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Lecture L16
A WORLD WIDE NETWORK
A Brief History of the Internet
1969-1995 Computer Networking!
Simple net run by pioneers
1995-2000 Commercialisation and Growth!
Enter the ISPs and the public
2000-2005 Stretching the Limit!
New applications and digital media
2005-2010 Reinventing the Network!
The New Internet emerges
2010 - ?!
Death?
“The Internet works because a lot of people 

cooperate to do things together”
- Jon Postel

1969-1995 Computer Networking
Computer Networking
Efforts on connecting computers started early

Two principal groups: Defence and Academia

	 Defence
Strategic reasons during the Cold
War

Any computer could be 	 	 reached,
and if one goes 	down, the others
still work

Academia
Economic reasons

Mainframes are expensive and could
be justified only by the collective
needs of many departments
ARPANET
▪ Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)

The Soviet Union
– Founded in 1958
– Attributed Sputnik 1
lunched by the Russian
 on
Sputnik satellite
October to th 1954
– Renamed 4 DARPA

▪ Two main objectives
– Computers had to talk to each

other to share information
– Links had to be robust
Arpanet
Packet switching

Open Architecture
TCP/IP
Communication protocol

Written by Bob Kahn & Vint Cerf
1979
46 military sites

16 academic campus sites
Network Layers
Application Layer is for specific application
Transport Layer is for reliable communication
Network Layer is for routing packages
Packet Switched

Source:	
  What	
  is	
  a	
  packet?
Example: Email message
The e-mail is about 3,500 bits (3.5 kilobits) in size

The network you send it over uses fixed-length packets of 1,024
bits (1 kilobit)

The header of each packet is 96 bits long and the trailer is 32 bits
long, leaving 896 bits for the payload 

To break the 3,500 bits of message into packets, you will need four
packets divide 3,500 by 896)

Three packets will contain 896 bits of payload and the fourth will
have 812 bits

Source:	
  What	
  is	
  a	
  packet?
WHAT WAS THE
KILLER APP OF
THE EARLY
INTERNET?
FTP - File Transfer Protocol
Telnet
Email
Usenet

Source:	
  Internet	
  protocol	
  suite
HOW	
  DO	
  YOU	
  WIRE

ALL	
  THESE	
  
MACHINES	
  
TOGETHER?
Connecting Computers
The phone system was already there
!

Modem - modulate and demodulate
A device that modulates an 

analog carrier signal to encode 

digital information, and also 

demodulates such a carrier 

signal to decode the 

transmitted information

Source:	
  Modem
The Early Internet Community
The Internet is a simple peer to peer network
Designed to be simple rather than secure
!

The Internet became a community
Most users where highly educated scientists
Respect for others – spam nearly nonexistent
Antisocial behaviour was rare
!

Netiquette!
How to behave on the net
Violators are removed from the network
“On the Internet,

nobody knows you're a dog.”
- Peter Steiner cartoon in 

The New Yorker

1995-2000 Commercialisation and growth
Metcalfe’s Law
The value of a network equals 

approximately the square of 

the number of users of the system (n2)
Metcalfe’s Law
Everything will be connected
Internet Growth
WHY	
  DID	
  THE	
  
INTERNET	
  BECOME

WIDESPREAD?
Maybe these gentlemen had something to do with it… inadvertently
Enter WinSock
In the early 1990 the most popular operating systems were Windows and DOS
!

Designed for Personal Computers
!

Network support was later added LANs – NetBIOS
!

WinSock – Windows Sockets!
Microsoft had completely ignored TCP/IP
Due to demand from IT companies, efforts started in 1991
WinSock 1.0 became available in 1992
World Wide Web
Tim Berners-Lee started his efforts on 

information sharing in the 1980s
Working for CERN, he proposed 

the creation of non-hierarchical 

hypertext based system!
The system was to be based on 

the established TCP/IP protocols
World Wide Web
Due to lack of support he started work on his
ideas himself

Using a NeXT computer he 

set out to create a program for
building, browsing and editing
hypertext pages	
  
The Basic Idea of WWW
Hypertext

To move from one document to another


Resource identifiers – URL 

To locate a particular resource (computer, document or other
resource) on the network 


Client-server model of computing – HTTP

Client software requests of server software resources such as
data or files


Markup language – HTML

Tags embedded in text indicate to a computer how to print or
display the text, e.g. as in italics or bold type
The Rise and Fall of Gopher
The WWW has not the only idea for a distributed
hyperlink system

!

Gopher
Created at the University of Minnesota 

A distributed document 

search and retrieval system

Hierarchical menu structure

Released in 1991

Became popular until the 

UoM decided to license it
WHY	
  DID	
  THE	
  
WWW	
  SUCEDE?
Lesson: Why did the WWW succeed?
▪ This design was simple

– Simple syntax

– Uniform URL to any resource using any protocols

– No security, not authentication, no tracking


▪ HTTP

– Simple protocol – GET, POST


▪ HTML

– Not an advanced markup – enough to display text in
different sizes


▪ Did not try to solve the problem of back-links

– Avoided a huge problem
Lesson: Why did the WWW succeed?
▪ WWW was FREE
▪ Gopher failed
– More rigid system
– Tree structure – not free format
– NOT FREE
First Browsers
Without browsers, the Web would not take off

And without content, no one would create browsers

!

Mosaic
NCSA developed Mosaic Web Browser

Developed by Marc Andreesen and Eric Bina
!

The Internet became synonymous 

with “mosaic”
First Browsers
First Browsers
New Business Emerges
Internet Service Providers – ISP

The business of connecting the public to the Internet

Many new companies entered this market

AOL became a giant 


New services 

Domain name registration and hosting

Dial-up access, Leased line access

Web Design, Email services


Laying the Tracks

Companies like Cisco Systems
Netscape
Marc Andreesen and Jim Clark formed Mosaic
Communication Corporation 1994
Few months later renamed to Netscape

Netscape became the Internet leader
IPO in 1995 raised $140 million

The decline came just as fast

Did not establish sound business 

models nor build an infrastructure
Went head-on into competition

with Microsoft

Later bought by AOL
PHONE COMPANIES

COMPLETELY IGNORED THE INTERNET
LEFT THE SPACE 

OPEN FOR NEW COMPANIES
“...	
  an	
  Internet	
  browser	
  is	
  a	
  very	
  trivial	
  piece	
  of	
  software.	
  
There	
  are	
  at	
  least	
  30	
  companies	
  that	
  have	
  written	
  very	
  
credible	
  Internet	
  browsers,	
  so	
  that’s	
  nothing...”	
  
-­‐	
  Bill	
  Gates
Enter the Giants
The telephone business and software giants initially
ignored the Internet

Their focus was on voice or software

Internet traffic was using the phone lines

Classic example of the RPV theory
!

Left the field open for new companies

!

Seeing the success they entered the market

Today most ISPs are phone companies
Enter the Giants
Microsoft
Came late to the Internet
Bill Gates wrote The Road Ahead
Were trying to establish a proprietary 

“Information Superhighway”
!

Microsoft Network
MSN was released

in 1995 with Windows 95
INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAY
WHY	
  DID	
  THE	
  	
  
INTERNET	
  WIN?
The Generative Pattern
Lessons: Internet
▪ The Internet works because of the simplicity
– Dumb routing
– No security
– Anonymity

▪ The core of the network is always the same
– Innovation is at the edges
– No need to upgrade the core when new protocols
are invented
Lessons: Internet
▪ Network infrastructure companies like the
telecoms ignored the internet

– Did not see any business in consumer connections
– RVP theory explains this: their customer were
companies

▪ Software vendors like Microsoft ignored the
Internet
– Saw no revenue model

▪ Left the field open for the Yahoos, Googles
etc.
“Doing research on the Web is like using a library assembled
piecemeal by pack rats and vandalized nightly”
- Roger Ebert (attributed)

2000-2005 Stretching the Limit
Rise of P2P
Peer-to-peer Networks
Relies on the computing power and bandwidth of
the participants in the network
Peers act as both clients and servers
No central server
!

Legal controversy
Digitalization of Content

Netflix represents 32.7% of North America´s
peak Web traffic
Stretching the Limits
The Internet has scaled up to 2+ billion users

Tweaked over the years

Designed to be simple

Innovation only happens at the edges

The end-to-end principle

Has prevented innovations at its core
Testing the Limits
Visionaries only partially saw the future

!

The net was designed to be simple peer
to peer network

!

Things like security and social
responsibility were not a main concern
Problems with the Internet
Limited IP numbers

Dumb routing – content unaware

Spam, Viruses and DoS attacks

Illegal distribution of content

Antisocial behaviour 

Lack of security

Not possible to update the

Internet protocols
“If a planet-wide network were built on Mars, 

what would it look like?”
- Reinventing the Internet (Economist)

2005-2010 Reinventing the Network
The Internet Infrastructure
Several efforts for reinventing the Internet

GENI – Global Environment for Networking Innovations

FIND – Future Internet Design

Internet2

PlanetLab

!

Challenge

How can we replace the current Internet infrastructure?

How can we run multiple protocols at the same time?
Content Delivery Network

Source: Akamai
“Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer
industry caused by the move to the Internet as
platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for
success on that new platform.”
- Tim O'Reilly

Web 2.0
....for seizing the reins of the global media, for
founding and framing the new digital
democracy, for working for nothing and
beating the pros at their own game, TIME's
Person of the Year for 2006 is you


Read	
  more:	
  http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/
0,9171,1569514,00.html#ixzz1FjqlB9yO
Web 2.0
New web developments 

Popularized by O’Reilly 

and others

Refers to a new phase in 

architecture and application

development of web

applications

Buzzword that is not easy to define

!

Trend

Desktop Application and Web Application will become the same
The Community
The smartest people in the room is everybody
The Hype Cycle
“Web 2.0”
The Brief History of the Internet
▪ 1969-1995 Computer Networking
– Simple net run by pioneers


▪ 1995-2000 Commercialization and Growth
– Enter the ISPs and the public


▪ 2000-2005 Stretching the Limit
– New applications and digital media


▪ 2005-2010 Reinventing the Network
– New business models


▪ 2010-2015 ?
Vint Cerf on the Internet's future
Kevin Kelly on Internet of Things, 2007
Visions of the Future
Trends
!

Mobile phones are connecting to the Internet

Sensors will be connected – Internet of Things
New media content is emerging

All content will be digital
Internet of things is estimated to be worth $309 billion by 2020
We are just starting this revolution…
2010 – 2015 The App Internet - Smart and Local
Local
Smart
Theory of Data Overload

Linear

Simple

Web	
  sites

Categorized

Yahoo!

Search

Google

Smart

Siri,	
  Watson	
  
Local
Applications are small and pieced together
Data is in the cloud
Run on any device
INTERNET
OF
THINGS
NIKE + FUELBAND
ACTIVITY
SENSOR
JAWBONE UP
BODY TRACKER
HUE
LIGHTING
SYSTEM
NEST
THERMOSTAT
LOCKITRON
LOCK
FOR ACCESS
CONTROL
IGRILL
COOKING

THERMOMETER
SCANADU
MEDICAL
SENSOR
SAMSUNG 

SMART WASHER
SAMSUNG 

SMART FRIDGE
Future of the Internet
The App Internet 

Smart and Local – knowledge about you

Fragmented

Sensor driven

Connecting the online and offline worlds

!

Threats: Powerful content owners and politicians
Summary
▪ 1969-1995 Computer Networking
– Simple net, TCP/IP, FTP, Telnet, HTTP and the
web

▪ 1995-2000 Commercialization and growth
– Enter the ISPs and the public, huge growth –
dot-com

▪ 2000-2005 Stretching the Limit
– New applications and digital media, bandwidth
increases

▪ 2005-2010 Reinventing the Network
– IPv6, faster networks

▪ 2010-2015 APPs, Smart and Local

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A Brief History of the Internet

  • 1. Lecture L16 A WORLD WIDE NETWORK
  • 2. A Brief History of the Internet 1969-1995 Computer Networking! Simple net run by pioneers 1995-2000 Commercialisation and Growth! Enter the ISPs and the public 2000-2005 Stretching the Limit! New applications and digital media 2005-2010 Reinventing the Network! The New Internet emerges 2010 - ?! Death?
  • 3. “The Internet works because a lot of people 
 cooperate to do things together” - Jon Postel 1969-1995 Computer Networking
  • 4. Computer Networking Efforts on connecting computers started early Two principal groups: Defence and Academia Defence Strategic reasons during the Cold War Any computer could be reached, and if one goes down, the others still work Academia Economic reasons Mainframes are expensive and could be justified only by the collective needs of many departments
  • 5.
  • 6. ARPANET ▪ Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) The Soviet Union – Founded in 1958 – Attributed Sputnik 1 lunched by the Russian
 on Sputnik satellite October to th 1954 – Renamed 4 DARPA ▪ Two main objectives – Computers had to talk to each
 other to share information – Links had to be robust
  • 9. 1979 46 military sites 16 academic campus sites
  • 10. Network Layers Application Layer is for specific application Transport Layer is for reliable communication Network Layer is for routing packages
  • 11. Packet Switched Source:  What  is  a  packet?
  • 12. Example: Email message The e-mail is about 3,500 bits (3.5 kilobits) in size The network you send it over uses fixed-length packets of 1,024 bits (1 kilobit) The header of each packet is 96 bits long and the trailer is 32 bits long, leaving 896 bits for the payload To break the 3,500 bits of message into packets, you will need four packets divide 3,500 by 896) Three packets will contain 896 bits of payload and the fourth will have 812 bits Source:  What  is  a  packet?
  • 13. WHAT WAS THE KILLER APP OF THE EARLY INTERNET?
  • 14. FTP - File Transfer Protocol Telnet Email Usenet Source:  Internet  protocol  suite
  • 15. HOW  DO  YOU  WIRE
 ALL  THESE   MACHINES   TOGETHER?
  • 16. Connecting Computers The phone system was already there ! Modem - modulate and demodulate A device that modulates an 
 analog carrier signal to encode 
 digital information, and also 
 demodulates such a carrier 
 signal to decode the 
 transmitted information Source:  Modem
  • 17. The Early Internet Community The Internet is a simple peer to peer network Designed to be simple rather than secure ! The Internet became a community Most users where highly educated scientists Respect for others – spam nearly nonexistent Antisocial behaviour was rare ! Netiquette! How to behave on the net Violators are removed from the network
  • 18. “On the Internet,
 nobody knows you're a dog.” - Peter Steiner cartoon in 
 The New Yorker 1995-2000 Commercialisation and growth
  • 19.
  • 20. Metcalfe’s Law The value of a network equals approximately the square of the number of users of the system (n2)
  • 23. WHY  DID  THE   INTERNET  BECOME
 WIDESPREAD?
  • 24.
  • 25. Maybe these gentlemen had something to do with it… inadvertently
  • 26. Enter WinSock In the early 1990 the most popular operating systems were Windows and DOS ! Designed for Personal Computers ! Network support was later added LANs – NetBIOS ! WinSock – Windows Sockets! Microsoft had completely ignored TCP/IP Due to demand from IT companies, efforts started in 1991 WinSock 1.0 became available in 1992
  • 27. World Wide Web Tim Berners-Lee started his efforts on 
 information sharing in the 1980s Working for CERN, he proposed 
 the creation of non-hierarchical 
 hypertext based system! The system was to be based on 
 the established TCP/IP protocols
  • 28. World Wide Web Due to lack of support he started work on his ideas himself Using a NeXT computer he 
 set out to create a program for building, browsing and editing hypertext pages  
  • 29.
  • 30. The Basic Idea of WWW Hypertext To move from one document to another Resource identifiers – URL To locate a particular resource (computer, document or other resource) on the network Client-server model of computing – HTTP Client software requests of server software resources such as data or files Markup language – HTML Tags embedded in text indicate to a computer how to print or display the text, e.g. as in italics or bold type
  • 31. The Rise and Fall of Gopher The WWW has not the only idea for a distributed hyperlink system ! Gopher Created at the University of Minnesota A distributed document 
 search and retrieval system Hierarchical menu structure Released in 1991 Became popular until the 
 UoM decided to license it
  • 32. WHY  DID  THE   WWW  SUCEDE?
  • 33. Lesson: Why did the WWW succeed? ▪ This design was simple – Simple syntax – Uniform URL to any resource using any protocols – No security, not authentication, no tracking ▪ HTTP – Simple protocol – GET, POST ▪ HTML – Not an advanced markup – enough to display text in different sizes ▪ Did not try to solve the problem of back-links – Avoided a huge problem
  • 34. Lesson: Why did the WWW succeed? ▪ WWW was FREE ▪ Gopher failed – More rigid system – Tree structure – not free format – NOT FREE
  • 35. First Browsers Without browsers, the Web would not take off And without content, no one would create browsers ! Mosaic NCSA developed Mosaic Web Browser Developed by Marc Andreesen and Eric Bina ! The Internet became synonymous 
 with “mosaic”
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41. New Business Emerges Internet Service Providers – ISP The business of connecting the public to the Internet Many new companies entered this market AOL became a giant New services Domain name registration and hosting Dial-up access, Leased line access Web Design, Email services Laying the Tracks Companies like Cisco Systems
  • 42. Netscape Marc Andreesen and Jim Clark formed Mosaic Communication Corporation 1994 Few months later renamed to Netscape Netscape became the Internet leader IPO in 1995 raised $140 million The decline came just as fast Did not establish sound business 
 models nor build an infrastructure Went head-on into competition
 with Microsoft Later bought by AOL
  • 43.
  • 44. PHONE COMPANIES COMPLETELY IGNORED THE INTERNET LEFT THE SPACE 
 OPEN FOR NEW COMPANIES
  • 45. “...  an  Internet  browser  is  a  very  trivial  piece  of  software.   There  are  at  least  30  companies  that  have  written  very   credible  Internet  browsers,  so  that’s  nothing...”   -­‐  Bill  Gates
  • 46. Enter the Giants The telephone business and software giants initially ignored the Internet Their focus was on voice or software Internet traffic was using the phone lines Classic example of the RPV theory ! Left the field open for new companies ! Seeing the success they entered the market Today most ISPs are phone companies
  • 47. Enter the Giants Microsoft Came late to the Internet Bill Gates wrote The Road Ahead Were trying to establish a proprietary 
 “Information Superhighway” ! Microsoft Network MSN was released
 in 1995 with Windows 95
  • 49. WHY  DID  THE     INTERNET  WIN?
  • 50.
  • 52. Lessons: Internet ▪ The Internet works because of the simplicity – Dumb routing – No security – Anonymity ▪ The core of the network is always the same – Innovation is at the edges – No need to upgrade the core when new protocols are invented
  • 53. Lessons: Internet ▪ Network infrastructure companies like the telecoms ignored the internet – Did not see any business in consumer connections – RVP theory explains this: their customer were companies ▪ Software vendors like Microsoft ignored the Internet – Saw no revenue model ▪ Left the field open for the Yahoos, Googles etc.
  • 54. “Doing research on the Web is like using a library assembled piecemeal by pack rats and vandalized nightly” - Roger Ebert (attributed) 2000-2005 Stretching the Limit
  • 55. Rise of P2P Peer-to-peer Networks Relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network Peers act as both clients and servers No central server ! Legal controversy
  • 56. Digitalization of Content Netflix represents 32.7% of North America´s peak Web traffic
  • 57. Stretching the Limits The Internet has scaled up to 2+ billion users Tweaked over the years Designed to be simple Innovation only happens at the edges The end-to-end principle Has prevented innovations at its core
  • 58. Testing the Limits Visionaries only partially saw the future ! The net was designed to be simple peer to peer network ! Things like security and social responsibility were not a main concern
  • 59. Problems with the Internet Limited IP numbers Dumb routing – content unaware Spam, Viruses and DoS attacks Illegal distribution of content Antisocial behaviour Lack of security Not possible to update the
 Internet protocols
  • 60. “If a planet-wide network were built on Mars, 
 what would it look like?” - Reinventing the Internet (Economist) 2005-2010 Reinventing the Network
  • 61. The Internet Infrastructure Several efforts for reinventing the Internet GENI – Global Environment for Networking Innovations FIND – Future Internet Design Internet2 PlanetLab ! Challenge How can we replace the current Internet infrastructure? How can we run multiple protocols at the same time?
  • 63.
  • 64. “Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the Internet as platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform.” - Tim O'Reilly Web 2.0
  • 65.
  • 66. ....for seizing the reins of the global media, for founding and framing the new digital democracy, for working for nothing and beating the pros at their own game, TIME's Person of the Year for 2006 is you Read  more:  http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/ 0,9171,1569514,00.html#ixzz1FjqlB9yO
  • 67. Web 2.0 New web developments Popularized by O’Reilly 
 and others Refers to a new phase in 
 architecture and application
 development of web
 applications Buzzword that is not easy to define ! Trend Desktop Application and Web Application will become the same
  • 68.
  • 69. The Community The smartest people in the room is everybody
  • 71. The Brief History of the Internet ▪ 1969-1995 Computer Networking – Simple net run by pioneers ▪ 1995-2000 Commercialization and Growth – Enter the ISPs and the public ▪ 2000-2005 Stretching the Limit – New applications and digital media ▪ 2005-2010 Reinventing the Network – New business models ▪ 2010-2015 ?
  • 72.
  • 73. Vint Cerf on the Internet's future
  • 74.
  • 75. Kevin Kelly on Internet of Things, 2007
  • 76.
  • 77.
  • 78. Visions of the Future Trends ! Mobile phones are connecting to the Internet Sensors will be connected – Internet of Things New media content is emerging All content will be digital Internet of things is estimated to be worth $309 billion by 2020 We are just starting this revolution…
  • 79. 2010 – 2015 The App Internet - Smart and Local
  • 80. Local
  • 81.
  • 82.
  • 83.
  • 84.
  • 85.
  • 86. Smart
  • 87. Theory of Data Overload Linear Simple
 Web  sites Categorized Yahoo! Search Google Smart Siri,  Watson   Local
  • 88. Applications are small and pieced together
  • 89.
  • 90. Data is in the cloud
  • 91. Run on any device
  • 93.
  • 95.
  • 97.
  • 99.
  • 101.
  • 103.
  • 105.
  • 107.
  • 109.
  • 111.
  • 112. Future of the Internet The App Internet Smart and Local – knowledge about you Fragmented Sensor driven Connecting the online and offline worlds ! Threats: Powerful content owners and politicians
  • 113. Summary ▪ 1969-1995 Computer Networking – Simple net, TCP/IP, FTP, Telnet, HTTP and the web ▪ 1995-2000 Commercialization and growth – Enter the ISPs and the public, huge growth – dot-com ▪ 2000-2005 Stretching the Limit – New applications and digital media, bandwidth increases ▪ 2005-2010 Reinventing the Network – IPv6, faster networks ▪ 2010-2015 APPs, Smart and Local