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150409 dr gil lisbon congress citizen participation smart cities

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Gil, O. 2015. “A model for innovation? Cities and the quest for citizen participation: Shanghai, cities in Japan, Iskandar, New York, Amsterdam and Tarragona.” International conference on Local Governance and Urban planning, Citizen Responsive Innovations in Europe and Africa. Organized by the Institute of Geography and Spatial Planning, University of Lisbon, Portugal and the International Geographical Union – Commission ‘Geography of Governance’ Lisbon, 9-10 April 2015

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150409 dr gil lisbon congress citizen participation smart cities

  1. 1. A model for innovation? Cities and the quest for citizen participation Shanghai, Japan, Iskandar, New York, Amsterdam and Tarragona Olga Gil Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND URBAN GOVERNANCE: International Conference CITIZEN RESPONSIVE INNOVATIONS IN EUROPE AND IN AFRICA Institute of Geography and Spatial Planning, University of Lisbon, Portugal International Geographical Union – Commission ‘Geography of Governance’ Lisbon, 9-10 April 2015. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon.Thursday, April 9th, 16:30 – 18:30, Amphitheatre B Director Carlos Nunes Silva Anna Trono (University of Salento, Italy), Chair. Jan Bucek (Comenius University, Slovakia) Abderrahmane- Azzouz- Diafat (Université F. A. Sétif 1, Algeria), Discussants.
  2. 2. Using ideas and/or graphics from this presentation? Please quote as follows: Gil, O. 2015. “A model for innovation? Cities and the quest for citizen participation: Shanghai, Japan, Iskandar, New York, Amsterdam and Tarragona.” International conference on Local Governance and Urban planning, Citizen Responsive Innovations in Europe and Africa. Organized by the Institute of Geography and Spatial Planning, University of Lisbon, Portugal and the International Geographical Union – Commission ‘Geography of Governance’ Lisbon, 9-10 April 2015 Scientific paper associated to this presentation is forthcoming in Academia and ResearchGate for free download in May 2015 https://uam.academia.edu/OlgaGil https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Olga_Gil2 Presentations by Dr. Gil may be downloaded from http://www.slideshare.net/olga.gil 1
  3. 3. Baseline is… Understanding Change Vision, Strategy and Innovation… Developed non for profit at @TicWisdom since 2006 Access to Videos Who we are 2
  4. 4. Who we are… and how we compete in a context of lack of resources 1 Scientific research, Executive coordination, sponsorship management Academia @UAM_Madrid 2 Sponsors COIT, Accenture, TicWisdom They tell us what their interests are, give us ideas, and they finance our work –covering trips and technology mostly –some specialized work 3 Social intervention and visualization Paisaje Transversal, the pure makers http://www.paisajetransversal.com 4 Non-for-profit Lab @TicWisdom Activism and difusión of ideas Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 3
  5. 5. Dr. Ignacio Criado On the scientific side The Smart Local Team Academia UAM Madrid Olga Gil, PhD Carmen Navarro, PhD Carlos Alba Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG How do we apply the team work to “Smart” Cities? 4
  6. 6. LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND URBAN GOVERNANCE: International Conference CITIZEN RESPONSIVE INNOVATIONS IN EUROPE AND IN AFRICA Scope Definitions Theory & Framework Hipothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Annex I, II. Index Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG
  7. 7. Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 5
  8. 8. Theory Definitions of smart cities under three traditions: 1) human capital 2) technology [and 3) digital literacy] Empirically What makes a city smart? Differences in actual definition of smart in cities are important. They are translated into differences in citizen participation locally as we founded. More on definitions: www.slideshare.net/olga.gil/smart-cities-euraconference2013/6 Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 6
  9. 9. Theoretically Differences among those three approaches: 1) human capital, 2) technological progress, 3) the normative question: What are the skills that people and citizens shall have to be digitally literate in the XXI century? Testing People and communities variable from 2) Whether –digital literacy- is present or absent in the eight cities, from 3) Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 7
  10. 10. Model and the variables Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 8
  11. 11. Unwraping the variable in the study Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 9
  12. 12. Hypothesis Factors to advance the smart plans are key to differentiate models of urban governance Comparison includes non European cases. Why? Choice of cases driven by an interest to learn from innovation practices in different world institutional settings. Plus, an interest to get close to the industry and citizen participation In previous work presented in Baltimore and Twente eight factors in five cities covered: management and organization, technology, governance, policy context, people and communities, economy, built infrastructure, and natural environment Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hypothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 10
  13. 13. Urban Annual Growth Rate% shows converging trend Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 11
  14. 14. Results Global Picture Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 12
  15. 15. Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 13
  16. 16. Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 15
  17. 17. • Amsterdam most deviant case in citizen participation, scoring the highest • Confirmation of hypothesis: smart plans are key to diferenciate cases • Small size favors experiments, however Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesys Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Concluding remarks Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 16
  18. 18. People and Communities • Have a bigger say in the case of New York, where we find windows of opportunity for citizen developers and firms, as well as Amsterdam. • Citizens participate mainly as users in the case of Santander, Tarragona and Japan -residents are those specifically addressed to contribute in Japan. • In the case of Iskandar, city dwellers would participate in security issues according to the drafted plans. • In Shanghai top participants are members of the party. Findings in the other cases Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 17
  19. 19. ● Wide gap among the language of policy makers, firms and citizens/communities. The challenge to incorporate people and communities into participatory projects ● The stress on what smarts entails is very different and open to policy conceptualization --in some cases, open to society engagement ● Evaluation is key, and we find Shanghai and Japan doing it Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Concluding remarks Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 18
  20. 20. Findings’ headline “smartness as a vision to respond to local governance challenges” Generally: Significant role that local governments play in cities Shanghai: Giant developing infrastructure and global influence Malaysia: Getting a place in the geo-regional area Japan and Amsterdam: Facing energy constraints with innovation New York: Innovation for civic engagement Spain: Opportunities for economic reactivation? Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 19
  21. 21. Can we conceive of a smaller scale citizenship that provides rights and responsibilities to denizens of a local región? Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 20
  22. 22. (1) “stakeholders” determined by functional effect would replace citizens grouped in territorial constituencies as the principal agents of participation (2) political parties would have no recognized (and certainly no privileged) access to participation in governance arrangements and would be replaced by individual or collective stakeholders (3) consensus formation among representatives with unequal functional capacities would replace various forms of voting by individuals or deputies with equal political rights as the usual decision-making mechanism (4) executive or administrative authorities would normally take over the role of “chartering” such arrangements – delegating their scope and determining their composition – rather than the competitively and popularly elected representatives of the legislature (5) the ‘liberal’ distinction between public and private actors would be deliberately blurred in terms of responsibility for making but also for implementing publicly binding decisions (6) the substantive compromises that underly the process of consensus formation would have to be reached confidentially through opaque combinations of negotiation and deliberation between stakeholders – and only subsequently be legitimated publicly in terms of their (presumably beneficial) functional impact (7) Elections would increasingly become “civic rituals” with less and less impact upon the substance of public policy and, presumably, less and less popular participation. Serious challenges to the legitimating principles of contemporary REDs Scope Definitions Theory & framework Hipothesis Model Amsterdam Findings Challenges Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG For further research (Schmitter et al. suggestions 2015) Evolution of Democracy Concept 21
  23. 23. • Lotteries to be attached to elections • Specialized elected councils for various minority group’s • Democracy kiosks for voting electronically and conducting normal business with state agencies • Voting rights for resident foreigners (denizens) • Incompatibility of electoral or administrative mandates • Electronic support for candidates and parliament (“smart voting”) • Electronic monitoring and online systems for deliberation • Discretionary voting systems • Universal citizenship from birth • Shared legislative mandates • Citizenship mentors for foreign residents • Inserting a “Right to Information” into the usual list of equal citizen rights • Participatory budgeting • Legislative guardians to monitor the regulatory guardians • A “yellow card” provision for legislatures in multi-layered systems • Variable thresholds for election to reduce incumbency advantage • Vouchers for financing political parties • Vouchers for funding organizations in civil society • Extended recourse to referendums & citizen initiatives • Extensive, even exclusive, use of postal and electronic voting • Financial incentives for intra-party democracy • A Citizen’s Assembly with randomly selected deputies to accept or reject specific pieces of legislation. For further research (Schmitter et al. suggestions 2015) Evolution of Democracy Concept 22
  24. 24. Many thanks for your attention, and comments ! olgagil@olgagil.es Powerpoint for download at: Slideshare Olga Gil Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 23
  25. 25. Index Annex I Previous work Annex II Variables in detail Index 24
  26. 26. Annex I Previous work Comparative research on smart citizens and smart cities Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 25
  27. 27. Analysis and Findings 1. Management and organization: • Cases in which the central government fosters an investment lead model, such as the case of China and municipalities; • A case such as Iskandar, in which the regional development agency furthers the goals set up by the government; • A case such as the four smart pilots in Japan, where localities and regions work together with the industry to develop solutions with global application; • The New York city model, in which NY university and the city council cooperate in smart data projects • Málaga (ICT centre), Santander (National and International network) Tarragona case, where a Foundation has been set up to advance the defined smart goals. Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 26
  28. 28. 2. Technology concerns vary a lot among the selected cases: • Shanghai and Japan focus on the smart grid and the development of a local and global industry. • In cases of both China and Japan the smart cities discourse is also linked to defending urban design and optimized services -based on distributed power. Iskandar is concerned with traffic and CO2 emissions. New York is focusing on big data management. • Amsterdam is concerned with new energy models, Santander focuses on sensors and eficiency and Tarragona is concerned with the chemical industry and transport efficiency. The search for solutions and the partnerships to attained them is widely varied in the eight cases examined. Analysis and Findings Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 27
  29. 29. 2. Technology (II) • In China, Japan, Iskandar in Malaysia, New York in the United States and Tarragona, Spain, smart has to do with technologies that allow us to incorporate intelligence into systems to achieve efficiencies, reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions. • In most cases incorporating new technology is linked to a discourse pledging for smart devices to curve energy consumption in buildings - providing a near-zero energy consumption. Analysis and Findings Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 28
  30. 30. 3. Governance Models: different in the cases explored. • Shanghai partners with universities, firms, foreign firms as well as banks. Users are not part of the equation as developers. • In Japan local governments partner with firms in different industry sectors including the university, technological firms, power –including gas- as well as real estate firms • In Iskandar governance depends on the Regional Authority appointed for the development of the conceived smart city. • In New York we find the leadership of the city government, the university as well as a general call to citizens developers through open technologies. • Tarragona steering committee is a Foundation. Governance models are affected by 4. the policy context. We find a mayor leap of the central government in the cases of China, Iskandar and Japan, while New York, Amsterdam, Malaga, Santander and Tarragona respond to autonomous local policies. Analysis and Findings Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 29
  31. 31. 5. People and Communities • Have a bigger say in the case of New York, where we find windows of opportunity for citizen developers and firms, as well as Amsterdam. • Citizens participate mainly as users in the case of Santander, Tarragona and Japan -residents are those specifically addressed to contribute in Japan. • In the case of Iskandar, city dwellers would participate in security issues according to the drafted plans. • In Shanghai top participants are members of the party. Analysis and Findings Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 30
  32. 32. 6. Economy • An intended economy boost underlines all the plans of the smart projects explored. Constraints are different in each case: • Shanghai has been in better condition to fund smart projects, and has poured funds to this strategic area, as it defines it. Banks are also willing to ease funds for. • Japan, Europe and the United States are all affected by fiscal cliffs and economic downturn. • Malaysia is in better shape, and is trying to gain momentum promoting Iskandar as an important trade hub in Asia, looking forward foreign capital as a main driver of Iskandar. Analysis and Findings Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 31
  33. 33. 7. Built infrastructure Has different scope in the cases we have explored. Following Hollands (2008) ‘undergird’ the social capital is critical to embed the required the informational and communicative qualities of smart cities. From this perspective: – New York would be the city rating higher. – However, the focus that Shanghai and Japan are putting in the smart grid should not be downrated. Smart grids could represent an interesting and disrupting way to fuel energy thirsty cities. – Conceptually the possibilities for users and citizen engagement in built infrastructure might be linked to the concept of Internet with Things, suggested by Russell Davies. This is an evolved concept from the Internet of Things, with scope for citizen empowerment. It refers to developments driven by citizens in a distributed way, using programming based on Arduino open architecture Analysis and Findings Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 32
  34. 34. 8. Natural environment • Concerns present in all the cases explored. • Japan did set up the smart pilots in the aftermath of the nuclear accidents. • China faces severe environmental concerns. Malaysia is also aware in Iskandar. • New York has suffered severe impact of climate change in november 2012. • Málaga, Santander and Tarragona are also concerned. This field poses the biggest challenges at a global level. Analysis and Findings Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 33
  35. 35. Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 34
  36. 36. Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 35
  37. 37. Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 36
  38. 38. Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 37
  39. 39. Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 38
  40. 40. Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 39
  41. 41. Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 40
  42. 42. ANNEX II ALL THE EIGHT VARIABLES IN DETAIL Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 41
  43. 43. Variables in the study Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 42
  44. 44. Variables in the study Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 43
  45. 45. Variables in the study Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 44
  46. 46. Variables in the study Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 45
  47. 47. Variables in the study Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 46
  48. 48. Policy context: – “Political components represent various political elements (city council, city government and city mayor) and external pressures such as policy agendas and politics that may affect the outcomes of initiatives” Chourabi – Federal systems present additional challenges derived from the particularities of the relationships (intergovernmental relationships) Chourabi 47
  49. 49. Smart citizens, smart cities? and ideas for the future. Gil is chief executive for applied research. Most recent international presentations include Baltimore, Tweente (Holland), and Warsawa where work was discussed with world class experts on city development and public policy Education Ph.D. in Social and Political Sciences. European University Institute, Florence. 2000. Thesis: The Politics of Telecommunications in the United States and Spain (1875-2000). Florence, Italy. Published by CIS (Madrid). AECPA Best Book Award 2003. M.A. in Political Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. Thesis: “Structuring Telecommunications Markets from the Brazilian and the United States Perspectives (1875-1994)”. Postgraduate Certificate in Latin American Studies. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 1994.Bachelor Degree in Political Science (1987-1992) and Bachelor Degree in Journalism (1985-1990), Universidad Complutense de Madrid. She also joined INSEAD (strategy), IESE (future finance) and IE (project management) for spezialization courses Citizen participation in cities Olga Gil @OlgaG 48
  50. 50. ¡Muito obrigada! 49

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