Islamaphobia1

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Islamaphobia1

  1. 1. ISLAMAPHOBIA The Myth of the Islamic Threat Nermien Al-Ali (BA:Islamic Jurisprudence & Political Science, LLB/LLM) Myths Basic Tenets of Islam Islamaphobia Myth 1 - Homogenous bloc Myth 3: Islamic “ Fundamentalism” Myth 2 : “Jihad” Myth 4: Islam & women
  2. 2. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Definition <ul><li>A phenomenon reported & studied in EU(UK), US, AUST., & Russia </li></ul><ul><li>A form of Xenophobia: phobic fear & hatred of what is ‘foreign’ or the ‘other’ because seen as a danger that threatens way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Islamaphobia: phobic fear for person, family, community, society, way of life, country, civilization of some Islamic threat </li></ul><ul><li>Mildest form - indulgence in seeing Islam as deplorable & not worthy of attention </li></ul>
  3. 3. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Features <ul><li>Negative stereotypes about Islam as the next threat to western civilization after communism: “the enemy within” - “Islamic terrorists”, “A Holy War Heads Our Way” </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes of Muslims as barbaric, irrational, fanatic, supportive of terrorism, oppressive of women - simply: Anti-American </li></ul><ul><li>Works on deeply embedded cultural biases that rationalize & spread prejudices & stereotypes - “only natural” </li></ul>
  4. 4. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Consequences Prejudice Stereotyping Defamation Slander Attack by Media Discrimnation Alienation Profiling Breach of Civil liberties Hate Crimes: Verbal & Physical Abuse Vandalism & Arson of Mosques & shops Murder
  5. 5. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Consequences Source: www.CAIR-net.org 1,717 222 Total 74 - School discrimination 166 - Workplace discrimination 191 - Airport profiling 224 4 False arrest/ Intimidation by authorities 687 149 Hate messages/Harassment 72 56 Threat 303 13 Violence September 11, 2001 April 19, 1995 Category
  6. 6. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Consequences Source: www.CAIR-net.org 525 2001/2002 366 2000/2001 322 1999/2000 285 1998/1999 284 1997/1998 240 1996/1997 80 1995/1996 Number of Discrimination Complaints Year
  7. 7. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Origins <ul><li>Based on deeply embedded cultural biases </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades & Inquisition - 11-16th: 5 Centuries of Holy War against infidels & heretics (Catholic Encyclopedia www.newadvent.org.cathen) </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance 17-18th: Voltaire: excluded Muslims from the right to tolerance in his essay (Springboard) </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial times - up to 1960s- Orientalists portrayed Arabs & Muslims as barbarian & primitive to justify colonial conquests (Said) </li></ul>
  8. 8. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths <ul><li>Myth 1 : Islam is a monolithic bloc - will spur in an act of ‘Holy War’ by a ‘fatwa’ of some bearded leader </li></ul><ul><li>Myth 2 : Islam preaches violence against non-Muslims as infidels in the name of ‘Jihad’ </li></ul><ul><li>Myth 3 : Terrorism is Islamic - a religious duty of the fundamentalists. You never know when your Muslim friend will turn more fundamental! </li></ul><ul><li>Myth 4 : Islam is oppressive of women </li></ul>
  9. 9. BASIC TENETS: General <ul><li>Islam means: Peace & Self-surrender to the Will of God </li></ul><ul><li>A universal message - confirms preceding Divine revelations. Prophet Mohamed is God’s messenger sent to complete & compliment previous revelations: </li></ul><ul><li>Abrahamic religion: “… it is the belief of your father Abraham. It is He (God) Who has named you Muslims, both before and in this (Revelation)” 22:78 </li></ul><ul><li>6 pillars of faith and 5 pillars of religion </li></ul>
  10. 10. BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Faith <ul><li>6 Pillars of faith: To believe in </li></ul><ul><li>God </li></ul><ul><li>His angels </li></ul><ul><li>His Messengers (prophets) </li></ul><ul><li>His Books (Scriptures) </li></ul><ul><li>Day of Judgement </li></ul><ul><li>Fate & Destiny - good & bad </li></ul>
  11. 11. BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Islam <ul><li>5 Pillars of Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Testify (declare) that no gods but God and that Mohamed is His Messenger </li></ul><ul><li>Pray 5 times a day (Ritual - ablution) </li></ul><ul><li>Fast the month of Ramadan (lunar calendar) </li></ul><ul><li>Pay alms (2.5% of annual savings) </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage to Mecca (Rituals traced to Abraham & Hajar) </li></ul>
  12. 12. BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Islam <ul><li>PRAYER: Ruk’a </li></ul>
  13. 13. BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Islam
  14. 14. BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Islam
  15. 15. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths <ul><li>Myth 1 : Islam is a monolithic bloc - will spur in an act of ‘Holy War’ by a ‘fatwa’ of some bearded leader </li></ul>
  16. 16. Myth 1 - Islam is a monolithic bloc <ul><li>Around 1.4 Billion Muslims in the world - Only 18% are Arabs </li></ul><ul><li>Largest Muslim population in Indonesia 201M. 55M Russia, 100M India, 24 in EU, 7-10 US (2nd largest religion) </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims comprise 4000 ethnic groups in 128 countries </li></ul><ul><li>So-called Islamic nations are members of Islamic league </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims follow no single religious authority – no priesthood </li></ul>
  17. 17. Myth 1 - Islam is a monolithic bloc http://islamicweb.com/begin/population.htm
  18. 18. Myth 1 - Islam is a monolithic bloc: America
  19. 19. Myth 1 - .. Can be mobilized by a ‘fatwa’ <ul><li>Fatwa is a non-binding juristic opinion usually passed by Muslim scholars to respond to a new situation. A fatwa that is contrary to Islamic ‘law’ is void prima facie </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Islamic law/jurisprudence: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Quran: Actual words of God revealed to Prophet Mohamed through Gabriel remained & will remain unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>2. Hadith: Prophet teachings - authenticity 7000 of 600,000 </li></ul><ul><li>3. Reasoning by Analogy (drugs) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Consensus </li></ul>
  20. 20. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths <ul><li>Myth 2 : Islam preaches violence against non-Muslims as infidels in the name of ‘Jihad’ </li></ul>
  21. 21. Myth 2: Islam condones violence against non-Muslims <ul><li>Aggression is a vice in Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Prophet defined the Muslim as one causing no verbal or physical harm to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam’s greeting to everyone is “peace be upon you” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Murder of one person or causing devastation of any form is equated with killing all humanity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Jihad”: Striving to do good for the sake of God - A broad concept </li></ul><ul><li>Coming from a battle the Prophet said to the Muslims: “You came from the minor ‘Jihad’ back to the major ‘Jihad’” Asked to explain, he replied: “Inner self ‘Jihad’” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Myth 2: Islam condones violence against non-Muslims <ul><li>Even in cases of war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General: “Don’t fight those who don’t declare war on you for your faith or don’t attempt to take over your homeland” 60:8-9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fight for the sake of God (ie not for economic or political gain) those that fight you and do not attack first” ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the other side want peace then make peace 4:90, 8:61 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a member of the other side seeks asylum award it & ensure safety 9:6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbidden to kill the elderly, women, children, animals or to cut a tree </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Myth 2: Islam condones violence against non-Muslims <ul><li>Religious Tolerance most fundamental to Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ No compulsion in religion, Truth stands out clear from Wrong” 2:255-256 - Applies to Muslims & Non-Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christians & Jews called “People of the Scriptures” - under an Islamic state are regarded as “protected subjects” with complete autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Prophet’s Charter to the Monks of Sinai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christians & Jews never persecuted for their beliefs in Islamic empire. Then & now Christians keep customs, start schools, visited by missionaries </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths <ul><li>Myth 3 : Terrorism is Islamic - a religious duty of the fundamentalists. You never know when your Muslim friend will turn more fundamental! </li></ul>
  25. 25. Myth 3 : Terrorism is Islamic - a fundamentalist duty <ul><li>“ Fundamentalist” is meaningless - Used to denote Muslims that believe in Islam fundamentals support terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Originally used to describe Protestants & other Christian groups adopting literal interpretation of the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism : Defined as “devastation on land” “killing people & destroying crops”. Recognized as most heinous crime </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment for terrorism: execution, crucifixion or exile 5:33. Trial first. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Myth 3 : Terrorism is Islamic - a fundamentalist duty <ul><li>“ Islamic terrorism” is an oxymoron </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism as a phenomena - Hitler is of the Christian faith as Saddam is of Muslim faith </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorists justify their acts by citing authoritative sources: religion, the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Church of the World Creator (rejoiced 9/11) </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Identity Movement (many terrorist acts in 1996 - but FBI cant identify them as such) www.religiousintolerance.org/cr_ident.htm </li></ul>
  27. 27. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths <ul><li>Myth 4 : Islam is oppressive of women </li></ul>‘ HAREM’ ‘ Chadour’ ‘ Role captivity’ NO SELF-DETERMINATION
  28. 28. Myth 4 : Islam is oppressive of women LEADERS Professional Working Women
  29. 29. Myth 4 : Islam is oppressive of women <ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equality - “We created you from one self” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking care of home & children not obligatory. Housework is work - wages - 1991 law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can divorce her husband if not like him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“If you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, marry women of your choice, two or three or four; but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal fairly (with them), then only one”4:3 “you cant be fair ..” </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Myth 4 : Islam is oppressive of women <ul><li>Economic rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek education/knowledge is duty of every Muslim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to own & inherit property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial independence - “To men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn” 4:32Political rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophet confirmed as leader by men & women separately - mentioned in Quran 60:2 </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Myth 4 : Islam is oppressive of women <ul><li>Islamic dress </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A voluntary good deed - difference of opinion - part of the good deeds that women may take in their religious/spiritual devotion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mentioned once in 24:31– basic principle is that of purity – emphasis first on lowering one’s gaze </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis not on appearance but mainly on piety & conduct – 7:26. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No coercion or compulsion as to Islamic dress </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Myth 4 : Islam is oppressive of women Tansu Ciller - Turkey 93-5 Megawati Sukamaputri Indonesia Panazir Bhutto Pakistan 88-90 & 93-5 Hasina Wajed Bangladesh 96+ Khaleda Zia Bangladesh 91-6
  33. 33. References <ul><li>Quran online : www.islamicity.com/mosque/quran </li></ul><ul><li>Index : www.islamicity.com/mosque/TOPICI.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Council on American Islamic Relations: www.Cair-net.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.themodernreligion.com/terror/terrorism_compare.html </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance:http://salam.muslimsonline.com/~azahoor/toleran1.html </li></ul><ul><li>Women in Islam - www.mwlusa.org </li></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Patricia Springborg (of Sydney University), Western Republicanism and the Oriental Prince, Polity Press, 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Said , Orientalism: Westerners Conceptions of the Orient; 1978, Routledge & Kegan </li></ul>
  34. 34. THANK YOU

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