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Present and Past Progressive / Comparative and Superlative


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Present and Past Progressive / Comparative and Superlative

  1. 1. AndreaCastañeda O. 902 J.T. 2013
  2. 2. FORM [am/is/are + present participle] Examples: You are watching TV. Are you watching TV? You are not watching TV. Complete List of Present Continuous Forms USE 1 Now Use the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea that Present something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now. Examples:Continuou You are learning English now. You are not swimming now. s Are you sleeping? I am sitting. I am not standing. Is he sitting or standing? They are reading their books. They are not watching television. What are you doing? Why arent you doing your homework? USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now
  3. 3. In English, "now" can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, thiscentury, and so on. Sometimes, we use the Present Continuous to saythat we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress;however, we might not be doing it at this exact second.Examples: (All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in arestaurant.)I am studying to become a doctor.I am not studying to become a dentist.I am reading the book Tom Sawyer.I am not reading any books right now.Are you working on any special projects at work?Arent you teaching at the university now?USE 3 Near FutureSometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate thatsomething will or will not happen in the near future.Examples:I am meeting some friends after work.I am not going to the party tonight.Is he visiting his parents next weekend?Isnt he coming with us tonight
  4. 4. Past Continuous FORM [was/were + present participle] Examples: You were studying when she called. Were you studying when she called? Past You were not studying when she called. Complete List of Past Continuous FormsContinuou USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past s Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.
  5. 5. Examples:I was watching TV when she called.When the phone rang, she was writing a letter.While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.What were you doing when the earthquake started?I was listening to my iPod, so I didnt hear the fire alarm.You were not listening to me when I told you to turn the oven off.While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car.Sammy was waiting for us when we got off the plane.While I was writing the email, the computer suddenly went off.A: What were you doing when you broke your leg?B: I was snowboarding.USE 2 Specific Time as an InterruptionIn USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorteraction in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as aninterruption.Examples:Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.
  6. 6. In grammar, the comparative is the form of an adjective or adverb which denotes the degree or grade by which a person, thing, or other entity has a property or quality greater or less in extent than that of another, and is used in this context with a subordinating conjunction, such as than.[1] The comparative is one of the degrees of comparison, along with the positive and the superlative. Contents [hide] 1 Structure 2 Two-clause sentences 3 Adverbs 4 Absolute comparative 4.1 Null comparative 4.2 Greater/lesser 5 ReferencesComparat 6 See also Two-clause sentences For sentences with the two clauses other two-part comparativeives subordinating conjunctions may be used:[2][3] "The house was as large as two put together." not so / not as "The coat of paint is not as [not so] fresh as it used to be." the same ... as "This car is the same size as the old one." less / more ... than "It cost me more to rent than I had hoped." less / more ... than "His house is better than mine" [edit]Adverbs
  7. 7. In English, adverbs are usually formed by adding -ly to theend of an adjective. In the comparative, more (or less) isadded before the adverb, as in "This sofa seats three peoplemore comfortably than the other one." Some irregularadverbs such as fast or hard do not use more, but add an -ersuffix, as the adjectives do. Thus: "My new car starts fasterthan the old one" or "She studies harder than her sisterdoes."For some one-syllable adjectives, the comparative ofadjectives may be used interchangeably with the comparativeof adverbs, with no change in meaning: "My new car startsmore quickly than the old one" or "My new car starts quickerthan the old one".However, if the adjective has an irregular comparative, thenthe adverb must use it: "She writes better than I do" or "Hethrew the ball farther than his brother did."[edit]Absolute comparativeA number of fixed expressions use a comparative form whereno comparison is being asserted, such as higher education oryounger generation.
  8. 8. In grammar, the superlative is the form of an adverb or adjective that expresses a degree of the adverb or adjective being used that is greater than any other possible degree of the given descriptor. English superlatives are typically formed with the suffix -est (e.g. healthiest, weakest) or the word most (most recent, most interesting). Example of superlative: "she is [the] most beautiful [of all the women here tonight]" Simply put the word superlative is defined as (a noun) an exaggerated mode of expression (usually of praise): "the critics lavished superlatives on it"; (an adjective) the greatest: the highest in quality; the superlative form of an adjective: "best" is the superlative form of "good", "most" when used together with an adjective or adverb. [edit]Superlatives with absolutesSuperlati Some grammarians object to the use of the superlative or comparative with words such as full, complete, unique, or empty, which by definition already denote either a totality, an absence, or an absolute.[1] However, such words are routinely and frequently qualified inves contemporary speech and writing. This type of usage conveys more of a figurative than a literal meaning, since in a strictly literal sense, something cannot be more or less unique or empty to a greater or lesser degree. For example, in the phrase "most complete selection of wines in the Midwest," "most complete" doesnt mean "closest to having all elements represented", it merely connotes a well-rounded, relatively extensive selection. Internet searches for "more complete" or "most complete" establish the frequency of this usage with millions of examples. Nonetheless, usage by millions of people does not mean that the usage is correct or incorrect. Writers tend to avoid this usage in formal writing, particularly in the scientific and legal fields.
  9. 9. The absolute superlative is normally formed bymodifying the adjective by adding -ísimo, -ísima, -ísimos or -ísimas, depending on the gender ornumber. Thus, "¡Los chihuahuas son perrospequeñísimos!" is "Chihuahuas are such tiny dogs!"Some irregular superlatives are "máximo" for"grande", "pésimo" for "malo", "ínfimo" for "bajo","óptimo" for "bueno", "acérrimo" for "acre","paupérrimo" for "pobre", "celebérrimo" for"célebre".
  10. 10. Pasado Simple – (Simple Past Tense) El Pasado Simple es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para describir acciones que han sucedido en un tiempo anterior y que ya han finalizado, por ejemplo: She cleaned her house. Ella limpió su casa. I broke the window. Yo rompí la ventana. Aquí vemos su conjugación que en el español equivale al Pretérito Indefinido. Observa que la estructura de la oración es similar a la del Presente Simple:PastSimple