Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Islamaphobia1

1,673 views

Published on

Published in: Spiritual, News & Politics
  • Login to see the comments

Islamaphobia1

  1. 1. ISLAMAPHOBIA The Myth of the Islamic Threat Nermien Al-Ali (BA:Islamic Jurisprudence & Political Science, LLB/LLM) Myths Basic Tenets of Islam Islamaphobia Myth 1 - Homogenous bloc Myth 3: Islamic “ Fundamentalism” Myth 2 : “Jihad” Myth 4: Islam & women
  2. 2. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Definition <ul><li>A phenomenon reported & studied in EU(UK), US, AUST., & Russia </li></ul><ul><li>A form of Xenophobia: phobic fear & hatred of what is ‘foreign’ or the ‘other’ because seen as a danger that threatens way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Islamaphobia: phobic fear for person, family, community, society, way of life, country, civilization of some Islamic threat </li></ul><ul><li>Mildest form - indulgence in seeing Islam as deplorable & not worthy of attention </li></ul>
  3. 3. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Features <ul><li>Negative stereotypes about Islam as the next threat to western civilization after communism: “the enemy within” - “Islamic terrorists”, “A Holy War Heads Our Way” </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes of Muslims as barbaric, irrational, fanatic, supportive of terrorism, oppressive of women - simply: Anti-American </li></ul><ul><li>Works on deeply embedded cultural biases that rationalize & spread prejudices & stereotypes - “only natural” </li></ul>
  4. 4. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Consequences Prejudice Stereotyping Defamation Slander Attack by Media Discrimnation Alienation Profiling Breach of Civil liberties Hate Crimes: Verbal & Physical Abuse Vandalism & Arson of Mosques & shops Murder
  5. 5. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Consequences Source: www.CAIR-net.org 1,717 222 Total 74 - School discrimination 166 - Workplace discrimination 191 - Airport profiling 224 4 False arrest/ Intimidation by authorities 687 149 Hate messages/Harassment 72 56 Threat 303 13 Violence September 11, 2001 April 19, 1995 Category
  6. 6. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Consequences Source: www.CAIR-net.org 525 2001/2002 366 2000/2001 322 1999/2000 285 1998/1999 284 1997/1998 240 1996/1997 80 1995/1996 Number of Discrimination Complaints Year
  7. 7. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Origins <ul><li>Based on deeply embedded cultural biases </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades & Inquisition - 11-16th: 5 Centuries of Holy War against infidels & heretics (Catholic Encyclopedia www.newadvent.org.cathen) </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance 17-18th: Voltaire: excluded Muslims from the right to tolerance in his essay (Springboard) </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial times - up to 1960s- Orientalists portrayed Arabs & Muslims as barbarian & primitive to justify colonial conquests (Said) </li></ul>
  8. 8. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths <ul><li>Myth 1 : Islam is a monolithic bloc - will spur in an act of ‘Holy War’ by a ‘fatwa’ of some bearded leader </li></ul><ul><li>Myth 2 : Islam preaches violence against non-Muslims as infidels in the name of ‘Jihad’ </li></ul><ul><li>Myth 3 : Terrorism is Islamic - a religious duty of the fundamentalists. You never know when your Muslim friend will turn more fundamental! </li></ul><ul><li>Myth 4 : Islam is oppressive of women </li></ul>
  9. 9. BASIC TENETS: General <ul><li>Islam means: Peace & Self-surrender to the Will of God </li></ul><ul><li>A universal message - confirms preceding Divine revelations. Prophet Mohamed is God’s messenger sent to complete & compliment previous revelations: </li></ul><ul><li>Abrahamic religion: “… it is the belief of your father Abraham. It is He (God) Who has named you Muslims, both before and in this (Revelation)” 22:78 </li></ul><ul><li>6 pillars of faith and 5 pillars of religion </li></ul>
  10. 10. BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Faith <ul><li>6 Pillars of faith: To believe in </li></ul><ul><li>God </li></ul><ul><li>His angels </li></ul><ul><li>His Messengers (prophets) </li></ul><ul><li>His Books (Scriptures) </li></ul><ul><li>Day of Judgement </li></ul><ul><li>Fate & Destiny - good & bad </li></ul>
  11. 11. BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Islam <ul><li>5 Pillars of Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Testify (declare) that no gods but God and that Mohamed is His Messenger </li></ul><ul><li>Pray 5 times a day (Ritual - ablution) </li></ul><ul><li>Fast the month of Ramadan (lunar calendar) </li></ul><ul><li>Pay alms (2.5% of annual savings) </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage to Mecca (Rituals traced to Abraham & Hajar) </li></ul>
  12. 12. BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Islam <ul><li>PRAYER: Ruk’a </li></ul>
  13. 13. BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Islam
  14. 14. BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Islam
  15. 15. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths <ul><li>Myth 1 : Islam is a monolithic bloc - will spur in an act of ‘Holy War’ by a ‘fatwa’ of some bearded leader </li></ul>
  16. 16. Myth 1 - Islam is a monolithic bloc <ul><li>Around 1.4 Billion Muslims in the world - Only 18% are Arabs </li></ul><ul><li>Largest Muslim population in Indonesia 201M. 55M Russia, 100M India, 24 in EU, 7-10 US (2nd largest religion) </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims comprise 4000 ethnic groups in 128 countries </li></ul><ul><li>So-called Islamic nations are members of Islamic league </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims follow no single religious authority – no priesthood </li></ul>
  17. 17. Myth 1 - Islam is a monolithic bloc http://islamicweb.com/begin/population.htm
  18. 18. Myth 1 - Islam is a monolithic bloc: America
  19. 19. Myth 1 - .. Can be mobilized by a ‘fatwa’ <ul><li>Fatwa is a non-binding juristic opinion usually passed by Muslim scholars to respond to a new situation. A fatwa that is contrary to Islamic ‘law’ is void prima facie </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Islamic law/jurisprudence: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Quran: Actual words of God revealed to Prophet Mohamed through Gabriel remained & will remain unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>2. Hadith: Prophet teachings - authenticity 7000 of 600,000 </li></ul><ul><li>3. Reasoning by Analogy (drugs) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Consensus </li></ul>
  20. 20. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths <ul><li>Myth 2 : Islam preaches violence against non-Muslims as infidels in the name of ‘Jihad’ </li></ul>
  21. 21. Myth 2: Islam condones violence against non-Muslims <ul><li>Aggression is a vice in Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Prophet defined the Muslim as one causing no verbal or physical harm to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam’s greeting to everyone is “peace be upon you” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Murder of one person or causing devastation of any form is equated with killing all humanity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Jihad”: Striving to do good for the sake of God - A broad concept </li></ul><ul><li>Coming from a battle the Prophet said to the Muslims: “You came from the minor ‘Jihad’ back to the major ‘Jihad’” Asked to explain, he replied: “Inner self ‘Jihad’” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Myth 2: Islam condones violence against non-Muslims <ul><li>Even in cases of war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General: “Don’t fight those who don’t declare war on you for your faith or don’t attempt to take over your homeland” 60:8-9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fight for the sake of God (ie not for economic or political gain) those that fight you and do not attack first” ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the other side want peace then make peace 4:90, 8:61 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a member of the other side seeks asylum award it & ensure safety 9:6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbidden to kill the elderly, women, children, animals or to cut a tree </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Myth 2: Islam condones violence against non-Muslims <ul><li>Religious Tolerance most fundamental to Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ No compulsion in religion, Truth stands out clear from Wrong” 2:255-256 - Applies to Muslims & Non-Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christians & Jews called “People of the Scriptures” - under an Islamic state are regarded as “protected subjects” with complete autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Prophet’s Charter to the Monks of Sinai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christians & Jews never persecuted for their beliefs in Islamic empire. Then & now Christians keep customs, start schools, visited by missionaries </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths <ul><li>Myth 3 : Terrorism is Islamic - a religious duty of the fundamentalists. You never know when your Muslim friend will turn more fundamental! </li></ul>
  25. 25. Myth 3 : Terrorism is Islamic - a fundamentalist duty <ul><li>“ Fundamentalist” is meaningless - Used to denote Muslims that believe in Islam fundamentals support terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Originally used to describe Protestants & other Christian groups adopting literal interpretation of the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism : Defined as “devastation on land” “killing people & destroying crops”. Recognized as most heinous crime </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment for terrorism: execution, crucifixion or exile 5:33. Trial first. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Myth 3 : Terrorism is Islamic - a fundamentalist duty <ul><li>“ Islamic terrorism” is an oxymoron </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism as a phenomena - Hitler is of the Christian faith as Saddam is of Muslim faith </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorists justify their acts by citing authoritative sources: religion, the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Church of the World Creator (rejoiced 9/11) </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Identity Movement (many terrorist acts in 1996 - but FBI cant identify them as such) www.religiousintolerance.org/cr_ident.htm </li></ul>
  27. 27. ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths <ul><li>Myth 4 : Islam is oppressive of women </li></ul>‘ HAREM’ ‘ Chadour’ ‘ Role captivity’ NO SELF-DETERMINATION
  28. 28. Myth 4 : Islam is oppressive of women LEADERS Professional Working Women
  29. 29. Myth 4 : Islam is oppressive of women <ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equality - “We created you from one self” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking care of home & children not obligatory. Housework is work - wages - 1991 law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can divorce her husband if not like him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“If you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, marry women of your choice, two or three or four; but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal fairly (with them), then only one”4:3 “you cant be fair ..” </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Myth 4 : Islam is oppressive of women <ul><li>Economic rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek education/knowledge is duty of every Muslim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to own & inherit property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial independence - “To men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn” 4:32Political rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophet confirmed as leader by men & women separately - mentioned in Quran 60:2 </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Myth 4 : Islam is oppressive of women <ul><li>Islamic dress </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A voluntary good deed - difference of opinion - part of the good deeds that women may take in their religious/spiritual devotion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mentioned once in 24:31– basic principle is that of purity – emphasis first on lowering one’s gaze </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis not on appearance but mainly on piety & conduct – 7:26. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No coercion or compulsion as to Islamic dress </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Myth 4 : Islam is oppressive of women Tansu Ciller - Turkey 93-5 Megawati Sukamaputri Indonesia Panazir Bhutto Pakistan 88-90 & 93-5 Hasina Wajed Bangladesh 96+ Khaleda Zia Bangladesh 91-6
  33. 33. References <ul><li>Quran online : www.islamicity.com/mosque/quran </li></ul><ul><li>Index : www.islamicity.com/mosque/TOPICI.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Council on American Islamic Relations: www.Cair-net.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.themodernreligion.com/terror/terrorism_compare.html </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance:http://salam.muslimsonline.com/~azahoor/toleran1.html </li></ul><ul><li>Women in Islam - www.mwlusa.org </li></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Patricia Springborg (of Sydney University), Western Republicanism and the Oriental Prince, Polity Press, 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Said , Orientalism: Westerners Conceptions of the Orient; 1978, Routledge & Kegan </li></ul>
  34. 34. THANK YOU

×