TASK BASED LEARNING By Karen Meza and Olenka Nunura Course: Methodology in ELT Teacher: Maria Luisa Mu November 2012
CONTENT1. What is task-based learning and teaching?2. Theory of language3. Theory of language learning. 4. Syllabus Types of tasks5. Teacher’s role6. Learner’s role7. Material8. Assessment
What is Task Based Learning?Task-based learning (TBL) is anapproach to second/foreign language(L2)learning and teaching and ateaching methodology in whichclassroom tasks constitute the mainfocus of instruction. (R.Richards, Schmidt, Platt, &Schmidt, 2003)
What is a ‘Classroom Task’? A classroom task is defined as an activity that:a) is goal-oriented,b) is content focused,c) has a real outcome, andd) reflects real-life language use and language need(Shehadeh, 2005)
Theory of Language: Interactionist Theory Interactionists argue: That language development is both biological and social. That language learning is influenced by the desire of children to communicate with others. That children are born with a powerful brain that matures slowly and predisposes them to acquire new understandings that they are motivated to share with others" ( Bates,1993;Tomasello,1995, as cited in shaffer,et al.,2002,p.362).
Theory of Language: comments Language is It is not linked to a singleprimarily a means model of language but of making rather draws on all three meaning models of language theory: structural - (Skehan 1998:98). functional - interactional “Conversation” is the central focus of language and the keystone of Lexical units are language central in acquisition language use (Richards and Rodgers 2001)
Theory of LearningThe main theorist associated with interactionist theory isLev Vygotsky. Interactionists focus on Vygotskys modelof collaborative learning ( Shaffer,et al.,2002).SOCIO- CULTURAL: Collaborative learning is the idea thatconversations with older people can help children bothcognitively and linguistically ( Shaffer,et.al,2002).
Theory of Language: comments TBL provides both the input and the output processing necessary for language acquisition Task activity and achievement are motivational (Richards and Rodgers 2001).
The Syllabus The syllabus in TBL is organized around activities and tasks rather than in terms of grammar or vocabulary(R. Richards et al., 2003).
Types of Tasks1. Listing Outcome: Completed list or draft mind map.2. Sequencing Outcome: Set of information ordered and sorted according to specified criteria3.Comparing Outcome:Could be items appropriately matched or assembled, or the identification of similarities and/or differences.
Types of Tasks4. Problem solving Outcome: Solutions to the problem, which can then be evaluated.5. Sharing personal experiencesOutcome:Largely social.6. Creative Tasks Outcome: End product which can be appreciated by a wider audience.
Role of teacher Selector and sequencer of tasks Coach: Preparing learners for tasks Monitor :Consciousness- raising
Learner’s roleGroup Participant: Many tasks will be done inpairs or small groups.Monitor: Students have the opportunity tonotice how language is used in communication.Risk-taker and innovator: Many tasks willrequire learners to create and interpretmessages for which they lack full linguisticresources and prior experience.
MaterialWhat are Authentic Materials?What is the importance of the use ofauthentic material?
ASSESSMENT AND EvaluationStudents should know how their work will beassessed (rubrics, checklist, etc)After the task is done students evaluate the processthey’ve been through as well as the outcome.
COMPONENTS OF THE TASK –BASED LEARNING FRAMEWORK: PROCEDURE Task Pre task cycle Language Focus
http://www.willis-elt.co.uk/books.html Task-BasedInstruction in Foreign Language Education Practices andPrograms - Betty Lou Leaver and Jane R. Willis, Editorshttp://www2.uni-wuppertal.de/FB4/anglistik/multhaup/methods_elt/8_task_based_learning.htm# Task Based Learning (TBL)
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