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Focus on innovation CITIES ECPR Presentation by Olga Gil

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Ciies and new ideas for the XXI century

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Focus on innovation CITIES ECPR Presentation by Olga Gil

  1. 1. A Focus on Innovation: Cities and Local Political Leadership Presentation preparedby OlgaGil ECPR Joint Sessions Warsawa 29 March - 2 April 2015 City Leadership and Austerity: Political Strategies for Local Governing in Times of Crisis Workshop 6 Directors: Colin Copus & Kristof Steyvers
  2. 2. Cities
  3. 3. Index Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Annex I, II, III
  4. 4. Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges A focus on innovation: Cities and PoliticalLeadership Olga Gil @OlgaG
  5. 5. Definitions of smart cities under three traditions: 1) human capital 2) technology [and 3) digital literacy] What makes a city smart? Differences in actual definition of smart in cities are important. They are translated into differences in governance locally as we have later founded. More on definitions: www.slideshare.net/olga.gil/smart-cities-euraconference2013/6 A focus on innovation: Cities and Political Leadership Olga Gil @OlgaG Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges
  6. 6. Theoretically We founded differences among those three approaches: 1) human capital, 2) technological progress, 3) the normative question: What are the skills that people and citizens shall have to be digitally literate in the XXI century? In other works Gil, Navarro and Navío tested whether the third approach – digital literacy- is present or absent in the eight cities Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges
  7. 7. Our model and the variables Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges
  8. 8. Hypothesis: Factors to advance the smart plans are key to differentiate models of urban governance. Comparison includes non European cases. Why? Choice of cases driven by an interest to learn from innovation practices in different world institutional settings. Plus, an interest to get close to the industry and citizen participation In previous work presented in Baltimore and Twente we looked at eight factors in five cities: management and organization, technology, governance, policy context, people and communities, economy, built infrastructure, and natural environment From these previous works we conclude that governance could be a key overarching variable, embracing the rest as subcategories. We work analyzing governance as overarching category embracing the rest of variables This work is based on research conducted by Olga Gil, Carmen Navarro and Julio Navío (2013-2014) Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges
  9. 9. Urban Annual Growth Rate% shows converging trend
  10. 10. The wider context Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges
  11. 11. Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges
  12. 12. • Amsterdam most deviant case in governance, scoring the highest [and citizen participation] • Confirmation of hypothesis: smart plans are key to diferenciate cases • Small size favors experiments, however Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Concluding remarks
  13. 13. ● Governance depends on vision ● New Vision. Patterns of intergovernmental relationships, complex networks, new political actors at the meso level, new territorial distribution of power and growth of interest in local democracy, across the cases ● Evaluation is key, and we find Shanghai and Japan doing it ● Wide gap among the language of policy makers, firms and citizens/communities. The challenge to incorporate people and communities into participatory projects ● Multi faceted sides of the smart concept are being established locally, by national and/or local governments ● The stress on what smarts entails is very different and open to policy conceptualization --in some cases, open to society engagement Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Concluding remarks
  14. 14. Findings’ headline “smartness as a vision to respond to local governance challenges” Generally: Significant role that local governments play in cities Shanghai: Giant developing infrastructure and global influence Malaysia: Getting a place in the geo-regional area Japan and Amsterdam: Facing energy constraints with innovation New York: Innovation for civic engagement Spain: Opportunities for economic reactivation? Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges
  15. 15. Policy implications How city leaders govern and engage in governance networks shape policies to pursue economic growth and sustainability Strategies to solve complex issues related to the glocal dimension –global/local- are targeted to enhance governing capacity in a variety of ways There are actual strategies that leaders develop to enhace influence in governance networks Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges
  16. 16. Really at a cross road? Shortcomings? Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges
  17. 17. Shall we rethink austerity and leadership in the way Benckler suggests? "Are property and markets the roots of all growth and productivity?” Benckler proposes to rethink the institutional ecology of innovation and information production Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges
  18. 18. Rethinking austerity and leadership? Property and markets, roots of all growth and productivity? “the basic technologies of information processing, storage, and communication have made nonproprietary models more attractive and effective than was ever before possible. Ubiquitous low- cost processors, storage media, and networked connectivity have made it practically feasible for individuals, alone and in cooperation with others, to create and exchange information, knowledge, and culture in patterns of social reciprocity, redistribution, and sharing, rather than proprietary, market-based production. The basic material capital requirements of information production are now in the hands of a billion people around the globe who are connected to each other more or less seamlessly. These material conditions have given individuals a new practical freedom of action. Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges
  19. 19. Rethinking austerity and leadership? Can we conceive of a smaller scale citizenship that provides rights and responsibilities to denizens of a local región? Are there limits to policy transfer? Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges
  20. 20. Many thanks for your attention, your reading and comments !
  21. 21. Suggested resources
  22. 22. Index Annex I Who we are Annex II Previous work Annex III Variables in detail
  23. 23. Annex I Who we are
  24. 24. Key baseline Understanding Change Vision, Strategy and Innovación developed non for profit at @TicWisdom since 2006 Access to Videos
  25. 25. Dr. Ignacio Criado How do we aplly this to Smart Cities? Scientific side The Smart Local Team Academia UAM Madrid Olga Gil, PhD Carmen Navarro, PhD Carlos Alba
  26. 26. Who we are ONE Executive coordination, sponsorship management Academia @UAM_Madrid TWO Sponsors COIT, Accenture, TicWisdom They tell us what their interests are, give us ideas, and they finance our work –covering trips and technology mostly –some specialized work THREE Social intervention and visualization Paisaje Transversal pure makers http://www.paisajetransversal.com FOUR Non-for-profit Lab @TicWisdom Activism and difusión of ideas
  27. 27. Annex II Previous work Comparative research on smart citizens and smart cities
  28. 28. Analysis and Findings 1. Management and organization: • Cases in which the central government fosters an investment lead model, such as the case of China and municipalities; • A case such as Iskandar, in which the regional development agency furthers the goals set up by the government; • A case such as the four smart pilots in Japan, where localities and regions work together with the industry to develop solutions with global application; • The New York city model, in which NY university and the city council cooperate in smart data projects • Málaga (ICT centre), Santander (National and International network) Tarragona case, where a Foundation has been set up to advance the defined smart goals.
  29. 29. 2. Technology concerns vary a lot among the selected cases: • Shanghai and Japan focus on the smart grid and the development of a local and global industry. • In cases of both China and Japan the smart cities discourse is also linked to defending urban design and optimized services -based on distributed power. Iskandar is concerned with traffic and CO2 emissions. New York is focusing on big data management. • Amsterdam is concerned with new energy models, Santander focuses on sensors and eficiency and Tarragona is concerned with the chemical industry and transport efficiency. The search for solutions and the partnerships to attained them is widely varied in the eight cases examined. Analysis and Findings
  30. 30. 2. Technology (II) • In China, Japan, Iskandar in Malaysia, New York in the United States and Tarragona, Spain, smart has to do with technologies that allow us to incorporate intelligence into systems to achieve efficiencies, reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions. • In most cases incorporating new technology is linked to a discourse pledging for smart devices to curve energy consumption in buildings - providing a near-zero energy consumption. Analysis and Findings
  31. 31. 3. Governance Models: different in the cases explored. • Shanghai partners with universities, firms, foreign firms as well as banks. Users are not part of the equation as developers. • In Japan local governments partner with firms in different industry sectors including the university, technological firms, power –including gas- as well as real estate firms • In Iskandar governance depends on the Regional Authority appointed for the development of the conceived smart city. • In New York we find the leadership of the city government, the university as well as a general call to citizens developers through open technologies. • Tarragona steering committee is a Foundation. Governance models are affected by 4. the policy context. We find a mayor leap of the central government in the cases of China, Iskandar and Japan, while New York, Amsterdam, Malaga, Santander and Tarragona respond to autonomous local policies. Analysis and Findings
  32. 32. 5. People and Communities • Have a bigger say in the case of New York, where we find windows of opportunity for citizen developers and firms, as well as Amsterdam. • Citizens participate mainly as users in the case of Santander, Tarragona and Japan -residents are those specifically addressed to contribute in Japan. • In the case of Iskandar, city dwellers would participate in security issues according to the drafted plans. • In Shanghai top participants are members of the party. Analysis and Findings
  33. 33. 6. Economy • An intended economy boost underlines all the plans of the smart projects explored. Constraints are different in each case: • Shanghai has been in better condition to fund smart projects, and has poured funds to this strategic area, as it defines it. Banks are also willing to ease funds for. • Japan, Europe and the United States are all affected by fiscal cliffs and economic downturn. • Malaysia is in better shape, and is trying to gain momentum promoting Iskandar as an important trade hub in Asia, looking forward foreign capital as a main driver of Iskandar. Analysis and Findings
  34. 34. 7. Built infrastructure Has different scope in the cases we have explored. Following Hollands (2008) ‘undergird’ the social capital is critical to embed the required the informational and communicative qualities of smart cities. From this perspective: – New York would be the city rating higher. – However, the focus that Shanghai and Japan are putting in the smart grid should not be downrated. Smart grids could represent an interesting and disrupting way to fuel energy thirsty cities. – Conceptually the possibilities for users and citizen engagement in built infrastructure might be linked to the concept of Internet with Things, suggested by Russell Davies. This is an evolved concept from the Internet of Things, with scope for citizen empowerment. It refers to developments driven by citizens in a distributed way, using programming based on Arduino open architecture Analysis and Findings
  35. 35. 8. Natural environment • Concerns present in all the cases explored. • Japan did set up the smart pilots in the aftermath of the nuclear accidents. • China faces severe environmental concerns. Malaysia is also aware in Iskandar. • New York has suffered severe impact of climate change in november 2012. • Málaga, Santander and Tarragona are also concerned. This field poses the biggest challenges at a global level. Analysis and Findings
  36. 36. ANNEX III THE VARIABLES IN DETAIL
  37. 37. Variables in the study
  38. 38. Variables in the study
  39. 39. Variables in the study
  40. 40. Variables in the study
  41. 41. Variables in the study
  42. 42. Policy context: – “Political components represent various political elements (city council, city government and city mayor) and external pressures such as policy agendas and politics that may affect the outcomes of initiatives” Chourabi – Federal systems present additional challenges derived from the particularities of the relationships (intergovernmental relationships) Chourabi
  43. 43. smart citizens, smart cities and ideas for the future. Gil is chief executive for applied research. Most recent international presentations include Baltimore and Tweente (Holland) where work was discussed with world class experts on city development and public policy. Education Ph.D. in Social and Political Sciences. European University Institute, Florence. 2000. Thesis: The Politics of Telecommunicat ions in the United States and Spain (1875-2000). Florence, Italy. Published by CIS (Madrid). AECPA Best Book Award 2003. M.A. in Political Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. Thesis: “Structuring Telecommunications Markets from the Brazilian and the Unit ed States Perspectives (1875- 1994)”. Postgraduate Certificate in Latin American Studies. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 1994.Bachelor Degree i n Political Science (1987-1992) and Bachelor Degree in Journalism (1985-1990), Universidad Complutense de Madrid. She also joined INSEAD (strategy), IESE (future finance) and IE (project management) for spezialization courses

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