индивидуальные стратегии обучения

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индивидуальные стратегии обучения

  1. 1. The Strategies of Learning Индивидуальные стратегии обучения Tests. Characteristics. Recommendations Compiled by Olga V. Krylova Тесты. Характеристики. Рекомендации. Составитель: О.В.Крылова St.Petersburg State University, Department of Philology СПбГУ, филологический ф-т
  2. 2. Mark the statements that are correct for you. If you have more (a)s than (b)s, then you are an ‘A-type’. If you chose more (b)s than (a)s, then you are a ‘B-type’. Where is your energy naturally directed? Note down E or I. A-type: ‘The Extravert’ 1a) I have high energy. 2a) I talk more than listen. 3a) I think out loud. 4a) I act, then think. 5a) I like to be around (mixing with) people a lot . 6a) I prefer a public role. 7a) I can sometimes be easily distracted. 8a) I prefer to do lots of things at once. 9a) I am outgoing and enthusiastic. B-type: ‘The Introvert’ 1b) I have quiet energy. 2b) I listen more than talk. 3b) I think quietly inside my head. 4b) I think, then act. 5b) I feel comfortable being (working) alone. 6b) I prefer to work behind the scenes. 7b) I have good powers of concentration. 8b) I prefer to focus on one thing at a time. 9b) I am self-contained and reserved.
  3. 3. What kind of information do you usually notice and remember? Note down S or N. A-type: ‘The Sensor’ 1a) I focus on the details and specifics. 2a) I admire practical solutions. 3a) I notice details and remember facts. 4a) I am realistic - see what is. 5a) I live in the here and now. 6a) I trust actual experience. 7a) I like to use established skills. B-type: ‘The Intuitive’ 1b) I focus on the big picture and possibilities. 2b) I admire creative ideas. 3b) I notice anything new or different. 4b) I am inventive - see what could be. 5b) I think about future implications. 6b) I trust their gut instincts. 7b) I like to figure things out.
  4. 4. How do you decide or come to the conclusions? Note down T or F. A-type: ‘The Thinker’ 1a) I make decisions objectively. 2a) I appear cool and reserved. 3a) I am most convinced by rational arguments. 4a) I am honest and direct. 5a) I value honesty and fairness. 6a) I take few things personally. 7a) I tend to see flaws. 8a) I am motivated by achievement. 9a) I argue or debate issues for fun. 10a) I judge users of English by how accurate they are. 11a) Other people’s mistakes should be corrected. B-type: ‘The Feeler’ 1b) My decisions are based on my values and feelings. 2b) I appear warm and friendly. 3b) I am most convinced by how I feel. 4b) I am diplomatic and tactful. 5b) I value harmony and compassion. 6b) I take many things personally. 7b) I tend to focus on strengths. 8b) I am motivated by appreciation. 9b) I avoid arguments and conflicts. 10b) I judge users of English by how well they express themselves. 11a) Other people’s mistakes are not important.
  5. 5. What kind of environment makes you more comfortable? Judger or Perceiver? Note down J or P. A-type: ‘The Judger’ 1a) I make most decisions pretty easily. 2a) I am serious and conventional. 3a) I pay attention to time and I am prompt. 4a) I prefer to finish projects. 5a) I work first, play later. 6a) I want things decided. 7a) I see the need for most rules. 8a) I like to make and stick with plans. 9a) I find comfort in B-type: ‘The Perceiver’ 1b) I may have difficulty making decisions. 2b) I am playful and unconventional. 3b) I am less aware of time and often run late. 4b) I prefer to start projects. 5b) I play first, work later. 6b) I like to keep options open. 7b) I question the need for many rules. 8b) I like to keep plans flexible. 9b) I want the freedom
  6. 6. What is you learning style? A-type: ‘The Worker’ 1a) I answer to questions rather carefully. 2a) I always finish homework on time. 3a) I feel better when I finish a piece of work. 4a) When studying, being organized is more important. 5a) I am more comfortable with activities which are clearly limited. 6a) When working with other learners, I plan carefully before I start. 7a) I like it more when the whole class does the same activity. B-type: ‘The Player’ 1b) I answer to questions without thinking a lot. 2b) I always finish homework on time. 3b) I feel better when I still have time to finish a piece of work. 4b) When studying, being able to change is more important. 5b) I am more comfortable with activities which are open-ended. 6b) When working with other learners, I decide what to do as I go along. 7b) I like it more when I work in small groups.
  7. 7. Let’s do another test to double-check your results. Please, choose one option (A or B) that best describes you (not your preference). A (S) systematic structure plan solution thorough   organized preparation B (N) spontaneous flow improvisation impulse chance impulsive impromptu
  8. 8. Please, choose one option (A or B) that best describes you (not your preference). A (T) decisive firm  critical preference head thoughts   analyze  B (F) staunch soft-hearted well-wishing luck heart feelings sympaphize
  9. 9. Please, choose one option (A or B) that best describes you (not your preference). A (J) factual   use experience reasonable practitioner realist reality B (P) theoretical meaning theories wonderful visionary day-dreamer perspectiveness
  10. 10. Please, choose one option (A or B) that best describes you (not your preference). A (E) loud  lively sociability   energy-spending   open-minded to say openly brave B (I) soft calm concentration energy-saving reserved to endure cool
  11. 11. SELF-ASSESSMENT Now, please, add up your points and specify your type. Extrovert or Introvert E or I Sensor or Intuitive S or N Thinker of Feeler T or F Judger or Perceiver J or P Worker or Player W or P
  12. 12. Read the given description and underline some key words that characterize your personal cognitive (learning) style. S vs. I  Sensing learners tend to like learning facts, intuitive learners often prefer discovering possibilities and relationships.  Sensors often like solving problems by well-established methods and dislike complications and surprises; intuitors like innovation and dislike repetition. Sensors are more likely than intuitors to resent being tested on material that has not been explicitly covered in class.  Sensors tend to be patient with details and good at memorizing facts and doing hands-on (laboratory) work; intuitors may be better at grasping new concepts and are often more comfortable than sensors with abstractions and mathematical formulations.  Sensors tend to be more practical and careful than intuitors; intuitors tend to work faster and to be more innovative than sensors.  Sensors don't like courses that have no apparent connection to the real world; intuitors don't like "plug-and-chug" courses that involve a lot of memorization and routine calculations.
  13. 13. Try to develop your cognitive style! Remember that ...     Everybody is sensing sometimes and intuitive  sometimes.  Your preference for one or the other may be strong, moderate, or mild. To be effective as a learner and problem solver, you need to be able to function both ways. If you overemphasize intuition, you may miss important details or make careless mistakes in calculations or hands-on work; if you overemphasize sensing, you may rely too much on memorization and familiar methods and not concentrate enough on understanding and innovative thinking.
  14. 14. Write notes for your key points.  Sensors remember and understand information best if they can see how it connects to the real world. If you are in a class where most of the material is abstract and theoretical, you may have difficulty. Ask your instructor for specific examples of concepts and procedures, and find out how the concepts apply in practice. If the teacher does not provide enough specifics, try to find some in your course text or other references or by brainstorming with friends or classmates.  Many college lecture classes are aimed at intuitors. However, if you are an intuitor and you happen to be in a class that deals primarily with memorization and rote substitution in formulas, you may have trouble with boredom. Ask your instructor for interpretations or theories that link the facts, or try to find the connections yourself. You may also be prone to careless mistakes on test because you are impatient with details and don't like repetition (as in checking your completed solutions). Take time to read the entire question before you start answering and be sure to check your results
  15. 15. Read the given description and underline some key words that characterize your personal cognitive (learning) style. T vs. F  Sequential learners tend to gain understanding in linear steps, with each step following logically from the previous one. Global learners tend to learn in large jumps, absorbing material almost randomly without seeing connections, and then suddenly "getting it."  Sequential learners tend to follow logical stepwise paths in finding solutions; global learners may be able to solve complex problems quickly or put things together in novel ways once they have grasped the big picture, but they may have difficulty explaining how they did it.
  16. 16. Read the given description and underline some key words that characterize your personal cognitive (learning) style. T vs. F (continued) Sequential learners may not fully understand the material but they can nevertheless do something with it (like solve the homework problems or pass the test) since the pieces they have absorbed are logically connected. Strongly global learners who lack good sequential thinking abilities, on the other hand, may have serious difficulties until they have the big picture. Even after they have it, they may be fuzzy about the details of the subject, while sequential learners may know a lot about specific aspects of a subject but may have trouble relating them to different aspects of the same subject or to different subjects.
  17. 17. Write notes for your key points.  Most college courses are taught in a sequential manner. However, if you are a S and you have an instructor who jumps around from topic to topic or skips steps, you may have difficulty following and remembering. Ask the instructor to fill in the skipped steps, or fill them in yourself by consulting references. When you are studying, take the time to outline the lecture material for yourself in logical order. In the long run doing so will save you time. You might also try to strengthen your global thinking skills by relating each new topic you study to things you already know. The more you can do so, the deeper your understanding of the topic is likely to be.  If you are a global learner, it can be helpful for you to realize that you need the big picture of a subject before you can master details. If your instructor plunges directly into new topics without bothering to explain how they relate to what you already know, it can cause problems for you. Fortunately, there are steps you can take that may help you get the big picture more rapidly. Before you begin to study the first section of a chapter in a text, skim through the entire chapter to get an overview. Doing so may be time-consuming initially but it may save you from going over and over individual parts later. Instead of spending a short time on every subject every night, you might find it more productive to immerse yourself in individual subjects for large blocks. Try to relate the subject to things you already know, either by asking the instructor to help you see connections or by consulting references. Above all, don't lose faith in yourself; you will eventually understand the new material, and once you do your understanding of how it connects to other topics and disciplines may enable you to apply it in ways that most S would never dream of.
  18. 18. Read the given description and underline some key words that characterize your personal cognitive (learning) style. E vs. I  Active learners tend to retain and understand information best by doing something active with it--discussing or applying it or explaining it to others. Reflective learners prefer to think about it quietly first.  "Let's try it out and see how it works" is an active learner's phrase; "Let's think it through first" is the reflective learner's response.  Active learners tend to like group work more than reflective learners, who prefer working alone.  Sitting through lectures without getting to do anything physical but take notes is hard for both learning types, but particularly hard for active learners. NB Everybody is active sometimes and reflective sometimes. Your preference for one category or the other may be strong, moderate, or mild. A balance of the two is desirable. If you always act before reflecting you can jump into things prematurely and get into trouble, while if you spend too much time reflecting you may never get anything done.
  19. 19. How can active (reflective) learners help themselves? E vs.I (continued)  If you are an active learner in a class that allows little or no class time for discussion or problem-solving activities, you should try to compensate for these lacks when you study. Study in a group in which the members take turns explaining different topics to each other. Work with others to guess what you will be asked on the next test and figure out how you will answer. You will always retain information better if you find ways to do something with it.  If you are a reflective learner in a class that allows little or no class time for thinking about new information, you should try to compensate for this lack when you study. Don't simply read or memorize the material; stop periodically to review what you have read and to think of possible questions or applications. You might find it helpful to write short summaries of readings or class notes in your own words. Doing so may take extra time but will enable you to retain the material more effectively.
  20. 20. Read the given description and underline some key words that characterize your personal cognitive (learning) style. J vs. P  Visual learners remember best what they see--pictures, diagrams, flow charts, time lines, films, and demonstrations. Verbal learners get more out of words-- written and spoken explanations. Everyone learns more when information is presented both visually and verbally. *In most college classes very little visual information is presented: students mainly listen to lectures and read material written on chalkboards and in textbooks and handouts. Unfortunately, most people are visual learners, which means that most students do not get nearly as much as they would if more visual presentation were used in class. Good learners are capable of processing information presented either visually or verbally.
  21. 21. How can visual (verbal) learners help themselves? J or P (continued)  If you are a visual learner, try to find diagrams, sketches, schematics, photographs, flow charts, or any other visual representation of course material that is predominantly verbal. Ask your instructor, consult reference books, and see if any videotapes or CD-ROM displays of the course material are available. Prepare a concept map by listing key points, enclosing them in boxes or circles, and drawing lines with arrows between concepts to show connections. Color-code your notes with a highlighter so that everything relating to one topic is the same color.  Write summaries or outlines of course material in your own words. Working in groups can be particularly effective: you gain understanding of material by hearing classmates' explanations and you learn even more when you do the explaining.
  22. 22. Make sure that this is really your type.  Innovative learners... INFP, ENFP, INFJ, ENFJ  ...look for personal meaning while learning  ...draw on their values while learning  ...enjoy social interaction  ... are cooperative  ...want to make the world a better place  Analytic learners... INTP, ENTP, INTJ, ENTJ  ...want to develop intellectually while learning  ...draw on facts while learning  ...are patient and reflective  ...want to know " important things" and to add to the world's knowledge  Common sense learners... ISTJ, ESTJ, ISFJ, ESFJ  ...want to find solutions  ... value things if they are useful  ...are kinesthetic  ...are practical and straightforward  ... want to make things happen  Dynamic learners... ISFP, ESFP, ISTP, ESTP  ...look for hidden possibilities  ...judge things by gut reactions  ...synthesize information from different sources  ...are enthusiastic and adventurous McCarthy’s (1980) Classification
  23. 23. JOB ORIENTATION What kind of job is the most appropriate for you? As an emploee, what strong and weak points do you have? YOU R TYPE ES THE CHOICE YOU MAKE The Economist Good job: a manager Not so god job: an accountant YOUR STRENGTHS Quick reactions, high workability; changing jobs YOUR WEAKNESSES Dislikes monotony, planning, thoroughness EN The Top Manager Not so good job: a stage director Self-control, endurance; long periods of intensive work and intensive rest Prolonged stirring up, inability to rest IN The IT-specialist Good: a software developer Not so good: a system administrator Patience, strong logic, quality-oriented; a step-by-step, structured approach to work Mistrustfulness, difficulties in adjusting IS The Entrepreneur Good: in marketing Not so good: in sales Strong anticipation, imagination, high adaptability; doing many things at a time, shifting tasks, frequent breaks High fatiguability, emotional overstrain
  24. 24. GIVE YOUR PROFESSORS A PROMPT ON HOW TO ACTIVATE YOUR COGNIZANCE   If you are... 1. McCarthy's Innovative learner (1980) Keirsley’s Idealist: Advocate-Healer&Champion, Mentor-Counselor&Teacher (1998) Mayer’s INFP, ENFP, INFJ, ENFJ (1990s), then...  Use cooperative learning activities and activities in which I must make value judgments  Ask me to discuss my opinions and beliefs. 2. McCarthy's Analytic learner Keirsley’s Ratinal: Engineer – Architect &Inventor, Coordinator –Mastermind&Fieldmarshal Mayer’s INTP, ENTP, INTJ, ENTJ, then...  Teach me the facts 3. McCarthy's Common sense learner Keirsley’s Guardian: Administrator-Inspector& Supervisor, Conservator –Protector&Provider Mayer’s ISTJ, ESTJ, ISFJ, ESFJ, then...  Use problem-solving activities 4. McCarthy's Dynamic learner Keirsley’s Artisan: Entertainer –Composer & Performer, Operator: Crafter &Promoter Mayer’s ISFP, ESFP, ISTP, ESTP, then...  Ask me about my feelings  Use a variety of challenging activities
  25. 25. Learning Strategies  "Field independence vs. dependence." Field independent learners easily separate key details from a complex or confusing background, while their field dependent peers have trouble doing this. Field independent learners show significant advantages over field dependent learners in analytical tasks (Hansen & Stansfield, 1981; Chapelle & Roberts, 1986).  "Analytic vs. global processing" seems to be closely allied with field independence vs. dependence, and indeed may be a more fundamental and more explanatory dimension of learning style. However, little foreign or second language learning research exists concerning the analytic-global dimension except in the context of brain hemisphericity. The left hemisphere of the brain deals with language through analysis and abstraction, while the right hemisphere recognizes language as more global auditory or visual patterns (Willing, 1988). Leaver (1986) speculates that right-brain learners--those who prefer the kinds of processing done by the right side of the brain-- are more facile at learning intonation and rhythms of the target language, whereas left-brain learners deal more easily with analytic aspects of target language grammar.  "Cooperation vs. competition" has been only lightly studied as a dimension of style in the language learning field. Reid (1987) found that in the language classroom, learners rarely report using cooperative behaviors (behaviors that one would infer to reflect a cooperative style); however, this finding might well be related to instructional methodologies that often preclude cooperation and foster competition. In studies where students were taught specifically to be cooperative, results revealed vast improvement in language skills as well as increased self-esteem, motivation, altruism, and positive attitudes toward others (Gunderson & Johnson, 1980; Sharan et al., 1985; Jacob & Mattson, 1987).  "Tolerance for ambiguity" is another style dimension of language learning. Learning a language can be a difficult and at times ambiguous endeavor, and students who can more readily tolerate ambiguity often show the best language learning performance (see Chapelle & Roberts; 1986, Naiman, Frohlich & Todesco, 1975).  Other important style aspects that may relate to language learning performance are leveling-sharpening of detail, reflectivity-impulsivity, and constricted-flexible thinking (Parry, 1984).
  26. 26. ENJOY YOURSELF! ENJOY THE OTHERS! Use 16 technological cards to discuss the given characteristics of 16 different types. Prepare a narrative about your type in writing.  Note. The Myers-Briggs Type indicator (Myers & McCaulley, 1985) contributes four more dimensions to learning style: extraversion vs. introversion, sensing vs. intuition, thinking vs. feeling, and judging vs. perceiving.
  27. 27. 16 Personality Cards 1 DON QIXOTE “интуитивно-логический экстраверт “ ALICE Новатор- искатель(ница) ENTP INVENTORS (2%) 2 DUMAS “сенсорно-этический интроверт” DUSHECHKA Художник-посредник ISFP COMPOSERS (10%) 3 HUGO “этико-сенсорный экстраверт” ТAISIA Энтузиаст(ка) ESFJ PROVIDERS (10%) 4 ROBESPIERE “логико-интуитивный интроверт” VERA PAVLOVNA Ученый-аналитик INTJ MASTERMINING (2%) 5 HAMLET “этико-интуитивный экстраверт MARGARITA Актер-наставник ENFJ TEACHERS (3%) 6 MAXIM GORKY “логико-сенсорный интроверт” МALVINA Инспектор ISTJ INSPECTORS (10%) 7 ZHUKOVсенсорно-логический экстраверт” VASSA Маршал ESTP PROMOTERS (10%) 8 «ESENIN “интуитивно-этический интроверт” АSSOLY Лирик INFP HEALERS (1%) 9 NAPOLEON “сенсорно-этический экстраверт” LOLITA Политик ESFP PERFORMERS (10%) 10 BALSAC “интуитивно-логический интроверт” MISS MARPLE Созидатель-критик INTP ARCHITECTS (2%) 11JACK LONDON “логико-интуитивный экстраверт” Scarlett O’HARA Предприниматель ENTJ FIELDMARSHALS (2%) 12 DRAISER “этико-сенсорный интроверт” GERDA Хранительница ISFJ PROTECTORS (10%) 13 STIRLITZ “логико-сенсорный экстраверт” МARY POPPINS Администратор ESTJ SUPERVISORS (10% 14 DOSTOEVSKY “этико-интуитивныйинтроверт” CINDERELLA Гуманист INFJ COUNSELORS (2%) 15 HUXLEY “интуитивно-этический экстраверт” JULIA LAMBERT Советчик ENFP CHAMPIONS (3%) 16 GABEN “ сенсорно-логический интроверт” CONSUELLO
  28. 28.  Creative, resourceful, and intellectually quick. Good at a broad range of things. Enjoy debating issues, and may be into "one-up- manship". They get very excited about new ideas and projects, but may neglect the more routine aspects of life. Generally outspoken and assertive. They enjoy people and are stimulating company. Excellent ability to understand concepts and apply logic to find solutions.  Celebrities: Walt Disney, Keanu Reeves, Mila Jovovich, Monica Belucci, Jasmin, Oleg Men’shikov, Evgenii Mironov  DO-2 DU-9 HU-3 RO-6 HA-10 MA-4 ZHU-9 ES-12 NA-14 BA-13 JA- 15 DR-16 ST-10 DOS-4 HU-8 GA-7 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 1 DON QIXOTE “интуитивно-логический экстраверт “ ALICE Новатор- искатель(ница) ENTP INVENTORS (2%)
  29. 29.  Quiet, serious, sensitive and kind. Do not like conflict, and not likely to do things which may generate conflict. Loyal and faithful. Extremely well-developed senses, and aesthetic appreciation for beauty. Not interested in leading or controlling others. Flexible and open-minded. Likely to be original and creative. Enjoy the present moment.  Celebrities: Bob Dylan, B.Streisand, Demi Moor, Aleksandra Pakhmutova, V. Yudashkin  DO-9 DU-2 HU-6 RO-3 HA-4 MA-10 ZHU-12 ES-1 NA-13 BA-14 JA-16 DR-15 ST-5 DOS-10 HU-7 GA-8 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 2 DUMAS “сенсорно-этический интроверт” DUSHECHKA Художник-посредник ISFP COMPOSERS (10%)
  30. 30.  Warm-hearted, popular, and conscientious. Tend to put the needs of others over their own needs. Feel strong sense of responsibility and duty. Value traditions and security. Interested in serving others. Need positive reinforcement to feel good about themselves. Well- developed sense of space and function.  Celebrities: Sam Walton, Martha Stewart, Philip Kirkorov, Yuri Galtzev, V. Sadal’sky, Klara Novikova  DO-3 DU-6 HU-2 RO-1 HA-8 MA-7 ZHU-11 ES-4 NA-15 BA-16 JA- 14 DR-13 ST-9 DOS-12 HU-10 GA-4 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 3 HUGO “этико-сенсорный экстраверт” ТAISIA Энтузиаст(ка) ESFJ PROVIDERS (10%)
  31. 31.  Independent, original, analytical, and determined. Have an exceptional ability to turn theories into solid plans of action. Highly value knowledge, competence, and structure. Driven to derive meaning from their visions. Long-range thinkers. Have very high standards for their performance, and the performance of others. Natural leaders, but will follow if they trust existing leaders.  Celebrities: D.D.Eisenhower, Uma Turman, Michael Jackson, Vera Glagoleva, Oleg Yankovsky, Andrei Sakharov, Aleksandr Dem’yanenko , L.Di Caprio  DO-6 DU-3 HU-1 RO-2 HA-7 MA-8 ZHU-5 ES-10 NA-16 BA-15 JA- 13 DR-14 ST-12 DOS-9 HU-4 GA-11 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 4 ROBESPIERE “логико-интуитивный интроверт” VERA PAVLOVNA Ученый-аналитик INTJ MASTERMINING (2%)
  32. 32.  Popular and sensitive, with outstanding people skills. Externally focused, with real concern for how others think and feel. Usually dislike being alone. They see everything from the human angle, and dislike impersonal analysis. Very effective at managing people issues, and leading group discussions. Interested in serving others, and probably place the needs of others over their own needs.  Celebrities: M.Gorbachev, Roksana Babyan, Nicolai Baskov, Milen Farmer, Gennadii Khazanov, Maxim Galkin, Angelika Varum, Olga Drozdova, V. Polunin  DO-10 DU-4 HU-8 RO-7 HA-2 MA-1 ZHU-3 ES-6 NA-11 BA-4 JA- 9 DR-12 ST-14 DOS-13 HU-15 GA-16 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 5 HAMLET “этико-интуитивный экстраверт MARGARITA Актер-наставник ENFJ TEACHERS (3%)
  33. 33.  Serious and quiet, interested in security and peaceful living. Extremely thorough, responsible, and dependable. Well-developed powers of concentration. Usually interested in supporting and promoting traditions and establishments. Well-organized and hard working, they work steadily towards identified goals. They can usually accomplish any task once they have set their mind to it.  Celebrities: H.Truman, ElizabethII, Alen Delon, А. Shwartzneger, А/ Rosenbaum, Т. Parfenova, V. Tokareva, N. Usatova, D. Pevtsov, М. Sholokhov, А. Lebed’, I. Stalin  DO-4 DU-10 HU-7 RO-8 HA-1 MA-2 ZHU-6 ES-3 NA-4 BA-11 JA- 12 DR-1 ST-13 DOS-14 HU-16 GA-15 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 6 MAXIM GORKY “логико-сенсорный интроверт” МALVINA Инспектор ISTJ INSPECTORS (10%)
  34. 34.  Friendly, adaptable, action-oriented. "Doers" who are focused on immediate results. Living in the here-and-now, they're risk-takers who live fast-paced lifestyles. Impatient with long explanations. Extremely loyal to their peers, but not usually respectful of laws and rules if they get in the way of getting things done. Great people skills.  Celebrities: F.Roosevelt, Madonna, Luc Besson, Kelly Osborn, Vin Diesel, F. Bondarchuk, N. Rastorguev  DO-9 DU-12 HU-11 RO-4 HA-3 MA-6 ZHU-2 ES-1 NA-8 BA-7 JA- 10 DR-4 ST-15 DOS-16 HU-14 GA-13 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 7 ZHUKOVсенсорно-логический экстраверт” VASSA Маршал ESTP PROMOTERS (10%)
  35. 35.  Quiet, reflective, and idealistic. Interested in serving humanity. Well- developed value system, which they strive to live in accordance with. Extremely loyal. Adaptable and laid-back unless a strongly- held value is threatened. Usually talented writers. Mentally quick, and able to see possibilities. Interested in understanding and helping people.  Celebrities: Princess Diana, Arnold Shwartzneger, I. Brodsky, Y.Savicheva, I.Smoktunovsky, P.Kashin  DO-12 DU-9 HU-4 RO-11 HA-6 MA-3 ZHU-1 ES-2 NA-7 BA-8 JA- 9 DR-11 ST-16 DOS-15 HU-13 GA-14 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 8 «ESENIN “интуитивно-этический интроверт” АSSOLY Лирик INFP HEALERS (1%)
  36. 36.  People-oriented and fun-loving, they make things more fun for others by their enjoyment. Living for the moment, they love new experiences. They dislike theory and impersonal analysis. Interested in serving others. Likely to be the center of attention in social situations. Well-developed common sense and practical ability.  Celebrities: Elvis Presley, Elizabeth Taylor, A. Pugachyova, Y.Luzhkov, O.Aros’eva  DO-14 DU-13 HU-15 RO-16 HA-10 MA-4 ZHU-8 ES-7 NA-2 BA-1 JA- 3 DR-6 ST-11 DOS-4 HU-9 GA-12 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 9 NAPOLEON “сенсорно-этический экстраверт” LOLITA Политик ESFP PERFORMERS (10%)
  37. 37.  Logical, original, creative thinkers. Can become very excited about theories and ideas. Exceptionally capable and driven to turn theories into clear understandings. Highly value knowledge, competence and logic. Quiet and reserved, hard to get to know well. Individualistic, having no interest in leading or following others. Celebrities: Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Myrill Strip, Johnny Depp, Paolo Coelho, Alsu, N. Svanidze, Zemfira, I.Kupchenko  DO-13 DU-14 HU-16 RO-15 HA-4 MA-10 ZHU-7 ES-8 NA-1 BA-2 JA-6 DR-3 ST-4 DOS-11 HU-12 GA-9 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 10 BALSAC “интуитивно-логический интроверт” MISS MARPLE Созидатель-критик INTP ARCHITECTS (2%)
  38. 38.  Assertive and outspoken - they are driven to lead. Excellent ability to understand difficult organizational problems and create solid solutions. Intelligent and well-informed, they usually excel at public speaking. They value knowledge and competence, and usually have little patience with inefficiency or disorganization.  Celebrities: Bill Gates, Margaret Thatcher, Briney Spears, Sophi Loren, Andgelina Jolie, Jean-Paul Belmondo, N. Mikhalkov, M.Boyarsky, A.Sviridova, A.Dzhigarkhonyan  DO-15 DU-16 HU-14 RO-13 HA-9 MA-12 ZHU-11 ES-4 NA-3 BA-6 JA-2 DR-1 ST-8 DOS-7 HU-10 GA-4 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 11JACK LONDON “логико-интуитивный экстраверт” Scarlett O’HARA Предприниматель ENTJ FIELDMARSHALS (2%)
  39. 39.  Quiet, kind, and conscientious. Can be depended on to follow through. Usually puts the needs of others above their own needs. Stable and practical, they value security and traditions. Well- developed sense of space and function. Rich inner world of observations about people. Extremely perceptive of other's feelings. Interested in serving others.  Celebrities: George Bush, Mother Teresa, Theodor Dreaiser, Tina Turner, А.Maslyukov, А. Makarevich, I.Cobzone, N.Mordyukova, А.Maslyukov  DO-16 DU-15 HU-13 RO-14 HA-12 MA-9 ZHU-4 ES-11 NA-6 BA-3 JA-1 DR-2 ST-7 DOS-8 HU-4 GA-11 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 12 DRAISER “этико-сенсорный интроверт” GERDA Хранительница ISFJ PROTECTORS (10%)
  40. 40.  Practical, traditional, and organized. Likely to be athletic. Not interested in theory or abstraction unless they see the practical application. Have clear visions of the way things should be. Loyal and hard-working. Like to be in charge. Exceptionally capable in organizing and running activities. "Good citizens" who value security and peaceful living.  Celebrities: Colin Powell, Elizabeth I, George Clooney, Al Bano, Al Pacino, Gerar Depardie, Sylvestr Stallone, Agatha Cristie, R. Gamzatov, L.Zykina, N.Drozdov, Y.Andropov  DO-11 DU-4 HU-9 RO-12 HA-14 MA-13 ZHU-15 ES-16 NA-10 BA- 4 JA-8 DR-7 ST-2 DOS-1 HU-3 GA-6 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 13 STIRLITZ “логико-сенсорный экстраверт” МARY POPPINS Администратор ESTJ SUPERVISORS (10%)
  41. 41.  Quietly forceful, original, and sensitive. Tend to stick to things until they are done. Extremely intuitive about people, and concerned for their feelings. Well-developed value systems which they strictly adhere to. Well-respected for their perserverence in doing the right thing. Likely to be individualistic, rather than leading or following.  Celebrities: Mohandas Gandhi, Elenor Roosevelt, H.C. Andersen, Tuve Janson, E.Simonova, A. Ukupnik, G. Vitzin  DO-4 DU-11 HU-12 RO-9 HA-13 MA-14 ZHU-16 ES-15 NA-4 BA- 10 JA-7 DR-8 ST-1 DOS-2 HU-6 GA-3 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 14 DOSTOEVSKY “этико-интуитивныйинтроверт” CINDERELLA Гуманист INFJ COUNSELORS (2%)
  42. 42.  Enthusiastic, idealistic, and creative. Able to do almost anything that interests them. Great people skills. Need to live life in accordance with their inner values. Excited by new ideas, but bored with details. Open-minded and flexible, with a broad range of interests and abilities.  Celebrtities: Bill Moyers, Joan Baez, Witney Houston, Louis de Funes, L.Agutin, L.Akhedzhakova, L.Milyavskaya  DO-8 DU-7 HU-10 RO-4 HA-15 MA-16 ZHU-14 ES-13 NA-1 BA-12 JA- 11 DR-4 ST-3 DOS-6 HU-2 GA-1 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 15 HUXLEY “интуитивно-этический экстраверт” JULIA LAMBERT Советчик ENFP CHAMPIONS (3%)
  43. 43.  Quiet and reserved, interested in how and why things work. Excellent skills with mechanical things. Risk-takers who they live for the moment. Usually interested in and talented at extreme sports. Uncomplicated in their desires. Loyal to their peers and to their internal value systems, but not overly concerned with respecting laws and rules if they get in the way of getting something done. Detached and analytical, they excel at finding solutions to practical problems.  Celebrities: Bruce Lee, Amelia Earhart, Mel Gibson, Jan Gaben, Kevin Costner, Katrine Denev, Coen Eastwood, Drew Berrimor, О.Yankovsky, I.Alferova, V.Vysotsky  DO-7 DU-8 HU-4 RO-10 HA-16 MA-1 ZHU-13 ES-14 NA-12 BA-9 JA- 4 DR-11 ST-6 DOS-3 HU-1 GA-2 1. complete addition 2. identical 3.activisation 4-5. revision 4. inspecting 5. being inspected 6. mirror 7. half-dual 8. relative 9. business 10-11. activation 10. broadcasting 11. receiving 12. mirage 13. opposites 14. superego 15. quasi-identical 16. conflicting (L.D.Stolyarenko, 2005) 16 GABEN “ сенсорно-логический интроверт” CONSUELLO Мастер ISTP CRAFTERS (10%)
  44. 44. Champion’s learning style is the most popular one among university students. Please read its detailed description and complete the text with prepositions. Translare into Russian. (15) The Champions (Idealists) are abstract 1___ thought and speech, cooperative 2___ accomplishing their aims, and informative and expressive when relating 3____ others. For C., nothing occurs which does not have some deep ethical significance, and this, coupled 4____ their uncanny sense 5___ the motivations of others, gives them a talent 6___ seeing life as an exciting drama, full of possibilities 7___ both good and evil. This type is found 8__ only about 3 % 9___ the general population, but they have great influence because 10___ their extraordinary impact 11___ others. C. are inclined to go everywhere and look 12___ everything that has to do 13___ the advance of good and the retreat 14___ evil 15___ the world. They can't bear to miss 16___ ___ what is going 17___ around them; they must experience, first hand, all the significant social events that affect our lives. And then they are eager to relate the stories they've uncovered, hoping to disclose the "truth" 18___ people and issues, and to advocate causes. This strong drive to unveil current events can make them tireless 19___ conversing 20___ others, like fountains that bubble and splash, spilling 21____ their own words to get it all 22___. C. consider intense emotional experiences as being vital 23___ a full life, although they can never quite shake the feeling that a part 24___ themselves is split 25____, uninvolved 26___ the experience. Thus, while they strive 27___ emotional congruency, they often see themselves 28___ some danger of losing touch 29__ their real feelings, which C. possess 30__ a wide range and variety. 31___ the same way, C. strive 32______ a kind of spontaneous personal authenticity, and this intention always to "be themselves" is usually communicated nonverbally to others, who find it quite attractive. All too often, however, C. fall short 33___ their efforts to be authentic, and they tend to heap coals of fire 34___ themselves, berating themselves 35___ the slightest self- conscious role-playing.
  45. 45. Now, check your results.  The Champions (Idealists) are abstract in thought and speech, cooperative in accomplishing their aims, and informative and expressive when relating with others. For C., nothing occurs which does not have some deep ethical significance, and this, coupled with their uncanny sense of the motivations of others, gives them a talent for seeing life as an exciting drama, full of possibilities for both good and evil. This type is found in only about 3 % of the general population, but they have great influence because of their extraordinary impact on others. C. are inclined to go everywhere and look into everything that has to do with the advance of good and the retreat of evil in the world. They can't bear to miss out on what is going on around them; they must experience, first hand, all the significant social events that affect our lives. And then they are eager to relate the stories they've uncovered, hoping to disclose the "truth" of people and issues, and to advocate causes. This strong drive to unveil current events can make them tireless in conversing with others, like fountains that bubble and splash, spilling over their own words to get it all out. C. consider intense emotional experiences as being vital to a full life, although they can never quite shake the feeling that a part of themselves is split off, uninvolved in the experience. Thus, while they strive for emotional congruency, they often see themselves in some danger of losing touch with their real feelings, which C. possess in a wide range and variety. In the same way, C. strive toward a kind of spontaneous personal authenticity, and this intention always to "be themselves" is usually communicated nonverbally to others, who find it quite attractive. All too often, however, C. fall short in their efforts to be authentic, and they tend to heap coals of fire on themselves, berating themselves for the slightest self-conscious role- playing.
  46. 46. Compare your translation to the given model. «Активисты» - 3% от общего населения, абстрактны в мышления и речи. Склонны к сотрудничеству для достижения собственных целей. Во взаимоотношениях экспрессивны и всегда открыты для общения. Осознают этическую значимость. Улавливают мотивации других людей. Все, что происходит вокруг, имеет для них глубокий этический смысл, что в сочетании с необыкновенным даром улавливать причины поведения других людей дает им возможность воспринимать жизнь как захватывающий спектакль, в которой есть место и добру, и злу. Несмотря на то что представители данной группы составляют всего 3 % от живущих на земле, они обладают исключительными способностями воздействовать на окружающих. Не упускают возможности отправиться куда бы то ни было во имя торжества справедливости. Не переносят, если события вокруг проходят без них, все наиболее важные моменты в общественной жизни они должны переживать непосредственно, в качестве активного их участника. Охотно делятся своими открытиями в надежде отыскать правду, вскрыть истинные причины происходящего. Неутомимые собеседники, они охотно изливают на окружающих свои слова и эмоции. Признают интенсивный эмоциональный опыт в качестве неотъемной части полноценной жизни. С трудом расстаются с чувством того, что они задействованы не в полной мере. Стремясь к эмоциональному соответствию, боятся утратить способность чувствовать и сопереживать, свойственную им в полной мере. Подсознательно стремятся к избранности. Демонстрируют намерение непременно «оставаться собой». В любой ситуации стараются вести себя естественно и непринужденно, их желание быть всюду самими собой неизменно вызывает у других уважение. Если же это не удается, обращают гнев внутрь, осуждая себя за притворство.
  47. 47. PARTICIPATE IN A GROUP DISCUSSION Answer the questions.  What types are represented in your group?  What is a predominent type?  Do you trust the Mayers-Briggs classification of sociotypes?  What traits of character you do not possess, but are eager to acquire?  Draw a plan for self-development.  How to deal with the types that are in your class, according to Stolyarenko’s chart?
  48. 48. Read 8 resolutions on how to increase your effectiveness at work and at home presented by two individuals. Specify their types. Choose the rules for yourself to follow. Motto: «Live out of your imagination, not your history.» Stephen R. Covey ) To think win/win: to seek mutually beneficial agreements and solutions. 2) To be proactive: to take initiative and responsibility. 3) To synergise: the whole can be greater than the sum of the parts. Compromise is 2+2=3. Synergy is 2+2=5 - or more! 4) To put first things first: to organise and execute around the most important relationships and results in your life. 5) To seek first to understand, then be understood: to try to feel and think yourself into another person's shoes whilst they are talking. Only then try to make your own viewpoint be heard. 6) To begin with the end in mind: to develop and focus on your vision and values. 7) To Motto: "The purpose of life is a life of purpose." George Bernard Shaw (cited by Mike Lipkin 1)To stay optimistic. 2) To pump-up your persona vitality. 3) To be habitually generous. 4) To take control of your destiny. 5) To increase your human connectedness. 6) To be you because others are already taken. 7) To increase your creativity by letting go of the familiar. To identify the most powerful benefit you offer to the people around you and then deliver it. 8) To be a global citizen, fully open to the cultures and influences of others.
  49. 49. REFERENCE Столяренко Л.Д. Психология управления.–Ростов н/Д:Феникс, 2005.-512 с. Learning Styles and Strategies Richard M. Felder Hoechst Celanese Professor of Chemical Engineering North Carolina State University Barbara A. Soloman Coordinator of Advising, First Year College North Carolina State University http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/methodology/learning_style.shtml http://personalbest.org/newsletter.html http://humanresources.about.com/od/careerplanningandadvice1/Success_in_Caree r_and_Personal_Development_and_Management.htm
  50. 50. WWW- Resources www.keirsey.com www.teamtechnology.co.uk (MMDI, Myers Briggs) www.prospects.ac.uk (Career Development), www.shambles.net/pages/learning/psychol/psytest/ (Psychometric Test Online) http://www.mindtools.com/page12.html http://jobsearch.about.com/od/careertests/a/career tests.htm www.testingroom.com (Career Values administration site), http://de.tickle.com/phd.html, www.socionika.ru www.effecton.ru April 15, 2007

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