Towards a
Data-Centric Notion of Trust
   in the Semantic Web
      (A Position Statement)
                               ...
Existing
         Research
    on Trust in the
   (Semantic) Web


Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in...
Existing Research on Trust


                             Trust(                                        )=?


     Focus o...
Existing Research on Trust


                             Trust(                                            )=?

         ...
Existing Research on Trust


                             Trust(                                            )=?
 ●   J.B. ...
Existing Research on Trust


                             Trust(                                        )=?
 ●   J.B. Barn...
Existing Research on Trust


                           Trust (                                         )=?
 ●   J.B. Barn...
Existing Research on Trust


                           Trust (                                         )=?
 ●   J.B. Barn...
Existing Research on Trust


                           Trust (                                         )=?
 ●   J.B. Barn...
Existing Research on Trust


                           Trust (                                         )=?
              ...
Existing Research on Trust


                           Trust (                                           )=?

           ...
Existing Research on Trust


                           Trust (                                            )=?

          ...
Existing Research on Trust


                           Trust (                                         )=?
            Wh...
Existing Research on Trust


                  Trust (                               )=?
       What is the opposite of tr...
Existing Research on Trust


                           Trust (                                         )=?


     Focus o...
Shift
Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web   16
Let's
                                                ... make data
                                            the centra...
Let's
                                            … conceive
                                  research on trust as an eff...
Let's
                                            … conceive
                                  research on trust as an eff...
Let's
                                            … conceive
                                  research on trust as an eff...
Category*                            Criteria / Dimensions
       Intrinsic                            Accuracy, Objectivi...
Category*                            Criteria / Dimensions
       Intrinsic                            Accuracy, Objectivi...
Trustworthiness of Data


 Definition: Subjective belief or disbelief in the truth of the
             information represe...
Focus on Semantic Web Data


                           Trust (                                         )=?




Olaf Harti...
Focus on Semantic Web Data


        Trust (   )=?
     Trust (  )=?
                                                http:...
Source-level Approaches


Trust (                                                  )=Trust (         )
 e.g.: Golbeck and ...
Source-level Approaches


Trust (                                                  )=Trust (         )
 e.g.: Golbeck and ...
Trustworthiness of Data


 Definition: Subjective belief or disbelief in the truth of the
             information represe...
Influence Category:
                             Provenance




Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in th...
Influence Category: Provenance


                           Trust (                                         )=?

         ...
Provenance
 ●   provenir (French), meaning to come from
 ●   How a data object in its current state came to be
 ●   This h...
Provenance
 ●   Provenance graphs represent the provenance




Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the...
Provenance
 ●   Basically, everything in a provenance graph
     had / might have had an influence
     on the data object...
Provenance
 ●   Basically, everything in a provenance graph
     had / might have had an influence
     on the data object...
Influence Category:
                      Information Quality



Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in t...
Influence Category: IQ
 ●   Other IQ criteria may affect our belief in the truth of data
                            i.e. ...
Influence Category: IQ
 ●   Relevancy may depend on context:
         Example: Completeness
                              ...
Influence Category: IQ
 ●   Relevancy may depend on context:
         Example: Completeness
                              ...
Influence Category: IQ
 ●   Relevancy may depend on context:
         Example: Completeness
                              ...
Influence Category:
                          Other's Opinion
Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the ...
Influence Category: Opinions



 Trust(                                 ) = fct(                           ,   , … )

 ●  ...
Take-away Summary
 ●   Focus of trust research for the Semantic Web:
     from an actor-centric view to a data-centric per...
These slides have been created by
                                             Olaf Hartig
                               ...
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Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web (A Position Statement)

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With this slide set I presented my position paper at the 2nd Workshop on Trust and Privacy on the Social and Semantic Web (SPOT) at EWC 2010

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Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web (A Position Statement)

  1. 1. Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web (A Position Statement) Olaf Hartig Database and Information Systems Research Group Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
  2. 2. Existing Research on Trust in the (Semantic) Web Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 2
  3. 3. Existing Research on Trust Trust( )=? Focus on active entities (e.g. persons, agents, peers) Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 3
  4. 4. Existing Research on Trust Trust( )=? What does it mean to trust an active entity? Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 4
  5. 5. Existing Research on Trust Trust( )=? ● J.B. Barney and M.H. Hansen, 1994: Trust “is the mutual confidence that one's vulnerability will not be exploited.” What does it mean to trust an active entity? Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 5
  6. 6. Existing Research on Trust Trust( )=? ● J.B. Barney and M.H. Hansen, 1994: Trust “is the mutual confidence that one's vulnerability will not be exploited.” ● L. Mui, M. Mohtashemi and A. Halberstadt, 2002: Trust is What does it mean the “subjective expectation an agent has about another's to trust an active entity? future behavior based on the history of their encounters.” Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 6
  7. 7. Existing Research on Trust Trust ( )=? ● J.B. Barney and M.H. Hansen, 1994: Trust “is the mutual confidence that one's vulnerability will not be exploited.” ● L. Mui, M. Mohtashemi and A. Halberstadt, 2002: Trust is What does it mean the “subjective expectation an agent has about another's to trust an active entity? future behavior based on the history of their encounters.” Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 7
  8. 8. Existing Research on Trust Trust ( )=? ● J.B. Barney and M.H. Hansen, 1994: Trust “is the mutual confidence that one's vulnerability will not be exploited.” ● L. Mui, M. Mohtashemi and A. Halberstadt, 2002: Trust is What does it mean the “subjective expectation an agent has about another's to trust an active entity? future behavior based on the history of their encounters.” ● T. Grandison and M. Sloman, 2000: Trust is “the firm belief in the competence of an entity to act dependably, securely, and reliably within a specified context.” Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 8
  9. 9. Existing Research on Trust Trust ( )=? ● J.B. Barney and M.H. Hansen, 1994: Trust “is the mutual confidence that one's vulnerability will not be exploited.” ● L. Mui, M. Mohtashemi and A. Halberstadt, 2002: Trust is What does it mean the “subjective expectation an agent has about another's to trust an active entity? future behavior based on the history of their encounters.” ● T. Grandison and M. Sloman, 2000: Trust is “the firm belief in the competence of an entity to act dependably, securely, and reliably within a specified context.” Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 9
  10. 10. Existing Research on Trust Trust ( )=? How do we represent trust? ● Binary models (e.g. Golbeck and Hendler, 2004) ● Discrete models (e.g. Golbeck et al., 2003) e.g. highly trusted, moderately trusted, … ● Continuous models (Brondsema and Schamp, 2006) e.g. 0 … 1 Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 10
  11. 11. Existing Research on Trust Trust ( )=? How do we calculate trust? ● Reputation based models ● Network based models (Web of trust) Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 11
  12. 12. Existing Research on Trust Trust ( )=? How do we calculate trust? e Reputation based models high oderat ● m trust ● Network tbased models (Web of trust) rust ? e.g. Guha et al., 2004; Ziegler and Lausen, 2004; Golbeck et al., 2003 Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 12
  13. 13. Existing Research on Trust Trust ( )=? What is the opposite of trust? (Recommended: Marsh and Dibben, 2005) Distrust ( )=? Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 13
  14. 14. Existing Research on Trust Trust ( )=? What is the opposite of trust? (Recommended: Marsh and Dibben, 2005) ? Distrust ( )=? Representations of distrust: ● Part of the trust value (e.g. Brondsema and Schamp, 2006) e.g. -1 … 0 … 1 ● Separate value (e.g Victor et al., 2006, Guha et al., 2004) Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 14
  15. 15. Existing Research on Trust Trust ( )=? Focus on active entities (e.g. persons, agents, peers) Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 15
  16. 16. Shift Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 16
  17. 17. Let's ... make data the central subject of research on trust in the Semantic Web Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 17
  18. 18. Let's … conceive research on trust as an effort that fits in the area of information quality research Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 18
  19. 19. Let's … conceive research on trust as an effort that fits in the area of information quality research Common definition: Fitness for use of information Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 19
  20. 20. Let's … conceive research on trust as an effort that fits in the area of information quality research ● Multidimensional concept Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 20
  21. 21. Category* Criteria / Dimensions Intrinsic Accuracy, Objectivity, ... Contextual Completeness, Relevance, Timeliness, ... Representational Conciseness, Understandability, ... Accessibility Let's Availability, Security, ... … conceive research on trust as an effort and Strong, 1996 *Classification by Wang that fits in the area of information quality research ● Multidimensional concept Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 21
  22. 22. Category* Criteria / Dimensions Intrinsic Accuracy, Objectivity, ... Contextual Completeness, Relevance, Timeliness, ... Representational Conciseness, Understandability, ... Let's Accessibility Availability, Security, ... … conceive research on trust as an effort and Strong, 1996 *Classification by Wang that fits in the area of information quality research ● Multidimensional concept ● Trustworthiness of data is another such IQ criterion Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 22
  23. 23. Trustworthiness of Data Definition: Subjective belief or disbelief in the truth of the information represented by this data Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 23
  24. 24. Focus on Semantic Web Data Trust ( )=? Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 24
  25. 25. Focus on Semantic Web Data Trust ( )=? Trust ( )=? http://cia..../Albania http://.../unemp_rate 13.2 % Trust ( )=? Trust ( )=? Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 25
  26. 26. Source-level Approaches Trust ( )=Trust ( ) e.g.: Golbeck and Hendler, 2006; Rowe and Butters, 2009; Zaihrayeu, da Silva, and McGuinness, 2005 Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 26
  27. 27. Source-level Approaches Trust ( )=Trust ( ) e.g.: Golbeck and Hendler, 2006; Rowe and Butters, 2009; Zaihrayeu, da Silva, and McGuinness, 2005 What if multiple sources provide this data? What if the data was republished as an aggregation? What about implicit statements inferred from source data? Are data sources the only relevant assessment criterion? Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 27
  28. 28. Trustworthiness of Data Definition: Subjective belief or disbelief in the truth of the information represented by this data ● Decision to belief or disbelief affected by: 1. Provenance 2. Information quality 3. Other's opinion Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 28
  29. 29. Influence Category: Provenance Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 29
  30. 30. Influence Category: Provenance Trust ( )=? ● How was the creation of the data conducted? ● Who or what participated in the creation of the data and how much do I trust this participant? ● To what extend does the input from which the data was produced represents the truth? ● What happened to the data since its creation; how likely is a manipulation? Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 30
  31. 31. Provenance ● provenir (French), meaning to come from ● How a data object in its current state came to be ● This history may start before the creation of the object Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 31
  32. 32. Provenance ● Provenance graphs represent the provenance Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 32
  33. 33. Provenance ● Basically, everything in a provenance graph had / might have had an influence on the data object Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 33
  34. 34. Provenance ● Basically, everything in a provenance graph had / might have had an influence on the data object Trust( ) = fct( Trust( ), Trust( ), … ) Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 34
  35. 35. Influence Category: Information Quality Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 35
  36. 36. Influence Category: IQ ● Other IQ criteria may affect our belief in the truth of data i.e. our trustworthiness assessment ● Example: lack of correctness, accuracy, or consistency ➔ Trustworthiness: ● Is a more abstract kind of IQ criteria ● Comprises multiple other criteria Trust( ) = fct( Accuracy( ), Currency( ), … ) Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 36
  37. 37. Influence Category: IQ ● Relevancy may depend on context: Example: Completeness Trust ( ) ● Trust( ) = fct( Accuracy( ), Currency( ), … ) Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 37
  38. 38. Influence Category: IQ ● Relevancy may depend on context: Example: Completeness Trust ( ) ● Trust ( ) ● Example: Currency Trust( ) = fct( Accuracy( ), Currency( ), … ) Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 38
  39. 39. Influence Category: IQ ● Relevancy may depend on context: Example: Completeness Trust ( ) ● Trust ( ) ● Example: Currency ● Reflect relevancy by weighting the criteria Trust( ) = fct( λAcc·Accuracy( ), λCur·Currency( ), … ) Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 39
  40. 40. Influence Category: Other's Opinion Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 40
  41. 41. Influence Category: Opinions Trust( ) = fct( , , … ) ● Similar to recommendation systems ● Two options: ● Use opinions of trusted consumers only ● Weight opinions by the consumers' trustworthiness Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 41
  42. 42. Take-away Summary ● Focus of trust research for the Semantic Web: from an actor-centric view to a data-centric perspective ● Understand trustworthiness of Semantic Web data as an information quality criterion ● Categories of factors that affect the assessment: 1. Provenance 2. Information quality Trust ( ) 3. Other's opinion Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 42
  43. 43. These slides have been created by Olaf Hartig http://olafhartig.de This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) Attribution: ● http://www.flickr.com/photos/rrrrred/3809362767/ ● http://www.hasslefreeclipart.com Olaf Hartig - Towards a Data-Centric Notion of Trust in the Semantic Web 43

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