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Neil Green Day3

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Neil Green Day3

  1. 1. Green Infrastructure and Green Highways Hubs and Links to a Healthy Environment Low Impact Development Center Summer 2007 Low Impact Development Center 2007
  2. 2. Challenges to Performance Based and Watershed Approaches Regucopy  Contradictions  Agendicizing and disaggregation and  specialization Political Boundaries and Interests  Reliance on Minimum Standards  Zoning and Building Codes not integrated with  planning Mass Production not Profession  Site Design Performance vs. BMP Efficiency  Contract Process “Per Unit”  LEED “no builder left behind”  tm Emailification “no one reads”2007  Low Impact Development Center
  3. 3. Builder/Developer/Institution Land Use Economic and Design Requirements Sustainability is not achieved by minimum Localized Industry standards or ratingSustainable Recognized systems!!! Development Standards Local Community Codes/Ordinances Performance and Watershed Requirements Based!!! Low Impact Development Center 2007
  4. 4. Courtesy Region 3 OW Sustainable Community = Green (natural) + Gray (built) + Multi (societal) Built (“Gray”) Infrastructure Green Highways Social Infrastructure Natural (“Green”) Infrastructure Source: Guide to Sustainable Community Indicators, Hart 1999 Low Impact Development Center 2007 Source: Guide to Sustainable Community Indicators, Hart 1999
  5. 5. Original Green Infrastructure Low Impact Development Center 2007
  6. 6. Green Infrastructure Definitions Finding common ground among the descriptions Low Impact Development Center 2007
  7. 7. APA - 7 principles of Green Infrastructure Recognize the social and natural ecosystem/ watershed  context Provide a multi-functional framework for development,  protection, conservation, restoration and recreation Protect and regenerate health and biodiversity  Create natural, social and economic linkage  Improve the visual quality and sense of place of  communities and landscapes Involve and engage the community in planning,  implementation, management and monitoring Provide a multi-functional framework for funding for  acquistion, restoration, management and development Low Impact Development Center 2007
  8. 8. What is Green Infrastructure? “Infrastructure – the substructure of underlying  foundation…on which the continuance and growth of a community or state depends” – Source: Webster’s New World Dictionary  “Green infrastructure – the ecological  processes, both natural and engineered, that act as the natural infrastructure. It includes ditches, creeks, wetlands, parks, open space, trees, green roofs, gardens, working lands, aquifers and watersheds that supply drinking water”  source: http://www.wcel.org/issues/urban/sbg/glossary/ Low Impact Development Center 2007
  9. 9. Conservation Fund Definition of Green Infrastructure “…an interconnected network of green space  that conserves natural ecosystem values and functions and provides associated benefits to human populations….Green infrastructure differs from conventional approaches to open space planning because it looks at conservation value and actions in concert with land development, growth management and built infrastructure planning.” source: Green Infrastructure: Smart Conservation for the 21st Century, Benedict, Mark A., PhD, Edward T. McMahon, J.D., The Conservation Fund, Sprawl Watch Clearinghouse Monograph Series, www.sprawlwatch.org Low Impact Development Center 2007
  10. 10. EPA definition of Green Infrastructure  Green infrastructure is a cost effective and environmentally friendly approach to reduce stormwater and other excess flows entering combined or separate sewer systems.  Green infrastructure is a way to protect surface waters and drinking water supplies, reduce drinking water and stormwater treatment costs, reduce urban heat island impacts, and provide more sustainable water resource management systems.  Green infrastructure approaches use natural systems such as forested areas or engineered systems such as raingardens to cleanse water and reduce excess volumes by filtering and treating it using plants, soils and microbes.  Green infrastructure can be used to reduce our reliance on pipes, channels and expensive engineered treatment systems that are costly to build, operate and maintain. source: http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/greeninfrastructure.cfm Low Impact Development Center 2007
  11. 11. Green Infrastructure An ecosystem , watershed based network  approach to managing growth and creating sustainable environments in a variety of development densities Economically cost effective approach to solving  various issues (water quality, habitat, urban heat island, CSO reductions, NPDES compliance, TMDL, safe communities) when compared to other approaches Low Impact Development Center 2007
  12. 12. Green Infrastructure in the 21st century Retrofits using green systems to restore  hydrological functional Provides the means to ecologically link  one hub to the next Form of infrastructure that is lower in cost  to maintain over its lifecycle Improves the quality of life for all  inhabitants Low Impact Development Center 2007
  13. 13. Green Infrastructure MAY be parks and large tracts of undeveloped land that are set aside HUBS Low Impact Development Center 2007
  14. 14. Green Infrastructure ALSO may be green retrofits in an urban or suburban landscape LINKS Low Impact Development Center 2007
  15. 15. Links and Hubs of Green Infrastructure in the Urban Environment Low Impact Development Center 2007
  16. 16. Eco Roof – Link or Hub? Low Impact Development Center 2007
  17. 17. Built Green Infrastructure Low Impact Development Center 2007
  18. 18. Retrofits or Planned element Green Roof Irvine CA Low Impact Development Center 2007
  19. 19. Green Infrastructure opportunities are everywhere LID tools facilitate the development of  green infrastructure Open Space and Transportation corridors  provide linking elements in a green infrastructure network Low Impact Development Center 2007
  20. 20. Watershed Planning Goals Hydrologic  Runoff volume and peak discharge rate  Flood control  Water reuse  Ecological  Water quality and stream health  Habitat creation  Antidegradation  Community and economic development  Job creation  User fees  Historic preservation  Disturbance  Low Impact Development Center 2007
  21. 21. Stormwater Management Goals Peak discharge rate (Q)  Runoff volume  Water quality  Runoff duration  Runoff frequency  Groundwater recharge  What tools are available to meet these goals? Low Impact Development Center 2007
  22. 22. Highway Medians and Shoulders Low Impact Development Center 2007
  23. 23. Links and Hubs An organizing form idea for planning green  infrastructure Creates an interdependent network of  green Fits a watershed model of planning  Can be implemented and maintained in  sections Is an opportunity for public-private  partnerships Low Impact Development Center 2007
  24. 24. Green Infrastructure Form : Hubs & Links Hubs  Reserves (large protected areas)  Managed Native Landscapes  Working Lands (farms, managed forests)  Green Roofs (if large enough)  Links  Streetscapes  Water treatment swales  Bioretention  Highways  Green Roofs  Low Impact Development Center 2007
  25. 25. Infrastructure needs care Green space is considered self-  sustaining…green infrastructure implies something that must be maintained and at times restored.” Low Impact Development Center 2007
  26. 26. Green Infrastructure Case Study: Coyote Creek Watershed Low Impact Development Center 2007
  27. 27. Courtesy E. Takata Low Impact Development Center 2007
  28. 28. Coyote Creek Green Infrastructure Principles Start upstream  Connect the Dots  Use Nature as a Guide  All Fronts/No backs  Manage for the Long Term  Multiple Objectives  Low Impact Development Center 2007
  29. 29. Low Impact Development Center 2007 Courtesy E. Takata
  30. 30. Courtesy E. Takata Low Impact Development Center 2007
  31. 31. Courtesy E. Takata Low Impact Development Center 2007
  32. 32. Low Impact Development Center 2007 Courtesy E. Takata
  33. 33. Courtesy E. Takata Low Impact Development Center 2007
  34. 34. Courtesy E.Takata Low Impact Development Center 2007
  35. 35. Low Impact Development Center 2007
  36. 36. Green Highways Low Impact Development Center 2007
  37. 37. Theme Areas Watershed Driven Stormwater   Recyclables and Reuse  Ecosystems USEPA REGION 3 and FHWA http://www.ghp.org Low Impact Development Center 2007
  38. 38. Context Sensitive Solution? Low Impact Development Center 2007
  39. 39. www.lowimpactdevelopment.org Low Impact Development Center 2007
  40. 40. Low Impact Development Center 2007
  41. 41. Low Impact Development Center 2007
  42. 42. • Either side of a closed- LOCATION section roadway (median or shoulder) Siting Guidelines FIXED-OBJECT • No HAZARD? Materials • Water quality MEDIUM EFFECTIVENESS • Volume Hydrology Hydraulics N/A • Peak discharge LOW Treatment Train/Process STORAGE • None CAPACITY Construction • Total Suspend Solids Maintenance coliform • Fecal TARGETED POLLUTANTS • Oxygen depleting substances Safety Figure 8.1. Gutter filter along U.S. Route 1, Mount Rainier, MD._ NCHRP LID Manual Low Impact Development Center 2007
  43. 43. Low Impact Development Center 2007
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  47. 47. Low Impact Development Center 2007
  48. 48. SHA Mt. Ranier Gutter Filters Sierra ClubLow Impact Development Center 2007 Program Community Award
  49. 49. Low Impact Development Center 2007
  50. 50. Low Impact Development Center 2007
  51. 51. • Bioretention  • Porous Pavements  • Environmentally Friendly Concrete  • Forest Buffers  • Restored and Stormwater Wetlands  • Stream Restoration  • Wildlife Crossings  • Soil Amendments Low Impact Development Center 2007
  52. 52. Low Impact Development Center 2007
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  59. 59. Links and Hubs An organizing form idea for planning green  infrastructure Creates an interdependent network of  green Fits a watershed model of planning  Can be implemented and maintained in  sections Is an opportunity for public-private  partnerships Low Impact Development Center 2007
  60. 60. AWI Great Streets: Nannie Helen Burroughs Low Impact Development Center 2007
  61. 61. Low Impact Development Center 2007
  62. 62. GHP/Stormwater EMS Roadmap 1. Identify environmental issue(s) and/or opportunity(ies) to be 11. Managers/senior management. Review addressed by EMS. progress, identify adjustments, and confirm 2. Identify desired commitments. environmental and business results and APPROVAL – benefits. 10B. PERIODIC 10A. PROJECT Management REVIEW REVIEW provides Brief management on Assess EMS feedback to 3. Establish objectives, status in meeting project finalize issues, quantifiable measures and objectives and targets. performance. opportunities, targets, and associated and expected milestones. results. 9. Identify EMS-related training needs, responsibilities and 4. Obtain management schedule. Conduct the commitment to EMS, training. characterize EMS resource needs, and identify EMS leaders. 8. Identify personnel (by title) affected by EMS, define responsibilities, and 5. Identify existing communicate initiatives, programs, responsibilities. procedures, processes, and tools relevant to the EMS. 7. Assign responsibility for developing enhanced or 6. Identify improvements to new procedures, achieve EMS objectives processes, and tools. PLAN DO CHECK ACT LEGEND: Low Impact Development Center 2007
  63. 63. Watershed Recyclable/ Conservation/ Items/Activities Planning Design Management Driver Reuse Ecosystem 1 Develop templates and model protocols of watershed based innovative stormwater ● ● ● ◉ ○ ◉ management for the Green Highways Approach 2 Develop the technical foundation for innovative stormwater management applications in planning ● ● ● ◉ ○ ◉ and design strategies Metric Benchmark Categor Pollutan Natural Resource Operations & Threshold Activity Regulatory Water Quality y t Source Protection Maintenance units/values P, W PS, NPS Develop templates and model • Vegetative • Maintain stream • Decrease O&M cost mg/l (ppm) nutrients (TKN-N, NH3-N, protocols of watershed based cover health (Erosion, • decrease need and mg/l (ppm) NO3-N+NO2-N,TP, innovative stormwater management • Decrease channel protection, frequency of mowing lbs/da of UOD orthophosphate) for the Green Highways Approach runoff volume habitat diversity) • reduce frequency of load TSS • §303d listed • Plant trees plant replacement BOD waters • improve safety   Action Measurement Metric 1 Offsite Acres of forest 1.     Annual volume of runoff (ac/ft) GHP Metrics Reforestation 2.     Peak Runoff Rate (Cn) and Protocols 3.     Annual volume of non-point source pollution (mg/l) Low Impact Development Center 2007
  64. 64. Sustainable Economic Communities: Development d •Green Complement n Gray…. Environmental Community Development Development a •Bridge Infrastructure Gap ss •etc el ga ICLI, 1999 Sustainable Communities ao kG in n Programs Lo Programs te m Green Green Linkable and Highways Infrastructure am Expandable re o Theme Areas CC •Conservation Approach •Stormwater •Structural Approach •Recycling •Non-Structural Approach •Ecosystem Low Impact Development Center 2007
  65. 65. Green Infrastructure Evolution Green Infrastructure is the community  open space and infrastructure assets (e.g. parks, roads, vacant land) Functional Environmental Assett  (stormwater, energy, air) Integrated functions with the watershed  (e.g. hydrology, habitat, circulation) Low Impact Development Center 2007
  66. 66. Recommendations for Local Decision Makers Get development right the first time  Incorporate Green Infrastructure into  Watershed Management Plans Revise state and local stormwater regulations  Establish dedicated funding that rewards green  infrastructure (SRF) Provide incentives for residential and  commercial development Low Impact Development Center 2007
  67. 67. Recommendations for Local Decision Makers (cont’d) Review and Revise local development  ordinances Preserve existing trees, open space, and  stream buffers Encourage and use Smart Growth  Get the community involved!  Low Impact Development Center 2007
  68. 68. EMS/Performance Based Approach Protect Environmental Legacy  Save Costs/Reduce Consumption  Ease Regulatory Burden  Improve Review Cycles  Low Impact Development Center 2007
  69. 69. DOT Institutional Goals Compliance  Stewardship  Public Benefit  Operational Value  Consistency and predictability  Streamlining  Low Impact Development Center 2007
  70. 70. Regulatory Goals Watershed Based Approaches  Trading  Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS)  Flexibility  Transparency and Measurability  Economic Viability and Sustainability  Low Impact Development Center 2007
  71. 71. Opportunities and Challenges  Technical  Institutional  Fiscal  Political Low Impact Development Center 2007
  72. 72. Technical Challenges Regulatory system based on land development Best  Management Practices (BMPS) Prescriptive solutions with non-structural and structural  practices that do not address pollutant loads that are unique to linear systems BMPs use is presumptive (e.g. 80% TSS removal =  control of entire suite of pollutants). Hydrologic analysis does not reflect direct and indirect  impacts of linear systems Current Regulatory Credit Systems not “mature” for  watershed approaches Define Scale and Extent of Project (watershed influence)  Low Impact Development Center 2007
  73. 73. Technical Opportunities Integration of watershed based objectives  (e.g. water quality loading, CSS) into design and analysis procedures Regulatory Credit for innovative  techniques Stormwater trading and banking  Advance monitoring science and Materials  selection Low Impact Development Center 2007
  74. 74. Institutional Challenges/Opportunities Internal Awareness  Training (DOT, Resource and Regulatory  Agencies) Decision Support Systems (Process)  Environmental Management System  Development (Entire Operations) Demonstration of Success of Flexible  Approaches Consistent and predictable response to flexible  and innovative solutions Low Impact Development Center 2007
  75. 75. Fiscal Challenges and Opportunities Long-Term Support for Research and  Training Long-Term Support for Monitoring  Leveraging of Funding (Public and Private  and Joint Public Agency Partnerships) Funding of Maintenance Activities  True Costing to Communities (Triple  Bottom Line) and DOTs Low Impact Development Center 2007
  76. 76. Political Awareness of Context Sensitive Solutions  and Watershed Approaches Highway “Hot Potato”  Inter-jurisdictional  Funding competition  Who gets to cut the Ribbon  Low Impact Development Center 2007
  77. 77. Keys to Success Leaving the Strong Problem Definition and Common Language  Economic Drivers = Environmental Results  Protocols, Metrics, Consistency, Adaptability (not  Watershed adaptive management) Determine User Needs  “Address” stakeholders issues  “Better than Mission may not be accomplished  Training (everybody at the table)  Navigate and Collaborate  Before” Institutions and Large Impacts  Regulatory Credit for Innovation and Flexible  Approaches Pilots and Baby Steps  Low Impact Development Center 2007

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