Is there one part of the brain that is dedicated to language? What is the connection between memory and language? Is there a difference between the monolingual and the bilingual brain? When a language is “lost” where does it go?
1) The language brain.2) Children and native language (L1) acquisition.3) Adults and second language (L2) learning.4) What does it mean to be “bilingual”?
Language involves many features – hearing, understanding, speaking, reading – making it difficult to isolate the part of the brain involved in language. Language can be described as having levels, each one with its own neurological systems: › Speech perception: Hearing and understanding sounds (phonology), words (morphology), sentences (syntax). › Speech production: Tongue, lips, vocal chords.
The language parts of the brain are named for two 19th century physicians, Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke. › Broca’s area is located in the left frontal lobe and is considered responsible for articulated language. › Wernicke’s area is located in the left temporal lobe and is considered accountable for comprehension of sounds and words.
“january february march “the snow isn’t really tall winter snow” but I went to eat supper”Patients with injury to Broca’s area seem to Patients with injury to have words but no Wernicke’s area seem grammar. Speech is to have grammar but no characterized by meaning. Speech is disconnected content often rapid and words, but ability to grammatical, but recollect lists, series, nonsensical. and songs.
Short-term memory: (working memory) processes and stores limited amount of information for a few seconds. Long-term memory: › Implicit: knowledge that cannot be retrieved consciously – knowing how. › Explicit: knowledge that can be consciously retrieved – knowing what.
Words may be stored and processed in explicit memory. Grammar may be stored and processed in implicit memory.
Brain imaging technologies suggest that when L2 is “acquired” during the sensitive period, L1 and L2 tend to be represented inLibro Book the same areas. Grammatical processing seems to be sensitive to age of acquisition. Semantic processing, seems to be less sensitive to age of acquisition.
words are supported by explicit memory. syntax is supported by implicit memory. two languages of a bilingual person access a common semantic system. adult L2 relies on explicit memory. increasing L2 proficiency changes brain organization.
Words may represent multiple kinds of brain functioning: › nouns act as attentional cues and seem to activate the parts of the brain related to sensory and associative processing › verbs are associated with actions and manipulation tasks and seem to activate the motor areas of the brain.(There is some indication that nouns may have evolved in the brain before verbs.)
Different features of language are affected differently when a speaker is removed from the language environment. Words seem to be more resistant to loss than grammar. Concrete words (house, book) have richer semantic representations and may be more resistant to loss that abstract words. › Her nose is her best feature. › Flexibility is a good feature of this program.
Do children have to be “taught” how to speak? Do children generate creative utterances? How long does it take a child to become “fluent” in her native language? What does it mean when a child says “I seed the dog” or “Daddy eated his supper” ?
Environment shapes learning and behavior. Children react to their surroundings. Children learn language from: › Input › Repetition › Trial and error › Error correction
Children do not need any kind of formal teaching to learn to speak. Children are born with a natural capacity to learn language. The brain contains systems for recognizing patterns of sound.
• Chomsky’s theory of the LAD (Language Acquisition Device) states that every human is born with innate principles of language.• Children learn language spontaneously and speak creatively.*The “poverty of the stimulus theory” states that what children hear is incomplete and often ungrammatical, and cannot account for the creativity of their utterances.
There is a critical period for language learning (supposedly up to 12 years of age) There is no agreement about how long this sensitive period lasts. Genie – the American wild child – provided evidence that language cannot be learned after puberty.
Children require interaction with a care-giver to develop language. Children follow the attention of the care-giver and learn to direct the attention of the care-giver; these activities involve intention reading and pattern finding skills. Communication is 3-way: child, adult, object. Language structure emerges from language use.
Views language acquisition within the context of the childs broader intellectual development. A child first becomes aware of a There is a consistent order of concept, such as relative mastery of the most size, and only afterward do common function they acquire the words and morphemes in a language. patterns to convey that concept. Simple ideas are Example from English: first-- - expressed earlier than more ing, then in and on, then the complex ones even if they plural -s, last are the forms of are grammatically more the verb to be. Seems to be complicated-- Conditional conditioned by logical mood is one of the last. complexity: plural is simple, while forms of the verb to be require sensitivity to both number and tense.
Does an adult learn a second language the way a child learns a first language? If not, what happened to the LAD? Is there a critical period for L2 acquisition? Which is better … classroom learning or immersion experience?
What is the role of grammar instruction in L2 acquisition? What is the role of interaction in L2 acquisition? What is the role of error correction in L2 acquisition? How do listening, speaking, reading, and writing contribute to L2 acquisition?
Principles and Practice in FIVE HYPOTHESES:Second Language Acquisition(1981) 1. acquisition / learning are two different processes (spontaneous vs. conscious) 2. natural order (grammar is acquired in a predictable order in a natural setting) 3. monitor (learning functions only as an editor, or monitor) 4. input (comprehensible input is essential for acquisition) 5. affective filter (acquisition occurs when affective conditions are optimal, i.e., low anxiety, motivation, confidence, etc. Stephen Krashen
I speak Spanish !1. Grammatical competence: mastery oflinguistic code2. Sociolinguistic competence: knowledge ofsocial and cultural rules3. Discourse competence: ability to connectsentences coherently4. Strategic competence: ability to use verbaland non-verbal communication strategies Canale and Swain (1983)
L1 competence general problem-solving systems general understanding about the nature of human interaction intentional / purposeful motivation
If you can understand a language, but not speak it, are you bilingual? If you can speak a language, but cannot write it, are you bilingual? If you can read a language, but cannot speak or write it, are you bilingual? Who decides whether or not a person is bilingual?
Balanced bilingual = mastery of two languages is roughly equivalent Covert bilingual = someone who hides knowledge of another language because of an attitudinal dispositon Dominant bilingual = greater proficiency in one of the two languages Early bilingual = someone who acquired both languages in childhood Late bilingual = someone who became bilingual later than childhood Receptive bilingual = someone who understands but does not read or write Secondary bilingual = someone whose second language had been added to a first via instruction Incipient bilingual = someone at the early stages of bilingualism
at home at school traveling when you’re in love in the work place
No one has the same level or the same type of proficiency in two (or more) languages!
In the 19th century people believed that being bilingual was detrimental to intellectual and spiritual growth. In the early 20th century some studies indicated that bilingual children had lower IQs than monolingual children. Today, some bilingual speakers may be encouraged to suppress their minority language in favor of the culturally dominant language.
creative thinking flexible thinking faster learning larger vocabulary greater sensitivity in communication
the alternating use of two or more languages in aEl profe single conversation event.es really Yeah … So, do nice. a natural, observable you want to go occurrence among people a tomar una of all ages who speak more pola now? than one language. the norm for many bilinguals. a mostly unconscious, spontaneous language phenomenon in bilingual interactions.
CS is rule-governed and may even be a type of skilled language performance. One language in bilingual speech production is more dominant and activated than the other; the dominant one is called the matrix language and the secondary one is the embedded language. The grammar of the matrix language governs the structure of words (morphology) and the order of words (syntax) in CS.
CS can be an intentional strategy to › convey power › express anger › be funny (Open the window para que las moscas fly) › create social distance OR intimacy
Can you understand French? Can you speak English? Can you read? Write? Do you engage in word play with English? Do you code-switch? BILINGUAL CONTINUUM----x---------------------------------------x-- incipient balanced
We explored theories about › the language brain … › first language acquisition … › second language learning … › bilingualism … ARE YOU BILINGUAL?