Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Chapter 27 Health Assessment 1230050096570971 2


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Chapter 27 Health Assessment 1230050096570971 2

  1. 1. Chapter 27 Health Assessment
  2. 2. Preparing for the Health Assessment <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quiet, warm room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special needs of the client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface for placement of equipment </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Preparing for the Health Assessment <ul><li>Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation precautions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate number of gloves </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Preparing for the Health Assessment <ul><li>Positioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures accessibility to the body part being assessed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Draping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents chilling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents unnecessary exposure. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Conducting the Health and Physical Assessment <ul><li>Aimed at establishing a data base against which subsequent data can be compared. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Assessment (head to toe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of a body part (focused) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of a body system (focused) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Conducting the Health and Physical Assessment <ul><li>Conducted in an aseptic, systematic, and efficient manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires the fewest position changes for the client. </li></ul>
  7. 7. General Survey <ul><li>Initial Observations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client’s physical appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood and behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech patterns and voice intonations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms of distress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital signs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Height and weight </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. General Survey <ul><li>Special Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elderly clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disabled clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abused clients </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Measurement of Height and Weight <ul><li>Height </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Height is expressed in inches (in), feet (ft), centimeters (cm), or meters (m). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A scale for measuring height is usually attached to a standing weight scale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infant’s length is measured from vertex (top) of head to soles of feet while infant is lying with knees extended. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Measurement of Height and Weight <ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement of weight is expressed in ounces (oz), pounds (lb), grams (g), or kilograms (kg). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily weights should be obtained at the same time of the day, on the same scale, with the client wearing the same type of clothing. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Measurement of Height and Weight <ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of scales available include chair, stretcher, bed, and platform scales. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infants are weighed on platform or cradle scales. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Measurement of Height and Weight <ul><li>Nursing Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate recordings are necessary for drug dosage calculations and evaluation of effectiveness of drug, fluid, and nutritional therapy. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Measurement of Height and Weight <ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Height and weight are recorded on the admission assessment form. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily weights are usually recorded on the vital signs record. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurements taken at different times or on different scales should be recorded. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Vital Signs <ul><li>The taking of vital signs refers to measurement of the client’s body temperature (T), pulse (P) rate, respiratory (R) rate, and blood pressure (BP). </li></ul><ul><li>Vital signs are the first step in the physical examination. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Vital Signs <ul><li>Assessment of vital signs provides specific data regarding the client’s current condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Variations from baseline values may indicate potential problems with the client’s health status. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Vital Signs <ul><li>The sequence for recording vital sign measurements in the nurses’ notes is T-P-R and BP. </li></ul><ul><li>Vital signs are plotted on graphic forms that facilitate data comparison at a glance. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Thermoregulation <ul><li>The body’s physiological function of heat regulation to maintain a constant internal body temperature </li></ul>
  18. 18. Physiologic Function <ul><li>Thermoregulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The heat of the body is measured in units called degrees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The core internal temperature of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (F) does not vary more than 1.4 degrees F. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core internal temperature is higher than the skin and external temperature. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Thermoregulation <ul><li>Heat Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasodilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasoconstriction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piloerection </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Thermoregulation <ul><li>Heat Loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insensible Heat Loss </li></ul>
  21. 21. Thermoregulation <ul><li>Behavioral Control of Body Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The person makes appropriate environmental adjustments in response to the body’s signaling conditions of either being overheated or too cold. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Respiration <ul><li>Respiration is the act of breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>Terms related to respiratory function are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital capacity </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Respiration <ul><li>Major physiological pulmonary functions are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Hemodynamic Regulation <ul><li>The circulatory system transports nutrients to the tissues, removes waste products, and carries hormones from one part of the body to another. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Hemodynamic Regulation <ul><li>Systemic Circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arterioles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venules </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Hemodynamic Regulation <ul><li>Cardiac Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diastole </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stroke Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac Output </li></ul><ul><li>Compensatory Mechanisms </li></ul>
  27. 27. Hemodynamic Regulation <ul><li>Pulse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pulse is caused by the stroke volume ejection and distension of the walls of the aorta. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The bounding of blood flow in an artery is palpable at various points in the body (pulse points). </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Hemodynamic Regulation <ul><li>Blood Pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement of pressure pulsations exerted against the blood vessel walls during systole and diastole </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Blood Pressure <ul><li>Systolic Pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum pressure exerted against arterial walls during systole </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diastolic Pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure remaining in the arterial system during diastole </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Hemodynamic Regulation <ul><li>Hemodynamic regulators for blood pressure control are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral vascular resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viscosity </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Factors Influencing Vital Signs <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul>
  32. 32. Factors Influencing Vital Signs <ul><li>Medications </li></ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety and Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Postural Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Diurnal (daily) Variations </li></ul>
  33. 33. Assessing Body Temperature <ul><li>Temperature Scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centigrade or Fahrenheit scales are used to measure temperature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass or electronic thermometers are used. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperature Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axillary </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Assessing Body Temperature <ul><li>Alterations in Body Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrexia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperthermia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat Exhaustion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat Stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothermia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frostbite </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Assessing Pulse <ul><li>Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most accessible peripheral sites are the radial and carotid sites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The carotid site should always be used to assess the pulse in a cardiac emergency. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Assessing Pulse <ul><li>A peripheral pulse is palpated by placing the first two fingers on the pulse point with moderate pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>A Doppler ultrasound stethoscope is used on superficial pulse points. </li></ul><ul><li>A stethoscope is used to auscultate the heart’s rate and rhythm. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Assessing Pulse
  38. 38. Assessing Pulse <ul><li>A pulse deficit occurs when the apical pulse rate is greater than the radial pulse rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulse quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulse rate (bradycardia, tachycardia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulse rhythm (dysrhythmias) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulse volume </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Assessing Pulse <ul><li>Nursing Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An irregular pulse rate, if not previously documented, should be reported immediately. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients on certain cardiac medications may need to monitor their pulse rate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routine exercise lowers resting and activity pulses. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Assessing Respirations <ul><li>Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation of chest wall expansion and bilateral symmetrical movement of the thorax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement of back of hand next to client’s nose and mouth to feel expired air </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Assessing Respirations <ul><li>Rate is counted by number of breaths taken per minute. </li></ul><ul><li>Observation of thoracic and abdominal movements includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depth, rhythm, and symmetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costal (thoracic) breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragmatic breathing </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Assessing Respirations <ul><li>A stethoscope is used to auscultate breath sounds throughout the respiratory system. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Assessing Respirations <ul><li>Dyspnea, </li></ul><ul><li>Bradypnea, tachypnea, apnea </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperventilation </li></ul>
  44. 44. Assessing Respiratory Function <ul><li>Cyanosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluish appearance in the nail beds, lips, and skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced oxygen levels in the arterial blood </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Assessing Respiratory Function <ul><li>Clients with respiratory alterations require additional nursing assessment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulse oximetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apnea monitor </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Assessing Respiratory Function
  47. 47. Assessing Blood Pressure <ul><li>The direct method of measuring blood pressure requires an invasive procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>The indirect method requires use of the sphygmomanometer and stethoscope for auscultation and palpation as needed. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Assessing Blood Pressure <ul><li>The most common site for indirect measurement is the client’s arm over the brachial artery. </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate measurement requires the correct width of the blood pressure cuff as determined by the circumference of the client’s extremity. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Assessing Blood Pressure <ul><li>Korotkoff sounds are five distinct phases of sound heard with a stethoscope during auscultation. </li></ul><ul><li>The forearm or leg sites can be palpated to obtain a systolic reading when the brachial artery is inaccessible. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Assessing Blood Pressure <ul><li>Hypotension refers to a systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg or 20 to 30 mm Hg below the client’s normal systolic pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension refers to a persistent systolic pressure greater than 135 to 140 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure greater than 90 mm Hg. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Assessing Blood Pressure <ul><li>Orthostatic Hypotension (postural hypotension) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden drop in systolic pressure when client moves from a lying to a sitting to a standing position </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Assessing Blood Pressure <ul><li>False Readings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients who have recently eaten, ambulated, or experienced an emotional upset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper cuff width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper technique in deflating cuff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper positioning of extremity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to recognize an auscultatory gap </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. The Physical Examination <ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palpation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auscultation </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Integumentary System <ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Hair and Scalp </li></ul><ul><li>Nails </li></ul>
  55. 55. Skin Assessment <ul><li>Skin assessment provides a noninvasive window to observe the body’s physiological functions. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Skin Assessment <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Lesions </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility and Turgor </li></ul><ul><li>Edema </li></ul>
  57. 57. Integumentary System <ul><li>Hair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount and texture of hair vary with age, sex, race and body part. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vellus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal hair </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The scalp should be smooth, clean, intact, and free of lumps or tender areas. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Integumentary System <ul><li>Nails </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clubbing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Koilonychia (spoon nail) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beau’s line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paronchia </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Physical Examination <ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skull and face assessment involves inspection and palpation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The client’s face has its own unique characteristics related to race, state of health, emotions, environment. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Physical Assessment <ul><li>Eyes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conjunctive and sclera are assessed for color, redness, swelling, exudate, foreign bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual acuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundoscopy </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Physical Assessment <ul><li>Ears </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory screening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection and palpation of external ear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement, symmetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Otoscopic assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nose and Sinuses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection and palpation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of a penlight </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Physical Examination <ul><li>Mouth and Pharynx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buccal mucosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gums and teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard and soft palate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Physical Examination <ul><li>Neck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neck muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes of head and neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trachea </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Physical Examination <ul><li>Thorax and Lungs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landmarks for inspection, auscultation, and percussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior and posterior examination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape and symmetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactile fremitus </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Thorax and Lungs <ul><li>Auscultation of Normal Breath Sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vesicular sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchovesicular sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchial sounds </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Thorax and Lungs. <ul><li>Auscultation of Adventitious Breath Sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crackles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhonchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheezes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleural friction rub </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stridor </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Heart and Vascular System <ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landmarks for inspection, palpation, auscultation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palpation for thrills and heaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal auscultatory findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Murmurs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bruits </li></ul></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Heart and Vascular System <ul><li>Vascular System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood perfusion of peripheral vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral pulses compared bilaterally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skin temperature, color </li></ul></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Physical Examination <ul><li>Lymphatic System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphatic drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Breasts and Axillae <ul><li>Palpation of four quadrants of breasts </li></ul><ul><li>Palpation of supraclavicular, infraclavicular, and axillary nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Education and encouragement of questions about breast self-examination (BSE) </li></ul><ul><li>Breast cancer can also occur in males. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Breasts and Axillae <ul><li>Drainage patterns of the left breast. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Abdomen <ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Umbilicus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scars </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Abdomen <ul><li>Auscultation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All four quadrants in a systematic fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning with the RLQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tympany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dullness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bruits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperactive or hypoactive bowel sounds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Abdominal Quadrants
  75. 75. Abdomen <ul><li>Light palpation in all four quadrants beginning with the RLQ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenderness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebound tenderness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organ enlargement </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Female Genitalia and Anus <ul><li>Cultural Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection and Palpation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mons pubis and vulva </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labia majora, labia minora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clitoris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urethral meatus and vaginal introitus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perineum and anus </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Male Genitalia, Anus, and Rectum <ul><li>Testes and male gonads </li></ul><ul><li>Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands </li></ul><ul><li>Epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Scrotum, penis, spermatic cord </li></ul><ul><li>Anorectral exam including the prostate </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly testicular self-examination (TSE) </li></ul>
  78. 78. Musculoskeletal System <ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Palpation </li></ul><ul><li>Range of Motion (ROM) </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral Comparison </li></ul>
  79. 79. Musculoskeletal System <ul><li>Muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertrophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atrophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertonicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotonicity </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Musculoskeletal System <ul><li>Joints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arthritis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crepitus </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. Neurologic System <ul><li>Mental Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical appearance and behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of consciousness </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Mental Status <ul><li>Cognitive Abilities and Mentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgment, insight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought process and content </li></ul></ul>
  83. 83. Neurological Assessment <ul><li>Sensory Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exteroceptive sensations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprioceptive sensations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortical sensations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermatome map </li></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Neurological Assessment <ul><li>Cranial Nerves Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebellar Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Reflex Assessment </li></ul>