers a wealth of melodic influence. A major ingredientin jazz, as well as in classicalmelodies,is chromatic "neighbor tones,"thesenoteslead or "Set- passingtones.Often referredto as "target up" scale and chord tones giving melodies more interest.The term tone" is often used to describethe primary scale/chordnote that is set-upby passingtones.Passing notesin melodiescan actually make chord and scale tones sound stronger. Guitar players have explored severalapproaches striving to add chro- in matics to their playing. From simply addingpassingnotesto scales, to struggling to make musical senseout of the chromatic scale.Often these approaches come up short when it comes to creating good chro- matic melodies that still define the chord they are being played over. The key to success using chromatics comes with the in = "hear" how theseweak "out of :l=.:=. =!= understandingand the ability to the key" passingnotes work with and enhancestrong chord and scaletones. It is also correct to assumethat rhythmic phrasing is an important part of the equation.Most jazz and classical melodies take advantageof the strong beatsto work =S with passingtones to emphasizeprimary notes. = Who are the guitar players that use chromatics? Obviously a difficult question. Pretty much every experiencedplayer usesthem to some degtee.Jazz guitarists such as Joe Pass,Pat Martino, George Benson, Pat Metheny and John Scofield are only a few of the many that come to mind. Even Charlie Christian and Django Reinhardts improvisations were filled with chromaticism. Today, modern players such as John Mclaughlin, Scott Hendersonand Allan Holdsworth have pushedthe "outside."envelopeusing chromaticsoundsas a tool for playing However,chromaticismisnt just reservedforjazz players.Many greatblues and rock playersplay melodies sprinkled with passingtones.There are even some amazing chromaticsheard inbluegrassand country music. But to really understand big picture when it comesto chromatics,expandyour listening the beyond guitar players. Pianists and horn players have led the way in the exploration of chromatics Nameslike Parker,Coltrane,Davis, Evans,Coreaand Hancock arejust a few legendswho impro- vise with chromatics. And if you want to visit the real founding fathers of melodies, check out a guy named Bach or Mozart or even Gershwin.
  3. 3. Ihrget Melodrcs Nothing will teachyou more aboutpassingtonesthan simply learninglots of melodiescon- taining them. But here is an easy way to immediately put chromatics in your playing. with a few All you have to do is learn the two following four-note melodies and be familiar "target" "set-up" and the basic arpeggios.The way these short melodies work is the first three notes "and" of beat one and the final fourth note. This is why they are phrasedin 8th notes starting on the ,.and,,of beat three in the bar. Later examplesdemonstratethe melodies in 16th notes phrasedwith the 4th, or targetnote, on down beats. Target Melody #1 begins on D, a whole step above the target tone C. Then down a half step to Db and to B before resolving to C (circled note). Learn this line everywhereon the fingerboard on every string. TargetMelody #LExample I rrack3lffi TargetMelody #2 begins on F, only a half step above the E target tone. Then down to D, up to D# and finally resolving to E. As with the first melody, play it all over the guitar keeping aware "target" tone. of the fourth or TargetMelody #2Example2 Now lets put thesetwo melodiesto use.Were going to take aC7 atpeggioaroundthe 8th fret and apply our two melodies targeting the arpeggio tones. Use melody #1 to target the root, 5th and bTth of the arpeggio.Use melody #2 to targetthe 3rd. The four targettonesare circled. Even though the fingerings might seemawkward, you can instantly hear the chromaticism surrounding the tones. 1(F9-7-8-12-11 7-12-11
  4. 4. Arpeggio Fingerings If you are not familiar with arpeggiossuchas the C7 usedin Example 3, a few very useful patternsare next. To get the most out of the target melodies, three types of arpeggiosare important to know: dominant7th, major 7th and minor 7th. Each arpeggiois shown in two common patterns. Pay extra attention to the arpeggio tones (root, 3rd, 5th, 7th, etc.).Although each arpeggio has four notesper octave,the fingerboardpatternshave a rangeof abouttwo octaves. Also, the arpeggiosare notatedascending only. To descend, simply play the notesin reverseorder. The first two patternsare for C7. Rememberthat arpeggio patternsslide up and down the fingerboard just like chords.Once you startto memorizethe patterns,move them up or down to other keys. Use the roots on the 5th and 6th stringsas guides. C7 ArpeggiosExample 4 rrack4lffi Youll notice that the first patternbeginson G ratherthan the root. Its very common to begin scalesand arpeggiofingerboardpatternson notesother than the root. This simply extendsthe range.At first, its OK to begin on the root of the arpeggio(C on the 3rd fret, 5th string) ignoring the optional lower notes. The next two patternsare for Cmaj7. CmajT ArpeggiosExample 5 rrack5l@ 3rd 5th The final two arpeggio patternsare for a minor 7th. Again, pay special attention to the chord/arpeggiotones(root, b3rd, 5th, bTth) shown below eachnote on the staff.
  5. 5. CminT ArpeggiosExample 6 rrack6m The next two examplesdemonstratethe two melodies targeting the arpeggio tones of a major 7th and minor 7th. Played around the eighth fret area,Example 7 usesmelody #1 to target the root (C), and the 5th (G). TargetMelody #2 is usedfor the 3rd (E) and the 7th (B). You can continue into the next octave targeting the 3rd (E on the 9th fret, third string), 5th (G on the 8th fret, secondstring), 7th (B on the 7th fret, first string) and a high root (C on the 8th fret, first string).Example 7 rrack7 lffi 10-7-8-9-12-11 7-12-11 Here are the notes of CminT targetedby the two melodies. Unlike the majT and dom7, the minT has a b3rd which usesTargetMelody #1. In fact, all four tonesare targetedby melody #1. The example is shown in the eighth fret area (2nd Cm7 arpeggiopattern), however, it can also be played around the 3rd fret using the first Cm7 arpeggiopattern.Example 8 rrackslffi CminZ Etc. 10_9_7_8_12_11 12-11 1()-_+-7 13-12-1(Fl1 Once you can play and understand Examples3, I and 8, lets move on to making music with our targetingmelodies.Im sureyouve found that when the notesof arpeggios targetedin are order (root, b3rd, 5th, b7th etc.) using our two melodies,the fingeringscan be awkward.Also, the lines createdcan soundpredictableand even a bit corny. But, coming up next are ways to use the targetmelodiesin lines that are easierto play and soundmore interesting. 5
  6. 6. Melodic hth-NotePhrasesUsing ThrgetMelodies In this section well learn some practical melodic phrasesthat use the four-note target melodies.All that is done to createtheselines is to mix up the order of the arpeggio tones that are targeted.WelI also begin to combine the target melodies with scalesand arpeggios. The first line is for C7 and begins with Target Melody #l setting up the bTth followed by melody #2 targeting the 3rd. These first eight notes create a classic jazzlbebopphrasethat can be found in countlessrecorded solos by jazz artists. The line continues targeting the other notes of C7. Except for the last three notes of the third bar and lst note in the fourth, this entire line is built using the two targetmelodies.Example 9 rrackel 1(F_9-7-8-13-1(Fl1- 13-1^ 1F-11 The following line for Cmaj7 usesthe target melodies more sparingly and introduces a few arpeggios. Following the pickup (melody #1 targetingthe root), a Cmaj9 arpeggioascends into melody #2 taryeting the 3rd (E). The G# in the 3rd bar is an interesting chromatic passingnote helping to targetthe G, lst note last bar. The last bar is aCmajT descending arpeggio.
  7. 7. Example 10 Trackl0 CmajT A good line for CmJ, Example 11 beginswith a C minor scaleleadinginto Melody #1 tar- geting the b7th. The line continueswith severalmore targetmelodiesbefore a descending minor C arpeggioin the last bar.Example Il rrackil lffi CminT 1(F9-7 1(F9-7 1(F9-7 1(F11 A modification you can make to this line to give it a more jazz sound,is to changethe lst note in the secondbar to B natural. Then use Target Melody #2leading into it (the last three notes of the lst bar would be C. A and Bb). Now the line has a C melodic minor flavor. Check it out.
  8. 8. Thrgeting with 16th Notes At some tempos, it might be more appropriateto phrasemelody lines with 16th notes. Our two targetingmelodieswork just as well played as 16ths.In fact, all of the previousexamplescan be played as 16ths.The main differenceis that youll have four placesto apply targetingin each "one-e-&-a,two-e-&- bar insteadof two: on beatsone, two, threeand four. 16th notesare counted "e" of any beat.This a, three-e-&-a,four-e-&-a." The targetmelodiesare played beginningon the "set in stone" rule. At times, tar- will accentthe targetnote on a downbeat.This is, however,not a get melodiescan begin on other 16th-note divisions of the beat.Later exampleswill demonstrate this. In this first 16th-noteexample,all the targetmelodiesresolveto C7 toneson down beats.It also includesseveralarpeggioshapes and chromaticmoves.Dont forget to move the line to other keys once you get it down.Example12 rrackt2lff 13-12-1 Z- tO==-::_----rO-Z-g-g - 10-9-7-8-13-1(F1 1 12-13-14-15-12 - 15-12- 7-8 8-11 15_.t4_12_13-1 The next line for Cmaj7 usesthe two target melodies mixed with short scale sequences (C major). The accentscreatedby the target melodies are all on down beats except for one place. The "a" of the third secondto last note in the first bar, (G) is targetedby melody #1 beginning on the "off-set" effect smoothsout the line making it sound less predictable. beat. ThisExample 13 rrackt3lf 7-10F9-7-8-12-10-8-7 7-10-9-7-8-1 7-7-1(F7-8-9-1 --rv-
  9. 9. Example 14 has a distinctive jazzlbebopsound.The target melodies descendsetting up the b3rd and root of Cmin7. I play the first eight notes all on the first string but you might prefer involving the secondstring. Then somethingdifferent happens.Target Melody #2 is played to target the 6th (A) of the Cmin7. This introducesthe next section in this book: using target melodies on scaletonesas well as arpeggiotones.The rest of Example 14 is built with melodiestargetingthe major 7th (B) and the root followed by a simple scalesequence idea.The use of the major 7th, which is a very common jazz technique,adds a touch of tension/resolutionto minor lines.Example 14 rrackt4lffi CminZ 13- 12-1 11-1(FF7 11-8-9-1 10-8-7 10_7 ThrgetMelody Theory It may be clear to you by now how our two targetmelodiesare constructed. not, heresa If quick analysis: The first of the four notes in either target melody always begin on a scale tone that is in the key. This determineswhich target melody to choose.The first note also startseither a whole step (two frets), or a half step(one fret), abovethe targettone. In Target Melody #1 the two middle notes are either chromatic passingnotes or a chromatic passingnote and a lower scaletone. The 2nd and 3rd notesof TargetMelody #2 area lower scale tone and a chromaticpassingtone.The final note of both melodiesis the targettone, which is either a chord/arpeggio tone or scaletone. The following example showsthe two targetmelodieswith descriptionsof their specific notes. ThrgetMetody #1 Target Melody #2Example 15 rrackt5lffi upper Chromatic Low,er scale Target tone Upper Lower Chromatic Target tone scaletone passing tone scale tone scaletone passing tone rcneor chromatic passmgtone
  10. 10. Targeting Scale Tbnes Scaletonesare also a good placeto apply our targetmelodies.If we do a little math, well find that most basic scaleshave sevennotes.And of that seven,we have been targeting four of them, the root, 3rd, 5th and 7th. This only leavesthree more notes remaining in the scale.The 2nd, 4th and 6th. Applying the two targetmelodiesto thesetonesexpandthe possiblesoundswe can create.Just keep in mind that targeting to chord/arpeggiotones are harmonically strongerthan scaletones. The first exampleis more of an exercisethan a melody line. Its good to know however, because demonstrates it targetingall seventonesof a major scale.It also is a good chop builder because the challengingfingerings.The tab showsseveraltargetmelodiesplayed on adjacent of stringsratherthan on one string.This helps stay in position.The C major scaletonesare circled in the first octave of the line. C Major ScaleExample16 rrackt6lff 7_6_ 7-1r.,-.7-8-9 9-1 7--$ _ 8 _-¤-7-1(F9-7 - - 1G13-1G11-12 12-1 About the Chromatic Scale Learningto improvise using chromaticsis not as simple asjust playing a chromaticscale(all twelve tones).The chromaticscaleby itself doesnot identify and soundany particularchord. Solo- ing usingjust the chromaticscalewill probably lead to a nonsensical result. A good improvisor and composercan use severalchromaticsin a melody line and still retain the soundof the chord.All of the melody lines we have coveredso far express soundof the the chord they are played over.When you play theselines, even without accompaniment, can still you hearthe chords sound.And with very few exceptions, twelve tonesare soundedin every exam- all ple.
  11. 11. The sameprinciples apply to targeting tones in major scale modes. Since the modes simply start on any note of a major scale,maintaining the same l/2 step/whole step sequence, row of the target melodies will be the same.Heres an A natural minor scale or A aeolian mode in one octave targeting each scaletone. But remember,theyre just the notes of C major, starting on A A Aeolian ScaleExample17 rracktT lffi AminT - 7 :10-9-7-8 9-1 7--4-9-8-6-7-1o_7 7-10-7-8-H1 Of the three traditional seven-notescalesused in Westernmusic (major, harmonic and melodic minors), the harmonic minor scale is unique becauseof the minor 3rd interval between the b6th and maj7th degrees.Even with this interval, our two target melodies still work great. Examplel8 demonstrates targetingthe scaletonesof D harmonicminor. It also demonstrates of one the best usesof the scale,D harmonic minor over A7. This is by far the most common use of this "altered sound" over a dominant7th (A7#5b9) scalewhich createsan D Harmonic Minor Scale(starting on A)ExampleI8 rracktslffi 7-5-6-1 (F9 -7 -8-1 1-8-9-1 7_4_5_6_9_8_$_7-7 ThrgetingDescendingScale Tones So far, the emphasishas been on targeting scaletones in order, in an ascendingmanner. This works well becausethere are never any doubled notes (two that are the sameand side by side).But when we reversethe processand follow the scalein a descending direction we find dou- bled notes between each target melody. In many situations this may sound OK, but check out the result of leaving out one of the double notes.
  12. 12. Example 19 is a descendingC major scale starting on F. It begins by targeting the high F with Melody #1. But to target the next E note (Melody #2) well leave off the frst note (F) and borrow the last F (target tone of the frst melody). This F now servestwo purposes:its the last note of Melody #l and the first note of Melody #2.We end up with a pretty cool sounding,,offset,, chromatic sound as we continue down leaving off the first note of each new target melody. C Major ScaleDescendingExample19 rracktelf GTlDminT 15-14-1 13-1GG1 1-12-11-Fl 14-12-13-1G1 1-1 2-1 1-9-1 13-11-12-11-9-1G7 Now for a few line ideas that demonstratetargeting scale tones.The next example is a phrasefor F7 and targets scaletones along with arpeggio tones. It also takes us to a new finger- board position. The line lays roughly around the eighth fret and is basedin the first domin ant 1th arpeggiopattern. (c7 pattern #l slid up to F7, at the eighth fret). It starts with an F7 scale (Bb major) with a few passingnotes leading into a target melody on the 2nd degree(G). More targetmelodiescontinueup the scaleon the 3rd and 4th degrees. Following two scaletones,anothermelody targetsthe b7th. With the accents now turned around, (similar to the offsets in Example 19) the bTth tone now becomesthe first note of target Melody #2 setting up the 6th degree.Next, Melody #1 targetsthe 5th and#2 targetsthe 3rd. We finish off with a little chromatic idea on the secondand third strings followed by some scaletones.This line also fits well over Cmin7.Example20 rrack2olff F7 (Cmin7) 10L9_7_8_1 1_8_9_1 0_1 3_12_1 1(F1 3-1 2-1 0-1 1-8-F1 (F9_7 - 1(F9 8_1 1(F8-7-
  13. 13. The melodic minor scale is a favorite of jazz players to create altered and "outside" sounds. One of the most popular usesis to superimposea melodic minor l/2 stepabove the root of a domi- nant 7th chord. The next example demonstrates C melodic minor scale line over 87#5#9. aExample 2l rrack2t lffi fre B7ils b 13-12-1G11-7-1(F9-7-8 _. ^ - _ 11_7 11-8-F1+1 1(F8_7_ -1(F_l(F7 RhythmicPhrasing All of the previousexamplesso far have usedvery basic rhythms,just straight8th and l6th notes.This makesthem easierto learn and helpsemphasize melodies.But rhythmic phrasing, the along with good melodies, is what really breatheslife into music. Once you get your favorite exam- ples learned and can play them in any key, start experimenting with breaking them up rhythmically. Listen closely to the recordings of your favorite players and emulate their rhythmic phrasing. Its beyond the scopeof this lessonto go in depth into the subjectof rhythmic phrasingand syncopation.But, heresan exampleof a melody line both in straight 16th notesand broken up rhythmically. The line usesa few target melodies mixed with chromatics with emphasison the major 7th (G#).Examplc 22 rrack22l@ AminZ
  14. 14. Next is one of hundredsof possible rhythmic variations that can be createdwith the above melody. It utilizes several syncopated16th-notefigures and a l6th-note triplet. The rhythms extend the line an additional two beats.Example 23 AminT Bluesand Jau ChromaticLines Now for a few Blues andJazz melodic lines featuring target melodies and chromatics.The exampleshave severaltarget melodies but also demonstrateother approaches chromatics.And, to as with all of the previous examples,explore other fingerings if the ones shown are awkward or uncomfortable for you. There are severalplay-along tracks on the CD to practice the lines in a musical situation. Well get startedwith a simple but cool bluesriff in C minor. It can also be played over F7. The D grace note slides into the Eb followed by Target Melody #1 leading into the root C. The 6th tone (A) and 5th (G) are targetedbefore an ascendingchromatic blues resolution.Example24 rrack23lG CminT ro-11-1()-9-7 - 11-8 11-8-9-10-9-7 1(F11-1
  15. 15. This next lick is anotherblues-styleline for C7. Its unique because entire line is played the on the first and secondstrings.It combinesa few bendsin C minor pentatonicwith addedC7 scale tones.If you want to play this line over a C minor chord, flat the two E notes.Example25 rrack24l@ CI Heres a classicbluesriff for C7 with someextra chromaticismthrown in. The line is based on C minor pentatonic, howeveqit switchesto more of a C7 soundin the secondbar. Our two tar- get melodiescan be found betweenseveralscaleand chromaticpassingtones.Example 26 rrack25lffi CZ 11-1 2-1 3-1 4-1 5-1 4-1 3-12-11 15-14-12-13-1 15-1 13_ 11_14_12_ 15-12-13-1
  16. 16. Its essentially a descendingc Check out this unique blues line inspired by GeorgeBenson. this line so interesting are the high blues scalefilled with chromatic passingnotes.what makes punctuationsthat jump out in an unpredictablemanner rrack26l@Example27 C7 (Cmin7) --10- 1(F9-8 8-7 10-9-8-8-7 ffi two important The C minor pentatonic scale is used in the next example to demonstrate scaleif they are placed in a way points. First, our target melodies can work great in a pentatonic melodies can also work when played that fits the style of Lusic. The secondpoint is that the target the correctnotes as triplets.But again,they needto be phrasedin a way that emphasizes rrack2T l@Exatnple 28 12-11-9-1
  17. 17. One of the most common chord progressionsin music is the II-V-I. Its also a great place to apply chromatic ideas.This example startsoff with a traditional jazzlbebopline over the Dm7. When we reach the G7#5, the line changesto Ab melodic minor to take advantageof its additional tension. The scale changesto C major for the last two bars. Youll find severaltarget melodies in this example.Example 29 rrack2sl@ . Up next is a line for a minor versionof a II-V-I progression.Most of the line is basedin the E harmonic minor scale.Target Melody #1 setsup the b5th of the F#min7b5 followed by a descendingE harmonic minor phraseinto Melody #2 targetingthe 3rd of the 87b9. Additional E harmonic minor notes take us to a resolution on Emin7.Example 30 rrack2elffi Ft-ittzbs EminT
  18. 18. Example 31 is a longer minor II-V-I line. This time the II and V are one bar each.E har- monic minor is the primary scale used for the II and V chords to createthe interesting and almost "classical"tension.Example 31 rrack3ol@ Btbs EminT - 7 8-5--$-7-¤-5-7 Example 3l is a long 16th-noteline that is a"bag of tricks" when it come to chromatics. Playedover A7 or Emin7, the line has a very jazzlbop feel to it. The line in its entirety,makesa good chop builder but probably is a bit long to use in a solo. But there are severaluseful shorter ideasthat can be extracted.Example32 rrack3t lffi 7-8-1(H-9-7-6 7-9-8-8-9-7H-7-H- 7-1(F8-11-
  19. 19. The final example is two chorusesof a jazz-styleblues in Bb. Its filled with traditional chromatic lines and a few modern approaches. The first l2-bar solo is just straight Sth notes travel- ing through the basic chord changes.The secondchorus has some rhythmical phrasing mixed with a few contemporary and "outside" sounds.The track is a swing jazz feel at a medium tempo. The solo makesa greatwarm-up and techniqueexercise. And, as with all the examplesin this lesson, find ways to use them in your playing, even if it is only a short phrasethat you liked from a longer example. "Jazz-BluesSoloEtude"Examplc 33 rrack32lffi nbt 10_9_7_8_7 Eaimz BbTrnhajzl
  20. 20. "Jazz-Blues Solo Etude" contd CminT 11 - 1 CminT
  21. 21. G+s 10_9_1(}-9-8AF It_E CminT 12-8-11-9- Gzvs 10-8-9-7-8 6-7 10 8_9-7-8-6-7
  22. 22. Play-Along Tracks practicethe examplesusing the play-alongtracks on the CD. Even if you dont have thelines down very well, play them in half time or slower (ll4 or half notes)along with the band.Learn the lines well enough that you can accurately sing them. And as soon as you can, work theminto an improvised solo. One important thing to remember:dependingon your playing experience, just a few thatdon,t try to tackle every example in this book at once. You are better off learningyou can really play and use. C7 Groove Play-Along TFack rrack33l@ Cm7 GroovePlay-Along Tfack rrack34lf CmajT Groove PlaYAlong Tfack rrack35lf II-V-I in C Play-Along Tfack rrack36lf
  23. 23. [-V-I in E minor Play-Along Thack rrack3T l@JazzBluesin Bb Play-AlongTFack rrack38lffi
  24. 24. you startedon the road to playing more interestingand melodic I hope thislesson gets Experimentwith the two target melodieson all typesof arpeggiosand scales.Listen to solos. "target"recordingsto hear how ,-our favorite players use techniqueslike this. Invent your ownmelodies. Although the Wo shown in this lessonare probably the most commonones,any shortphrase that leadsinto a specificnote can be considered target melody. a And be sure to join me at the Guitar Axisweb sitefor more on chromaticsand manyother topics. Thanks - Don Mock Goto wwM.quita for mtre information!! Visit Guitar Axis online to get questions answeredfor subjectstouchedon in this book and for additional infor- mation,practicetracks,tunesand more!
  25. 25. llllU[IilI ll 3::; in USA GAOO3CD