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Lid Intro Nw

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Lid Intro Nw

  1. 1. Low Impact Development Introduction Moving towards Technology Based Landscapes, Streetscapes, and Infrastructure <ul><li>Low Impact Development </li></ul><ul><li>Green Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Green Highways Partnership </li></ul>
  2. 2. Low Impact Development (LID) <ul><li>Hydrology based distributed site design approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects landscape and ecosystem function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform or decentralized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replicate function instead of mitigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-functional landscapes and infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple regulatory and resource objectives </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CHAPTER 26 CFR - WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>SUBCHAPTER I - RESEARCH AND RELATED PROGRAMS </li></ul><ul><li>§ 1251 . Congressional declaration of goals and policy. (a) Restoration and maintenance of chemical, physical and biological integrity of Nation's waters; national goals for achievement of objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems Based </li></ul><ul><li>Technology-forcing </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Research </li></ul><ul><li>Total Maximum Daily Load </li></ul>
  4. 4. Origins <ul><li>Initiated by Prince George’s County in mid 1990’s </li></ul><ul><li>LID Center formed 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>EPA LID Manual 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>DOD LID Manual 2004 Subsequent PWTB </li></ul><ul><li>NCHRP Research 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Federal State and Local Programs </li></ul>Regulatory and Go Green!!
  5. 5. Get Ready! <ul><li>LID techniques will be the foundation of EPA Green Infrastructure Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Energy Legislation (438) </li></ul><ul><li>Highway Reauthorization </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is going green! </li></ul>
  6. 6. Defining LID Technology <ul><li>Conservation (Watershed and Site Level ) </li></ul><ul><li>Minimization (Site Level) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Timing (Watershed and Site Level) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Management Practices (Site Level) Retain / Detain / Filter / Recharge / Use </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution Prevention </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1. Conservation Plans / Regulations <ul><li>Local Watershed and Conservation Plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forest (Contiguous and Interior Habitat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streams (Corridors) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wetlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step Slopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scenic Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult Soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ag Lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul>Large to Small Scale!
  8. 8. 2. Minimize Impacts <ul><li>Minimize clearing </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize grading </li></ul><ul><li>Save A and B soils </li></ul><ul><li>Limit lot disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>* Soil Amendments </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Reforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnect </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce pipes, curb and gutters </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce impervious surfaces </li></ul>
  9. 9. 3. Maintain Time of Concentration <ul><li>Open Drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Use green space </li></ul><ul><li>Flatten slopes </li></ul><ul><li>Disperse drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthen flow paths </li></ul><ul><li>Save headwater areas </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetative swales </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain natural flow paths </li></ul><ul><li>Increase distance from streams </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize sheet flow </li></ul>
  10. 10. 4. Storage, Detention & Filtration “LID IMP’s” <ul><li>Uniform Distribution at the Source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open drainage swales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain Gardens / Bioretention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller pipes and culverts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small inlets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infiltration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rooftop storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pipe storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Street storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain Water Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Management** </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 5. Pollution Prevention <ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Proper use, handling and disposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lawn / car / hazardous wastes / reporting / recycling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good house keeping / proper disposal / reuse / spills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative products / Product liability </li></ul></ul></ul>30 - 40% Reduction in N&P Kettering Demonstration Project
  12. 12. Where is all this going <ul><li>Hydromod </li></ul><ul><li>Watershed Based Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers and Implementation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Green Infrastructure <ul><li>Use of community public and private open space for integrated network of stormwater facilities. Non-structural and structural </li></ul><ul><li>Proliferate micro-scale techniques in an effective manner throughout the watershed </li></ul>
  14. 14. Green Highways Partnership <ul><li>The Green Highways Partnership (GHP) is a voluntary, public/private initiative  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>integrated planning : watershed! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulatory flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>market-based rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Better than Before” </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Imperviousness & Threshold Theories It’s not so simple - very complex!
  16. 16. <ul><li>Figure 2: Showing the lack of mitigating influence of structural BMPs on biologic conditions in Puget Sound lowland streams (Horner and May, 2000). Note, “w/BMPs” refers to structural facilities only. [Honer / May 2001] </li></ul>
  17. 17. A few Issues! <ul><li>How we see the world (without the meds) </li></ul><ul><li>Political and Economic Drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional (Been there done that) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology and Materials </li></ul>
  18. 18. How well do we maintain the ecological integrity (functions) of aquatic systems (small streams)? Chemical Variables Flow Regime Habitat Structure Energy Sources Biotic Factors Nutrients Temperature D.O. pH Turbidity Organics Toxics Disease Reproduction Feeding Predation Competition Sunlight Nutrients Seasonal Cycles Organic Matter 1&2 Production Canopy Siltation Gradient Substrate Current Instream Cover Sinuosity Width/Depth Channel Morphology Soils Stability Riparian Vegetation Velocity Frequency Runoff Evaporation Ground Water Flow Duration Rain Intensity Scale / Spatial / Temporal / Species Ecosystem Integrity
  19. 19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  20. 20. Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  21. 21. Capacity Traditional Urban Drainage Sustainable Urban Drainage Stahre, 2006 Water Quality Capacity Amenity The Good Old Days!
  22. 22. Courtesy E. Takata
  23. 23. Courtesy E. Takata
  24. 24. Conventional Ultra-Urban Retrofit <ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Inefficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul>Creating Blackholes of Infrastructure Stormwater Competes With Other Programs
  25. 25. Stormwater regulations in a highly impervious world Why do we need LID Now? <ul><li>Precision </li></ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>
  26. 27. MUSIC Monash U
  27. 28. Stormwater Wastewater Drinking Water Decentralized Controls are Holistic and Watershed Based
  28. 29. N 2 SANDY SOIL MEDIUM MULCH RAINFALL RUNOFF RUNOFF NO 3 AIR NH 3 PARTICULATES DRAIN INFILTRATION NH 4 METALS , NUTRIENTS BIOLOGICAL FIXATION EVAPOTRANSPIRATION DENITRIFICATION ADSORPTION VOLITILIZATION PLANT MATERIALS NO 2 AMMONIFICATION NITROGEN CYCLE FOR BIORETENTION RECHARGE DENITRIFICATION NITROGEN FIXATION
  29. 30. PICP Open-graded base <ul><li>s </li></ul>(optional) dog SMOG HEAT/ LIGHT RAINFALL ET
  30. 31. Green Strategies Bioretention Permeable Walks Reforestation Soil Amendments
  31. 32. using lid to reduce inflow to combined sewer systems Washington, DC Award winning Barracks Row 2 nd Avenue SEA Street. Photo courtesy of Seattle Public Utilities. Green Factor Rating Systems Seattle, WA Context Sensitive Solutions
  32. 34. Industry Recognized Standards Builder/Developer/Institution Land Use Economic and Design Requirements Local Community Codes/Ordinances and Watershed Requirements Localized Sustainable Development LID Fits with all current rating systems! Its good business!

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