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Open fest2018 LoRa, LoRa WAN, The Thing Network - capabilities, myths, applications and limitations

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Review of LPWAN solutions and focus on LoRa, LoRaWAN and TTN is done. Announcement of OSHW LoRa and LoRaWAN designed by Olimex Ltd

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Open fest2018 LoRa, LoRa WAN, The Thing Network - capabilities, myths, applications and limitations

  1. 1. OpenFest, (C) 2018 Released under CC BY-SA-3.0 LoRa, LoraWAN and The Things Network : capabilities, myths, applications and limitations
  2. 2. $whoami (Tsvetan Usunov === OLIMEX Ltd) A small company established in Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 27 years ago, which deals with electronic design and production. More than 600 original products designed, developed and produced in Bulgaria. Many of them are Open Source Hardware.
  3. 3. LoRa One of the most popular LPWAN technologies today. Developed in France by Cycleo, a company acquired by Semtech in 2012. Adopted by hundreds of vendors. Deployed in hundreds of applications.
  4. 4. What is LPWAN? Low Power Wide Area Network Short range: Bluetooth, Zigbee, Zwave Long range: LoRa, SigFox, Weightless, NB-Fi, NB-IoT
  5. 5. SigFox Technology developed in France FRQ 868/915Mhz BW 100Hz DR 160bps DIST 2 km urban, 20 km rural PLD 12 byte UL, 8 byte DL Daily limits, GTW subscription only Good coverage in EU
  6. 6. Weightless Technology developed in Cambridge in UK Weightless-W FRQ 480-790Mhz UL/DL DR up to 1Mbps, PLD 48 byte, 3-5 years Weightless-N FRQ 800-900Mhz UL DR up to 100kbps, 10 years Weightless-P FRQ 433/868/915Mhz, UL DL DR 625bps to 100kbps, 3-8 years DIST 2 km urban, 10 km rural first hardware 2017, expensive
  7. 7. NB-Fi Technology developed in Russia by WAVIoT. FRQ 868/915Mhz, BW 100Hz, DR 100bps DIST 10-15km urban, 50km rural SDR base station, ONsemi transciever Encrypted, full duplex, expensive
  8. 8. NB-IoT Technology developed by 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project – seven major telecom standardization organizations 2G/3G/4G/5G) Simplified LTE (0G), BW 180kHz, DR 50kbps UL 60kbps DL Expensive, operator model
  9. 9. LoRa FRQ 433/868/915Mhz BW 125/250/500kHz DR 292-5500/50000 bps PLD 51-222 bytes 128 AES encrypted DIST 2 km urban, 10-15 km rural
  10. 10. LoRa modulation Chirp-Spread-Spectrum (CSS) modulation known and used for decades for military and space communication.
  11. 11. Spreading Factor (SF): 7-12 The higher the SF the more information transmitted per bit Bandwidth (BW): 125kHz, 250kHz, 500kHz narrower BW = increased receive sensitivity, but increased time on air
  12. 12. Longest distance LoRa configuration: Spreading Factor (SF) = SF12 Bandwidth (BW) = 125 kHz Coding Rate (CR) = 4/5 Corresponds to DR 292 bps Longest message is 51 bytes Time On Air = 2466 ms 2.4 seconds(!)
  13. 13. Longest distance LoRa Power Budged: SX1276 Tx current = 30mA (+ 10mA) Lithium 3V AA battery capacity 2700mAh 2700*60*60 = 9720000 mAsec 9720000 / (2.4 sec * 40mA) = 101250 messages 5 years x 365 days = 1825 days we could send x55 messages per day
  14. 14. Highest DR LoRa configuration: Spreading Factor (SF) = SF7 Bandwidth (BW) = 125 kHz Coding Rate (CR) = 4/5 Corresponds to DR 5468 bps Longest message is 222 bytes Time On Air = 40 ms
  15. 15. What makes LoRa attractive for use Low cost for the equipment No taxes for data traffic Easy installation and maintenance RF Long Distance Low power – works for years on battery AES128 encrypted
  16. 16. LoRa is just modulation technology. For IoT infrastructure we need to manage many nodes and here comes LoRaWAN
  17. 17. LoRaWAN infrastructure for IoT
  18. 18. LoRaWAN end-devices (motes): Class-A Lowest power, bi-directonal, end-device, UL is followed by two DL, ALOHA protocol, end-device schedule when new communication slot will be with slight randomization.
  19. 19. LoRaWAN end-devices (motes): Class-B low lattency, bi-directonal, end-device, with scheduled receive slots, ALOHA protocol, but in addition to the random slots it also schedule fixed time receive slots.
  20. 20. LoRaWAN end-devices (motes): Class-C no lattency, bi-directonal, end-device, with constant listening, ALOHA protocol, but server can initiate transmission at any time
  21. 21. IoT LoRaWAN applications Utility metering – remote metering of electricity, water, gas, heat. Infrastructure monitoring – tank levels, open / close storage doors logging.
  22. 22. IoT LoRaWAN applications Tracking – pople, pets, cars.
  23. 23. IoT LoRaWAN applications Environmental monitoring - temperature, humidity, air pressure, dust and fine particle, CO2, fires, floods, earthquakes.
  24. 24. IoT LoRaWAN applications Healthcare – patients monitoring, pulse, temperature, fall sensors.
  25. 25. IoT LoRaWAN applications Industrial monitoring (INDUSTRY 4.0) – machine worktime, workload, maintenance periods, working conditions.
  26. 26. IoT LoRaWAN applications Park management – free park places, subscriptions, automatic payments, blue, green zone monitoring.
  27. 27. IoT LoRaWAN applications Public transport – monitoring and management, bus timing, traffic displays.
  28. 28. IoT LoRaWAN applications Waste management – waste bin full sensors, waste collection monitoring.
  29. 29. IoT LoRaWAN applications Street lighting – automatic street light on, off, broken lamp detection
  30. 30. IoT LoRaWAN applications Interractive buttons – help, taxi, services. Electronic labels – storage management, update of prices and info automatically.
  31. 31. IoT LoRaWAN applications Home security – motion, door, fire, flood sensors. Car security – long distance pager.
  32. 32. IoT LoRaWAN applications Agroculture – remote irrigation systems.
  33. 33. LoRaWAN limits LoRaWAN Operates at licensee free frequency band, but regulation of these frequency require less than 1% time occupancy on single channel. This leads to maximum transmission time of 36 sec/hour in each sub-band for each end- device.
  34. 34. LoRaWAN limits
  35. 35. What is available on the market? Motes https://lora-alliance.org/ 130+ different products priced from $12 to $500 None OSHW!
  36. 36. RN2483 from Microchip is very popular and cost $10-12 active 40mA, sleep 25 uA (Errata says: 100-150 uA,oops!)
  37. 37. R95W transciever cost $6.50 shipped from China in small quantity. Chinese knock-off chip, not original Semtech, no certification
  38. 38. Gateways Cisco, Kerlink, Lorier $xxxx TTG EUR 300 RAK831 no server, no ntenna, no power supply around $150 is the lowest cost solution
  39. 39. The Good News: There will be soon OSHW for LoRa and LoRaWAN
  40. 40. LoRa868 OSHW Based on SX1276 100% LoRa compatible UEXT connector EUR 5.00
  41. 41. LoRa868WAN OSHW SX1276 Antenna Battery LP MCU with LoRaWAN stack EUR 15.00
  42. 42. LoRa868WAN- PARK LoRa868 Antenna Battery MCU with LoRaWAN stack IP68 robust box magnetic sensor EUR 35.00
  43. 43. LoRa868WAN-LIGHT LoRa modem, antenna, battery, LP MCU with LoRaWAN stack, power meter, RTC, tamper protection EUR 50.00
  44. 44. LoRa868WAN-ENV LoRa modem, antenna, battery, LP MCU with LoRaWAN stack Temperature, Humidity, Air pressure sensor, dust and fine air particle sensor, waterflood, vibrations, CO2 options. EUR 30-50.00
  45. 45. The Things Network: FOSS cloud for LoRaWAN:
  46. 46. Around 5000 Gateways all around the world
  47. 47. About 40 in Bulgaria
  48. 48. Just 1 in Plovdiv (will change soon)
  49. 49. TTN structure
  50. 50. TTN format is JSON
  51. 51. To summary: LoRa, TTN and LoRaWAN offer: Low Cost, Low Power Long Distance endless IoT solutions TTN is FOSS software to connect LoRaWAN to cloud Soon OSHW LoRa/LoRaWAN boards are coming!
  52. 52. Questions?

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