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GilZhengsmartshanghai

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This work explores the applicability of the model developed by Chourabi et al. (2012) to the urban reality of Shanghai, China. The eight variables of the model: 1) governance and public urban planning 2) management and organization 3) technology 4) policy context 5) people and communities 6) economy 7) built in infrastructure, 8) and natural environment, are examined against the Shanghai case. The findings are that for Shanghai the smart city plan inherits a process of transformation in place from the beginning of 1990s in four areas of public policy: governance, technology, built in infrastructure and economy; The smart city plan develops specificities for management and organization and shows a built-in capacity to develop a favorable policy context with the central government more recently. We have found a limited scope for people and communities and the natural environment shaping changes so called smart. The framework applied contributes to extend the scope of comparative urban theory and analysis beyond the western world, in the East Asian context, allowing further comparison across cities. Final results might be used to complete new research programs, as we suggest.

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GilZhengsmartshanghai

  1. 1. A focus on innovation Smart Shanghai framed in comparative perspective Social Innovation Research Conference (SIRC) Innovations in public and social policy and in public service delivery. Policy and management perspectives on reforming the delivery of public services Hosted by the School of International Relations and PublicAffairs Fudan University, Shanghai, China 21st – 22nd May 2015 Sponsors: Thee American Society for Public Administration (ASPA), the International Research Society for Public Management (IRSPM), the Learning from Innovation in Public Service Environments Programme of the European Union (LIPSE), the Centre for Public Services Research (CPSR) of the University of Edinburgh Business School, the UK Political Studies Association (PSA) and the Dr. Seaker Chan Center for Comparative Political Development Studies (CCPDS) of Fudan University Olga Gil and Zheng Tian-Cheng Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
  2. 2. Scientific paper associated to this presentation may be found in Academia for download https://uam.academia.edu/OlgaGil 1 Using ideas and/or graphics from this presentation? Please quote as follows: Gil, O., Zheng, T. 2015. “A focus on innovation Smart Shanghai framed in comparative perspective” Social Innovation Research Conference (SIRC) on innovations in public and social policy and in public service delivery. Hosted by the School of International Relations and PublicAffairs Fudan University, Shanghai, China 21st – 22nd May 2015
  3. 3. Scope Definitions Theory & Framework Hipothesis Model Shanghai Findings Challenges Annex I, II Index SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG 2
  4. 4. Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Shanghai Findings Challenges 5SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG 3
  5. 5. Theory Definitions of smart cities under three traditions: 1)  human capital 2) technology and 3) digital literacy. Normative question I: What are the skills that people and communities shall have to be digitally literate in the XXI century? Empirically What makes a city smart? Normative question II: Differences in the definition of smart in cities are important translated into differences on which stakeholders are allowed to innovate locally, we founded More on definitions: www.slideshare.net/olga.gil/smart-cities-euraconference2013/6 Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Shanghai Findings Challenges 6SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG 4
  6. 6. Model and the variables Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Shanghai Findings Challenges 8 Testing eight variables Unwraping the variables in the study: See Annexes SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG 5
  7. 7. Hypothesis Factors to advance smart plans are key to differentiate models of urban governance Comparative perspective includes Asian, American and European cases Why? Choice of cases driven by an interest to learn from innovation practices in different world institutional settings and the errors in each local setting In the work we are developing in 2015 we cover eight cases Shanghai, cities in Japan, Iskandar, New York, Amsterdam, and three cities in Spain Málaga, Santander and Tarragona Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hypothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges 10SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG 6
  8. 8. Urban Annual Growth Rate % shows converging trend 7 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  9. 9. Results Global Picture Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Shanghai Findings Challenges 8
  10. 10. 9 Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Shanghai Findings Challenges SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  11. 11. 1. Governance Models - Different in the cases explored. Shanghai partners with universities, firms, foreign firms as well as banks. Users are not part of the equation as developers. - Top participants are members of the party.  - Wide gap among the language of policy makers, firms and citizens/communities. There is challenge to incorporate people and communities into participatory projects 2. Management and organization Case in which the central government fosters an investment lead model, such as the case of China and municipalities 3. Tecnology smart cities discourse linked to defending urban design and optimized services -based on distributed power. Smart has to do with technologies that allow us to incorporate intelligence into systems to achieve efficiencies, reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions. 10 Concluding remarks The variables Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Shanghai Findings Challenges SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  12. 12. 4. Economy An intended economy boost underlines all the plans of the smart projects explored. Constraints are different in each case: Shanghai has been in better condition to fund smart projects, and has poured funds to this strategic area, as it defines it. Banks are also willing to ease funds for. 5. People and communities Following Hollands (2008) ‘undergird’ the social capital is critical to embed the required the informational and communicative qualities of smart cities. The stress on what smarts entails is very different and open to policy conceptualization --in some cases, open to society engagement. We find more limitations in Shanghai than in other cities (such as Amsterdam or New York) 6. Natural environment Shanghai –and China- face severe environmental concerns 11 Concluding remarks The variables Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Shanghai Findings Challenges SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  13. 13. “smartness as a vision to respond to local governance challenges” Generally: Significant role that local governments play in cities Shanghai: Giant developing infrastructure and global influence Malaysia: Getting a place in the geo-regional area Japan and Amsterdam: Facing energy constraints with innovation New York: Innovation for civic engagement Spain: Opportunities for economic reactivation?       Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Shanghai Findings Challenges 12 Concluding remarks SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  14. 14. •  Confirmation of hypothesis smart plans is key to diferenciate the case of Shanghai •  Strong management and organization •  Built-in capacity to develop a favorable policy context •  Smart city plan inherits process of transformation in place from 1990´s Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Shanghai Findings Challenges Concluding remarks 13 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  15. 15. •  Limited scope for people and communities •  Innovation framed whithin the scope of preferred stakeholders •  Evaluation is key, and we find Shanghai and Japan doing it Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Shanghai Findings Challenges Concluding remarks 14 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  16. 16. 23 Thank you for your attention and discussion Powerpoint for download at: Slideshare Olga Gil 謝謝 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG 15
  17. 17. Scope Definitions Theory & Framework Hipothesis Model Shanghai Findings Challenges Annex I, II Index SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG 16 Annex I Previous work Annex II Variables in detail
  18. 18. Annex I   Previous work Comparative research on smart citizens and smart cities SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG 17
  19. 19. Analysis and Findings 1.  Management  and  organiza0on:       •  Cases  in  which  the  central  government  fosters  an  investment  lead   model,  such  as  the  case  of  China  and  municipali7es;     •  A  case  such  as  Iskandar,  in  which  the  regional  development  agency   furthers  the  goals  set  up  by  the  government;     •  A  case  such  as  the  four  smart  pilots  in  Japan,  where  locali7es  and   regions  work  together  with  the  industry  to  develop  solu7ons  with  global   applica7on;     •  The  New  York  city  model,  in  which  NY  university  and  the  city  council   cooperate  in  smart  data  projects   •   Málaga  (ICT  centre),  Santander  (Na7onal  and  Interna7onal  network)   Tarragona  case,  where  a  Founda0on  has  been  set  up  to  advance  the   defined  smart  goals.       18 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  20. 20. 2.  Technology  concerns  vary  a  lot  among  the  selected  cases:     •  Shanghai  and  Japan  focus  on  the  smart  grid  and  the  development  of  a   local  and  global  industry.     •  In    cases  of  both  China  and  Japan  the  smart  ci7es  discourse  is  also  linked   to  defending  urban  design  and  op7mized  services  -­‐based  on  distributed   power.    Iskandar  is  concerned  with  traffic  and  CO2  emissions.  New  York   is  focusing  on  big  data  management.   •  Amsterdam  is  concerned  with  new  energy  models,  Santander  focuses   on  sensors  and  eficiency  and  Tarragona  is  concerned  with  the  chemical   industry  and  transport  efficiency.   The  search  for  solu0ons  and  the  partnerships  to  aGained  them  is  widely   varied  in  the  eight  cases  examined.     Analysis and Findings 19 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  21. 21. 2.  Technology  (II)       •  In  China,  Japan,  Iskandar  in  Malaysia,  New  York  in  the  United  States  and   Tarragona,  Spain,  smart  has  to  do  with  technologies  that  allow  us  to   incorporate  intelligence  into  systems  to  achieve  efficiencies,  reducing   energy  consump7on  and  CO2  emissions.         •  In  most  cases  incorpora7ng  new  technology  is  linked  to  a  discourse   pledging  for  smart  devices  to  curve  energy  consump7on  in  buildings  -­‐   providing  a  near-­‐zero  energy  consump7on.             Analysis and Findings 20 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  22. 22. 3.  Governance  Models:  different  in  the  cases  explored.     •  Shanghai  partners  with  universi7es,  firms,  foreign  firms  as  well  as  banks.  Users  are   not  part  of  the  equa7on  as  developers.   •   In  Japan  local  governments  partner  with  firms  in  different  industry  sectors   including  the  university,  technological  firms,  power  –including  gas-­‐  as  well  as  real   estate  firms   •   In  Iskandar  governance  depends  on  the  Regional  Authority  appointed  for  the   development  of  the  conceived  smart  city.   •   In  New  York  we  find  the  leadership  of  the  city  government,  the  university  as  well   as  a  general  call  to  ci7zens  developers  through  open  technologies.     •  Tarragona  steering  commiWee  is  a  Founda7on.     Governance  models  are  affected  by  4.  the  policy  context.  We  find  a  mayor  leap  of  the   central  government  in  the  cases  of  China,  Iskandar  and  Japan,  while  New  York,   Amsterdam,  Malaga,  Santander  and  Tarragona  respond  to  autonomous  local  policies.       Analysis and Findings 21 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  23. 23. 5.  People  and  Communi0es       •  Have  a  bigger  say  in  the  case  of  New  York,  where  we  find  windows  of   opportunity  for  ci7zen  developers  and  firms,  as  well  as  Amsterdam.     •  Ci7zens  par7cipate  mainly  as  users  in  the  case  of  Santander,  Tarragona   and  Japan  -­‐residents  are  those  specifically  addressed  to  contribute  in   Japan.     •  In  the  case  of  Iskandar,  city  dwellers  would  par7cipate  in  security  issues   according  to  the  draZed  plans.   •   In  Shanghai  top  par7cipants  are  members  of  the  party.               Analysis and Findings 22 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  24. 24. 6.  Economy   •  An  intended  economy  boost  underlines  all  the  plans  of  the  smart   projects  explored.  Constraints  are  different  in  each  case:     •  Shanghai  has  been  in  beWer  condi7on  to  fund  smart  projects,  and   has  poured  funds  to  this  strategic  area,  as  it  defines  it.  Banks  are  also   willing  to  ease  funds  for.     •  Japan,  Europe  and  the  United  States  are  all  affected  by  fiscal  cliffs   and  economic  downturn.     •  Malaysia  is  in  beWer  shape,  and  is  trying  to  gain  momentum   promo7ng  Iskandar  as  an  important  trade  hub  in  Asia,  looking   forward  foreign  capital  as  a  main  driver  of  Iskandar.               Analysis and Findings 23 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  25. 25. 7.  Built  infrastructure   Has  different  scope  in  the  cases  we  have  explored.    Following  Hollands  (2008)   ‘undergird’  the  social  capital  is  cri7cal  to    embed  the  required    the  informa7onal  and   communica7ve  quali7es  of    smart  ci7es.  From  this  perspec7ve:   –  New  York  would  be  the  city  ra7ng  higher.     –  However,  the  focus  that  Shanghai  and  Japan  are  puang  in  the  smart   grid  should  not  be  downrated.  Smart  grids  could  represent  an   interes7ng  and  disrup7ng  way  to  fuel  energy  thirsty  ci7es.     –  Conceptually  the  possibili7es  for  users  and  ci7zen  engagement  in  built   infrastructure  might  be  linked  to  the  concept  of  Internet  with  Things,   suggested  by  Russell  Davies.  This  is  an  evolved  concept  from  the   Internet  of  Things,  with  scope  for  ci7zen  empowerment.  It  refers  to   developments  driven  by  ci7zens  in  a  distributed  way,  using   programming  based  on  Arduino  open  architecture         Analysis and Findings 24 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  26. 26. 8.  Natural  environment   •  Concerns  present  in  all  the  cases  explored.     •  Japan  did  set  up  the  smart  pilots  in  the  aZermath  of  the   nuclear  accidents.     •  China  faces  severe  environmental  concerns.  Malaysia  is  also   aware  in  Iskandar.     •  New  York  has    suffered  severe  impact  of  climate  change  in   november  2012.     •  Málaga,  Santander  and  Tarragona  are  also  concerned.   This  field  poses  the  biggest  challenges  at  a  global  level.       Analysis and Findings 25 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  27. 27. 26 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  28. 28. 27 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  29. 29. 28 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  30. 30. Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges 29 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  31. 31. 30 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  32. 32. 31 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  33. 33. 32 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  34. 34. ANNEX II THE EIGHT VARIABLES IN DETAIL 33 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  35. 35. Variables  in  the  study   34 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  36. 36. Variables  in  the  study   35 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  37. 37. Variables  in  the  study   36 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  38. 38. Variables  in  the  study   37 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  39. 39. Variables  in  the  study   38 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  40. 40. Policy  context:       –  “Poli7cal  components  represent  various  poli7cal  elements  (city  council,   city  government  and  city  mayor)  and  external  pressures  such  as  policy   agendas  and  poli7cs  that  may  affect  the  outcomes  of  ini7a7ves”  Chourabi     –  Federal  systems  present  addi7onal  challenges  derived  from  the   par7culari7es  of  the  rela7onships  (intergovernmental  rela7onships)   Chourabi   39 SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG
  41. 41. Education Gil is Ph.D. in Social and Political Sciences. European University Institute, Florence. 2000, under the direction of Prf. Colin Crouch. Thesis: The Politics of Telecommunications in the United States and Spain (1875-2000). Florence, Italy. Published by CIS (Madrid). AECPA Best Book Award 2003. M.A. in Political Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. Thesis: “Structuring Telecommunications Markets from the Brazilian and the United States Perspectives (1875-1994),” under the direction of Prof. Jonathan Hartlyn. Postgraduate Certificate in Latin American Studies. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 1994. Bachelor Degree in Political Science (1987-1992) and Bachelor Degree in Journalism (1985-1990), Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Gil also joined INSEAD (strategy), IESE (future finance) and IE (project management) Tian-Cheng Zheng, is a Ph.D researcher at Universidad Autónoma de Madrid completing his thesis on “Global cities: Change in Sociological and Economic Processes in the new Chinese Cities.” He defended his Master thesis of Sociology in Universidad de Granada working on “Nuevas ciudades globales: Impacto del proceso de globalización en la estructura urbana de China, y el modelo de Shanghái.” He pursued his degree on International Economy and Trade at the Lixin University of Commerce in Shanghai, China. 40 Presentations by Dr. Gil may be downloaded at http://www.slideshare.net/olga.gil Smart citizens, smart cities and ideas for the future Gil is chief executive for applied research. Most recent international presentations include Warsawa, Lisbon, Tweente (Holland), and Baltimore where work was discussed with world class experts on city development and public policy SHANGHAI: a focus on innovation Gil and Zheng @OlgaG

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