Welcome/ Introduction Expectations from Participants Ground Rules Leave personal baggage behind Interactive participation There is no single right answer Only one person talks at a time Avoid distractions (control all mobile phones) Delivery Method Interactive Experience sharing Groups Discussions Conveniences Appreciating Your Organisation.
Ground RulesCell Phones To VibrateEverybody ParticipatesListen Actively!Share Your KnowledgeBe Open Minded
“There is nothing training cannot do. Nothing is above its reach. It can turn bad morals to good;it can destroy bad principles and recreate good ones; it can lift men to angelship.”
IntroductionIn advance economies, proper identification oftraining needs constitute the foundation for effectivetraining intervention and programme design.With the resources for training shrinking everydayand the demand for training increasing, managersneed to acquire knowledge in training needsassessment in their organisations, and developrequired skills to design appropriate programmes toaddress the training needs.This workshop is designed to equip and exposeHuman Resource Development (HRD) practitionerswith requisite skills of learning and developmentfunction and how needs assessment fits into theprocess, followed by an in-depth look at the coreconcepts and steps involved in conducting trainingneeds assessment.
Objectives of the Workshop At the end of the workshop, participants should be able to: Define Training Needs Assessment; Discuss different approaches to Training Needs Assessment; Design Training Needs Assessment Template; Identify individual and group training needs using a variety of methods; Design and Develop Appropriate Training Intervention
Content Training Needs Assessment – Starting Out. Levels of Training Needs Assessment. Approaches to Training Needs Assessment. Target Setting. Job Analysis. Training Needs Assessment Template Design. Designing and Developing Training Intervention. Training Needs Assessment Evaluation. Practical Exercise.
TIME-TABLE FOR WORKSHOP ON TRAININGNEEDS ASSESSMENT & PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENTDAYONE 9 am -9.30 am 10am – 11.30am 11.30 am – 1 pm 1 pm – 2 pm 2 pm -2.30 2.30 pm – 4 pm pm Opening Ceremony Training Needs Levels of Training Needs Group Lunch Group/Ind Job Analysis Assessment– Starting Out Assessment . ExerciseDAY MODULE FOUR (A) MODULE FOUR (B) MODULE FIVE (A) MODULE FIVE (B)TWO 9 am – 11 am 11 am – 1 pm 1 pm – 2 pm 2 pm – 3 pm 3 pm – 5 pm Lunch / Prayer Tea Break/Development of Marketing for Small and Operational Guidelines of Role of Pension Fund Small /Medium Enterprise Medium Enterprise the new Pension scheme Administrators and Custodians in Nigeria MODULE SIX (A) MODULE SIX (B) MODULE SIX (C) DAY 9 am – 11 am 11 am – 12 noon 12 noon – 1 pm 1 pm – 2 pm 2 pm – 3 pmTHREE Presentation of Certificate / Lunch /Prayer/ Closing Tea Break / starting your Feasibility Study Business Plan Communiqué Business Competency System
Networking: How it Works One of the best investments you can make in life is to constantly develop friendships that can help you when you need it, and of course, you can also help when they need it. It is a two-way track. A chain of interconnected people and situations gets you a job at the top! It is not a passive siddon-look-and-hope-it- happens-because-I deserve- it sequence of activity. It’s about meeting people and keeping in touch with them
What You Gain by Networking? Networking has helped a lot of people Break barriers between the possible and impossible. Bridge gaps between the known and unknown. Build relationships where friendships never existed.
Using FOUR straight lines, join ALL the dotsWITHOUT lifting your pen from the paper
4 straight lines Join ALL dots Do not lift pen
4 straight linesJoin ALL dots competitiveDo not lift pen leverage can only be achieved if we play at the fringes of the law
18Training & Development What is training? What is development? Training: enhances the capabilities of an employee to perform his or her current job Focuses on the current job Examples for a bank teller: Training program to correctly identify counterfeit currency Training program in the bank‟s new computer system used by tellers to process customer‟s transactions
19Training & Development Development: enhances the capabilities of an employee to be ready to perform possible future jobs Focuses on future jobs Developmental education programs Examples for a bank teller: Bank sends the teller to a day-long workshop on “Emerging Issues in Finance & Banking” Bank pays for the employee to get his or her MBA degree Developmental job experiences Examples: job rotation or job enlargement Developmental interpersonal relationships Example: mentoring
Learning is provided in order to improve performance on the present job. (Nadler, 1984)
What have you done today to enhance(or at least insure against the decline of) the relative overall useful-skill level of your work force vis-a-vis competitors? - Tom Peters Thriving on Chaos
What is a competency ? A competency is a combination ofknowledge, Skills and Attitudes, demonstrated in the performance of ajob by an individual.
THE INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING 24PROCESS. [IDP System]1. Find the Required Level ofCompetency for the Job.2. Find the Personal Competency of theIndividual.3. Find the gap which is the developmentneed.
What is a Needs Assessment? “Needs assessment is the systematic effort that we make to gather opinions and ideas from a variety of sources on performance problems or new systems and technologies.” Allison Rossett (1987)
Needs Assessment Refers to the process used to determine whether training is necessary Because needs assessment is the first step in the instructional design process: If it is poorly conducted, training will not achieve the outcomes or financial benefits the company expects
Causes and Outcomes of Needs AssessmentReasons or “Pressure Points” Outcomes •Legislation What is the Context? •What Trainees Need to Learn •Lack of Basic Skills Organization •Who Receives •Poor Performance Analysis Training •New Technology Task In What Do •Type of Training Analysis They Need •Customer Requests •Frequency of Training Training? •New Products Person Analysis •Buy Versus Build •Higher Performance Training Decision Standards •Training Versus Other Who Needs the •New Jobs Training? HR Options Such as Selection or Job Redesign •How Training Should Be Evaluated
Why do a Needs Assessment? To make sure we are applying the right solution to the problem To identify what learning will be accomplished To identify what changes in behavior and performance are expected To determine the expected economic costs and benefits
Steps of a Needs Assessment Conduct Task Analysis and compile a Task Inventory Perform a Gap Analysis Select which tasks will be addressed Determine performance measures for the trained task Select Training Method Estimate training costs
Needs assessment involves:(1 of 2) Organizational Analysis – involves determining: the appropriateness of training, given the business strategy resources available for training support by managers and peers for training Task Analysis – involves: identifying the important tasks and knowledge, skill, and behaviors that need to be emphasized in training for employees to complete their tasks
Needs assessment involves:(2 of 2) Person Analysis – involves: determining whether performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge, skill, or ability (a training issue) or from a motivational or work design problem identifying who needs training determining employees‟ readiness for training
To Train or Not High Problem: Low Motivation Problem: Systemic Method Method Assess personal Consider system issues, problem Job consequences/ rewards is out of control of the employeeKnowledge system Problem: Bad Fit Problem: Lack of Knowledge or Tools Method Consider improper Method placement of employee in Training Low the position Low High Employee attitude/desire to perform the job
“Training must have purpose and that purpose can be defined only if the learning needs of the organization the groups and individuals within it have been systematically identified.” Michael Armstrong, Human Resource Management Practice, Kogan Page, 2001
Training Needs Assessment “Atraining needs assessment provides vital information about the real needs of the organization. This pre-training tool helps a company to strategically identify specific areas needing attention (training and non-training). The assessment results help target training more cost-effectively.”
How TNA Is carried Out Revising the objectives Collecting data about performance Data analysis Abstracting performance problems (problems that can be solved by training) Translating those problems into training needs; Quantitative: How many to train, and Qualitative: What KSA to impart
Sources of Information for TNA Data on productivity, quality Organisational goals and and performance corporate plans Departmental layout Human resources and changes succession plan Management requests for Personnel statistics training Exit interviews Knowledge of financial plans Consultations with senior Plans for introducing new managers technology or developing/deploying IT systems Marketing plans
Levels of Training Needs Organisational Level Task/Departmental or Group Level Individual Level
The Training Gap What is Training gap What should be Corporate or Corporate or functional results functional standards Knowledge and Knowledge and skills possessed skills requiredActual performance Targets or standards of individual of performance
TNA: Areas and Methods Corporate Group Individual Analysis of PerformanceAnalysis of Job and Human Training and Strategic Role Resource Survey Development Plans Reviews Analysis Plans
Benefits: Eliminate chaos from your training efforts Set the direction and tone of your training effort Align training with your business goals and objectives Bring reason, cohesiveness and clarity to your training effort Monitor the progress of your organization in achieving its training goals
The bigger picture Organisational performance Employee performance Employee Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes Employee education, experience and training
Training Need Analysis (TNA) TNA is a tool toExisting identify the gap Required• Skills • Skills• Knowledge • Knowledge• Attitudes • Attitudes Copyright 2006 by Atul Mathur
TNA (Step 1): Future performance What are the goals for the future performance of our organisation? • profit • growth • customer base • new products •? •?Existing Futureperformance performance
TNA (Step 2): Challenges What are we concerned about? What’re the challenges today? What challenges we are likely to face in the future?Existing Futurechallenges challenges
TNA (Step 3): Employee performance In what way our employees should start performing differently to help us meet the challenges and take us to the goals?Existing Futureperformance Performance
TNA (Step 4): New Skills, knowledge and Attitudes In order for our employees to perform differently, what kind of new Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes they need to have?Existing Required•Skills • Skills•Knowledge • Knowledge•Attitudes • Attitudes
TNA (Step 5): Training needs Now that we know what kind of new Skills, knowledge and Attitudes are required for our employees, how can we bridge the gap?Existing Required•Skills • Skills•Knowledge • Knowledge•Attitudes • Attitudes
TNA in essence… 1 Start with future organisational goals and challenges 2 Assess required employee performance to meet the goals and challenges 3 Assess required employee Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes to deliver the performance 4 Identify employee training needs to bridge the gap
53 What is Organisational TN? Training needs of an organisation have to do with organisational objectives; Orientationprogramme to acquaint all employees with policies IT skills for new employees Market knowledge, etc
54Classification of Organisational TN Recognised training needs The need of the organisation, its structures, policies and procedures and benefits The need to know a Department, its policies, rules, operating procedures and personnel The need to have specific job skills and knowledge not generally possessed by most new employees in their jobs
55…..cont’d Requested training needs Changes in jobs and/or systems Addition of new equipment Department performance reviews New and revised government requirements Employee opinion surveys, organisational studies, departmental meetings and focus group discussions Exit interviews conducted with departing employees
Identifying the Danger Signals These danger signals include the following: increased customer complaints a rise in workplace accidents higher absenteeism lower sales increased scrap rates / reworking low plant utilisation
57…..cont’d low staff performance high staff turnover poor financial indicators low morale problems with suppliers benchmarking figures do not match or exceed competitors non-productive friction between departments non-productive friction between employees especially managers
Organisation Wide TNA Process The process of carrying out an organisational wide TNA or audit requires commitment from all parties, individuals, managers and the HR and/or training team. The process should be undertaken only once in a given year. Use the ten questions from Grey (1994): What is the perceived problem? What are the aims and objectives? What is expected from the TNA process?
…..cont’d What performance is required from the target group/ individuals? Timescale? Budgets: should they be considered? who allocated what? What barriers might exist? How the information is to be presented/ collected Is anything out of bounds? Key issues/ areas of focus
Things To Consider The way a TNA process is managed must depend on the culture (how things are done) of the organisation. There is no point centralising the process if budgets are distributed across the organisation,. Equally there is no point delegating responsibility for the TNA process if managers have no say in the ability to offer solutions to meet needs.
…..cont’d Carefully consider the end result as you plan the ITN process. How will you process the data? What analysis do you need to do? Invest quality time in the exercise to meet deadlines. Align the processes and procedures to the culture of the organization for effective implementation.
63TNA At Group Level CONT’D Within a team or a department there are needs which may be specific to that group of people. It is also the case that those needs may not be observable or apparent to other parts of the organization. For this reason it is important that learning needs and other needs are regularly investigated and gaps addressed.
64…..cont’d Learning needs arise within teams, groups and departments and these should be addressed on a collective basis. Team leaders or heads of departments will have responsibility for performance in their areas and may also have responsibility for training and development.
Questions for Group TNA Here are some questions to help you identify team/departmental learning needs. Is the provision of learning activities determined from a consideration of organizational objectives? Is the provision of learning activities determined from a consideration of team / departmental objectives? Does the team operate effectively as a team / department or just as a collection of individuals?
…..cont’d How might the team / department interact more effectively with its internal customers? Does the team / department meet to discuss ways of operating more efficiently and effectively? What skills of coaching and mentoring exist within the department to support learning? How does the team / department measure its effectiveness and compare itself against other similar teams / departments either within or external. Are people encouraged to develop their own skills and knowledge?
Questions for Group TNA Do managers support and encourage the development of people for whom they have responsibility? Does your organization have clear objectives which people understand and can explain? Do people understand how they contribute to the objectives of the organization?
…..cont’d Is there a clear induction process for people new to the organization? To what extent does training and education contribute to improved performance in the organization? How much training does each member of the team / department receive each year? Are effective interpersonal skills observed all the time between members of the team / department?
Occupational Group TNA Occupational groups may also have needs specific to that discipline While professional bodies may provide training programmes, it is unlikely that they will be sufficiently focused to match the organizations specific occupational requirements.
…..cont’d The identification of learning needs may be conducted to address a specific cross-section of employees within an organization such as operators, administration, sales etc. This enables resources to be focused more directly on those who have a specific need.
Questions for Occupational Group TNA Use these questions as a prompt to identify specific areas of occupational training. What current activities require specific training? What future developments will require specific training? Is a job analysis carried out to identify the skills and knowledge required for tasks in a particular occupation? How are the skills of staff evaluated and compared to the requirements of the department?
…..cont’d Does a procedure exist for upgrading the skills of staff? How often is a staff appraisal carried out and how often is there a follow up meeting? Do members of staff have personal development plans which are designed to enhance their skills? Is a „license to practice‟ required for the occupational area?
…..cont’d How do you ensure that you get the qualifying level of continuing professional (education) points? Do you regularly read professional / trade journals – what are the current issues of concern and which need addressing through learning strategies? Occupational standards are available for most work areas and provide the most comprehensive descriptions of work activities – are these used to inform decision making?
TNA At Individual LevelCONT’D Managers regularly review the performance of those individuals for which they have responsibility. However, this is usually done during the appraisal interview, but if this only occurs once a year it is insufficient and should be more frequent.
What is Individual TN? Individual training needs are those not required by typical employees. They are training needs required by specific employees for the purpose of; Performance improvement Eligibility for new job Acquiring skills others already have
77Basis for Individual TN Performance reviews Selection process Testing and measurement Employee career objectives Succession plans
Questions for Individual TNA Does the person have the ability to successfully achieve work objectives? Does the person have the right attitude for the job? What is the level of energy which is used by the person? Are they lacking specific areas of experience which need to be addressed? Can the person work flexibly?
…..cont’d Does the person possess the interpersonal skills to work effectively in their area? Does the person have the specific knowledge required for the post? Do they demonstrate suitable maturity for the post? Does the person possess the people management skills for their position?
…..cont’d What is their level of productivity? Does the person have the potential for promotion? Does the person have the qualifications necessary for their current or future positions? Does the person have the ability to work in a team? Does the person have the specific technical skills required for this or a future position?
TN At Individual Level Gap between current employers‟ competence level (what is) and the desired level (what should be): TN = DL – CL TN (Training Needs) DL (Desired Level) CL (Current Level)
Training Needs Form Training Needs Programmes to MeetSource Training Needs(Dept/Div/ KS Deficiencies Numbers ofUnit/Sect) Staff
LEARNING OBJECTIVES On completion of this session, you should be able to: Identify the methods of job analysis Identify the purpose of job analysis Breakdown a job into tasks and identify the key result areas.
DEFINITIONS Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job, duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process where judgments are made about data collected on a job.
The Job; not the person An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a description or specification of the job, not a description of the person.
Purpose of Job Analysis The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the ‘job relatedness’ of employment procedures such as: Determining Training Needs Compensation Selection Procedures Performance Review
Determining Training Needs Job Analysis can be used in training/“needs assessment” to identify or develop: Training content Assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training Equipment to be used in delivering the training Methods of training (i.e. small group, computer- based, video, classroom……).
Compensation Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine: Skill levels Compensable job factors Work environment (e.g. hazards; attention; physical effort) Responsibilities (e.g. fiscal; supervisory) Required level of education (indirectly related to salary level).
Selection ProceduresJob Analysis can be used in selection procedures toidentify or develop: Job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions; Appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate; Minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants; Interview question;
Performance Review Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop: Goals and objectives Performance standards Evaluation criteria Length of probationary periods Duties to be evaluated
JOB DESCRIPTION A Job Description is a structured and factual statement of a job‟s functions and objectives. It should define the boundaries of the job-holder‟s authority and include the job title, department, job site and reporting lines.
ADVANTAGES OF JOB DESCRIPTION Clarify duties and responsibilities Are useful in recruiting staff Help to identify gap or duplication in the company Provide an overview of the functions and activities undertaken by the department or organization.
DISADVANTAGES OF JOB DESCRIPTION Can create a “That‟s not in my job description” environment if they are too restrictive. Need regular updating.
Methods of Job Analysis Several methods exist that may be used individually or in combination. These include: Review of job classification systems Incumbent interviews Supervisor interviews Expert panels Structured questionnaires
Methods of Job Analysis Task inventories Check lists Open-ended questionnaires Observation Incumbent work logs. The method that you may use in Job Analysis will depend on practical concerns such as type of job, number of jobs, number of incumbents and location of jobs.
What Aspects of a Job Are Analyzed? Job Analysis should collect information on the following areas: Duties and Tasks The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be collected about these items may include: frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standard, etc. Environment This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odours and temperature extremes.
Tools and Equipment Some duties andtasks are performed using specificequipment and tools. Equipment mayinclude protective clothing. These itemsneed to be specified in a Job Analysis.Relationships Supervision given andreceived. Relationships with internal orexternal people.Requirements The knowledge, skills andabilities (KSA‟s) required to perform thejob. While an incumbent may havehigher KSA‟s than those required for thejob, a Job Analysis typically only statesthe minimum requirements to perform thejob.
TASKS ANALYSISTask analysis is the process of identifying thevarious elements of a task and examining thefrequency (how often it is done) the criticality(how critical is it for the worker to have the skill)and the difficulty (how difficult is it to learn the skillinvolved) association with each element.
Identifying main duties/key tasks/key result areas Key tasks or responsibilities are those that make a substantial contribution towards achieving the objectives of the job and the organization. The description of each task should include three components: a “doing” verb highlighting the main activities e.g to develop, design, implement and clear. the object of the activity (stock levels, existing suppliers) its purpose (to reduce costs, improve efficiency, generate new income). I.T.F.........Developing The Nations Human Resources
Breakout SessionEach Team Should Analyse a Job and bring out the details expected of the job Holder.