Knowledge	  &	  Organisations	  -­‐	  	  	  Of	  Knowledge,	  communication	  &technologies	                              ...
2                                                                            Agenda	  *  Definitions	       *  Knowledge	  ...
Knowledge	  
“Definition”	  of	  Knowledge	  I	  subscribe	  Luft,	  1994;Liebenau	  &	  Backhouse	  1990	                  Dr.	  Oliver...
Concept	  exploration	  I	  ì  Knowledge	      ì  Knowledge,	  as	  negotiated	  outcome	  of	  a	  discourse,	      ì ...
Organisation	  Dr. Oliver KroneLay, 2013, Organizations and Management
The constructedness of             Organisations                                         Organi-                          ...
Knowledge	  in	  the	  Organisation	            Dr. Oliver Krone          Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
Communication	  *  „Organiza)onal	  survival	  is	  related	  to	    management‘s	  ability	  to	  receive,	  transmit	  a...
Interactions in Organisation      Dr. Oliver Krone      Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
Knowledge and Management•  Knowledge	     –  As	  communal	  wisdom	     –  Formation	  and	  its	  social	  character	   ...
Knowledge	  –	  	                                                         communal	  wisdom	  ì  Language	  –	  or:	  How...
Knowledge	  –	  	                             Individual	  posession	  *  As	  far	  as	  emotions	  are	  concerned	  the...
Management	  ì  Management	      ì  As	  activity	  of	  administrators	       ì  As	  setting	  boundaries	           ...
Management	  –	  	                                                                               Leadership	  ì  Yukl	  [...
Management	  –	  	                                                       as	  setting	  boundaries	  I	  ì  Is	  commomly...
Knowledge	  Management	  Dr. Oliver KroneLay, 2013, Organizations and Management
Knowledge	  Management	  I	                          (the	  Business	  interpretation)	  Basic	  assumptions	  that	  are	...
Knowledge	  Management	  IV	                                 	  (the	  Business	  interpretation)	  *  In	  the	  field	  o...
Knowledge	  Management	  VI	  ì  Jennex	  :	  	       ì  [..]	  the	  practice	  of	  	       ì  selectively	  applying...
Knowledge	  creation	  –	  	                               Disciplinary	  interactions	  Dr. Oliver KroneLay, 2013, Organi...
Method	  and	  knowledge	  production	  II	  ì  As	  result	  of	  the	  industrial	  revolution,	  and	  latest	  after	...
Method	  and	  knowledge	  production	  III	  ì  Knowledge	  becomes	  particular,	      ì  Validity	  is	  assigned	  t...
Inter-­‐/Multidisciplinarity	  	                   What	  are	  actually	  disciplines?	  I	  *  „[..]	  collec)vi)es	  th...
Inter-­‐/Multidisciplinarity	  	                                        What	  are	  actually	  disciplines?	  II	  *  The...
Inter-­‐/Multidisciplinarity	  	                What	  are	  actually	  disciplines?	  IV	  *  The	  generation	  of	  mar...
Knowledge	  Sharing	  Dr. Oliver KroneLay, 2013, Organizations and Management
Knowledge	  Sharing	  I	  ì  In	  general	  terms	  it	  is	  distinguished:	  	      ì  “Sharing	  for	  further	  util...
Knowledge	  Sharing	  II	  ì  Means	  to	  increase	  the	  willingness	  to	  exchange	      knowledge	      ì  Making	...
Knowledge	  Sharing	  V	  =>	  We	  can	  not	  neglect	  that	  even	  the	  most	    altruistic	  Human	  being	  in	  t...
Social	  Identity	  Theory	          Group-­‐membership	          -­‐ assimilation	  to	  prototype	          -­‐ 	  socia...
On	  the	  way	  to	                           Knowledge	  Integration	  I	  *  Members	  of	  a	  project	  are	  reflecti...
Gouvernmentality	  and	                                             knowledges	  ì  Describes	  in	  modern	  guise	  a	 ...
Knowledge	  Integration	  I	  ì  „It	  [KI]	  examines	  the	  processes	  under	  which	  a	  successful	       exchange...
58                       Terminological	  Clarifications	  ì  Knowledge	  Integration	      ì  Knowledge	  Integration	  ...
59                                              Technologies	  of	  KM	  ì  KM	  today	  has	  become	  more	  and	  more...
60                             Technologies	  (ICT	  of	  KM)	  ì  IS	  are	  	  ì  “[..]	  system[s]	  of	  communicati...
What	  	  (K)now?	                                                                               I	  ì  Can	  Knowledge	 ...
What	  	  (K)now?	                                                                            II	  ì  What	  is	  academi...
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Lapin yliopisto, Lecture 15th Jan 2013, Part of lecture Organization & Management

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Lapin yliopisto, Lecture 15th Jan 2013, Part of lecture Organization & Management

  1. 1. Knowledge  &  Organisations  -­‐      Of  Knowledge,  communication  &technologies    Lapin  Ylipisto,  Rovaniemi,  15th  of  January  2013 Dr.  Oliver  Krone  MBA  
  2. 2. 2 Agenda  *  Definitions   *  Knowledge   *  Organisation   *  Communication  *  Knowledge    and  Management   *  Knowledge  as  “communal  wisdom”     *  Knowledge  formation  and  its  social  character   *  Management  as  activity  of  Administrators   *  Management  as  setting  boundaries   *  Knowledge  creation  –  Disciplin-­‐ary  interactions   *  Knowledge  Sharing   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  3. 3. Knowledge  
  4. 4. “Definition”  of  Knowledge  I  subscribe  Luft,  1994;Liebenau  &  Backhouse  1990   Dr.  Oliver  Krone   Lay,  2013,  Organizations  and  Management  
  5. 5. Concept  exploration  I  ì  Knowledge   ì  Knowledge,  as  negotiated  outcome  of  a  discourse,   ì  the  value  attached  to  it,  and   ì  claim  for  acceptance,  is  dependent  on  the   ì  coherence  of  its  descriptions   ì  to  the  processes  as  they  are  ensuing  in  reality  (Krone,   2007)   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  6. 6. Organisation  Dr. Oliver KroneLay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  7. 7. The constructedness of Organisations Organi- sation includes generate/ Management enact structures Organisation+ Define/ entailed Work Set-up relationshipsHumanBeings Work fields Domains Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  8. 8. Knowledge  in  the  Organisation   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  9. 9. Communication  *  „Organiza)onal  survival  is  related  to   management‘s  ability  to  receive,  transmit  and   act  informa)on.  The  commnuica)on  process   links  the  organiza)on  to  its  environment  as  well   as  to  ist  parts...[Gibson  et  al.,  2003,p.13]  *  „[..]  communica)on  as  selec)on  out  of   complexi)es  based  on  system  endemic  sense   structures,  because  communica)on  is  the   processing  of  selec)ons“  [Krone,  2007,p.34]   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  10. 10. Interactions in Organisation Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  11. 11. Knowledge and Management•  Knowledge   –  As  communal  wisdom   –  Formation  and  its  social  character   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  12. 12. Knowledge  –     communal  wisdom  ì  Language  –  or:  How  do  we  arrive  at  Knowledge?   ì  Consists  of  grammar,  words  and  categories   ì  Its  acquisition  by  infants  is  a  rather  slow,  but  suggested   to  be  a  natural  process   ì  Is  a  social  shared  good   ì  Delivers  descriptions  of  real  life  objects  and  categorises   those  into  families  of  objects  that  are  of  same  kind   ì  according  to  Whorf(-­‐Sapir)  shapes  our  way  of   conceiving  world    (Boroditsky,  w/y)   ì  Is  used    to  formulate  and  develop  knowledge     Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  13. 13. Knowledge  –     Individual  posession  *  As  far  as  emotions  are  concerned  these  are  individual,  but   increasingly  research  shows  that  knowledge  is  not  stored   only  in  a  factual  way,  but     *  also  has  affective  components  and  the  brains  stores  the   factual  content  and  the  affective  content  in  the  mind   *  If  this  is  true,  it  might  explain  why  people  have  „gut“  feelings   on  the  rightness  of  knowledge  claims  [Damasio,  2004;  cp.   Polanyi,  1958)   *  Talking  about  tacit-­‐explicit  knowledge  is  than  not  about   explicit  (verbalized)  –  implict  (held  in  heads)  knowledge,  but   about  the  quality  of  the  sentiment  when  individuals  work  with   this   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  14. 14. Management  ì  Management   ì  As  activity  of  administrators   ì  As  setting  boundaries   Dr.  Oliver  Krone   Lay,  2013,  Organizations  and  Management  
  15. 15. Management  –     Leadership  ì  Yukl  [2006,  p.6]  distinguishes  between  leadership  and  management  as   dedicated  different  activities  ì  Management  is   ì  running  of  the  organization   ì   allocating  ressources   ì   defining  operational  aims     ì  taking  corrective  action  when  organizational  aims  are  not  met  ì  Leadership  in  this  perspective  orients  to   ì  challenging  status  quo   ì  implementing  the  measures  that  drive  the  organization  to  the  new   direction  ì  Management  is  oriented  to  efficiency  and  can  conflict  with  the   disruptive  premise  of  Leadership   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  16. 16. Management  –     as  setting  boundaries  I  ì  Is  commomly  associated  with  processes  that  relate  to   the  measurement  of  activities  ì  It  seeks  establishing  efficient  modes  of  working  in   order  to    ì  allow  optimised  resource  utilisation  under  conditions   of  scarcity  ì  Is  oriented  to  the  minute  working  of  the  organisation;    ì  Uses  knowledge  to  achieve  better  performance   Dr.  Oliver  Krone   Lay,  2013,  Organizations  and  Management  
  17. 17. Knowledge  Management  Dr. Oliver KroneLay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  18. 18. Knowledge  Management  I   (the  Business  interpretation)  Basic  assumptions  that  are  recurrent  in  the  field   of  research  on  knowledge  in  organisations    *  Knowledge  is  worth  managing  *  Organisations  benefit  from  managing   knowledge  *  Knowledge  can  be  managed  *  Minimal  risk  is  associated  with  managing   knowledge   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  19. 19. Knowledge  Management  IV    (the  Business  interpretation)  *  In  the  field  of  KM  it  is  a  general  practice  to  perceive  these   elements  as  being  expression  of  knowledge   *  Processses     *  Corporate  structures   *  Guidelines,  formal  work  instructions  *  Sometimes  the  above  mentioned  Items  are  considered   together  and  than  make  so  called  „Core  Competencies“  *  “Core  Competencies”  are  policies  and  experiences  in  the   field  of:   *  Dealing  with  physical  goods   *  Management  practices   *  “corporate  culture”     *  IT  Applications     Dr.  Oliver  Krone   Lay,  2013,  Organizations  and  Management  
  20. 20. Knowledge  Management  VI  ì  Jennex  :     ì  [..]  the  practice  of     ì  selectively  applying  knowledge   ì  from  previous  experiences  of  decision-­‐making   ì  to  current  and  future  decision-­‐making  activities   ì  with  the  express  purpose  of  improving  the  organization’s   effectiveness.[Jennex,  2010,XVII]   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  21. 21. Knowledge  creation  –     Disciplinary  interactions  Dr. Oliver KroneLay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  22. 22. Method  and  knowledge  production  II  ì  As  result  of  the  industrial  revolution,  and  latest  after  World   War  II  ,  Nowotny  et  al.  (2004)  observe  that   ì  knowledge  generation  moved  out  of  the  traditional,   state-­‐sanctioned   ì  Predominant  field  of  academic  research   ì  into  the  individual  (industrial-­‐)organisation  ì   the  commercial  oriented  production  of  knowledge,  while   ì  Adhering  to  procedures  resting  on  rational-­‐ methodological  empirical  methods,  has  led  to   ì  a  re-­‐orientation  to  the  particular  organisation   Dr. Oliver Krone 39 Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  23. 23. Method  and  knowledge  production  III  ì  Knowledge  becomes  particular,   ì  Validity  is  assigned  to  the   ì  outcomes  of  research  by     ì  fit  to  the  purpose  for  which  solutions  were  looked  for  ì  “Knowledge”  generation  becomes   ì   temporal,     ì  oriented  to  the  particular,  and   ì  “personalised”  to  the  employee  working  in  a  given   process  =>  ì  Knowledge  becomes  organisational   Dr. Oliver Krone 40 Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  24. 24. Inter-­‐/Multidisciplinarity     What  are  actually  disciplines?  I  *  „[..]  collec)vi)es  that  include  a  large  propor)on  of   persons  holding  degrees  with  the  same  differen)a)ng   specializa)on  name,  *  Which  are  organized  in  part  into  degree-­‐gran)ng  units   that  *  in  part  give  degree-­‐gran)ng  posi)ons  and  powers  to   persons  holding  these  degrees;  *  persons  holding  degrees  of  this  par)cular  specialized  kind   are  employed  in  posi)ons  that  give  degree  gran)ng   powers  to  them,    *  Such  that  there  is  an  actual  exchange  of  students   between  different  degree-­‐gran)ng  ins)tu)ons  offering   degrees  in  what  is  understood  to  be  the  same   specializa)on  [...]“  Turner,  47   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  25. 25. Inter-­‐/Multidisciplinarity     What  are  actually  disciplines?  II  *  The  market  is  secured  by   *  Standardization  of  training  driven  by  demands  of  the  market  become   curriculum  brought  to  students.     *  Students  internalise  these  demands  by  having  gone  through  the   experience  of  studying  for  particular  exam  or   *  Particular  kind  of  procedure.     *  The  fact  that  people  are  trained  in  fundamentally  the  same  way  makes  it   possible  for  them  to  effectively  judge  about  the  quality  of  work  done  by   others  and   *  regimes  of  training  for  themselves  be  evaluated  for  their  rigour.    ⇒   Disciplines  shape    cognitive  patterns  of  what  is  good  and  wrong  in   the  light  of  their  own  horizon!  (Turner,  p.  52)    ⇒   disciplines  shape  conditions  for  their  interaction  with  other   disciplines  via  their  training  (epistemic  style;  Bromme,  p.  124-­‐5)  ⇒  Disciplines  give  a  sense  of  belonging  and  how  and  against  which   standards  knowledge  bearers  are  held  accountable!   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  26. 26. Inter-­‐/Multidisciplinarity     What  are  actually  disciplines?  IV  *  The  generation  of  markets  for  students  of  a   particular  discipline,  is  according  to  Turner  the   crucial  element  for  becoming  a  discipline   *  Disciplines  are  expressions  of  an  integration  into   the  division  of  labour  in  the  environment  of  the   ‚discipline‘  that  is  applied  to  academic  research   (irrespective  of  the  existence  of  explaining  or   rigorous  models)   *  Disciplines  reflect  outside  patterns  to  the  inside  by   shaping  internally  working  opportunities  for  their   graduates   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  27. 27. Knowledge  Sharing  Dr. Oliver KroneLay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  28. 28. Knowledge  Sharing  I  ì  In  general  terms  it  is  distinguished:     ì  “Sharing  for  further  utilisation  in  a  known   activity”  [“Lessons  learnt”  in  Project  wrap-­‐up,  never   really  happening]   ì  “Sharing  for  the  purpose  of  generating  new   Knowledge”  (Hendriks,  1999)   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  29. 29. Knowledge  Sharing  II  ì  Means  to  increase  the  willingness  to  exchange   knowledge   ì  Making  the  team  aware  of  its  reliance  on  each   other   ì  Project  manager  to  ensure  that  Communication  is   not  blocked  by  rank  differences   ì  Generate  setting  which  discourages  from   Individual  profit  taking   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  30. 30. Knowledge  Sharing  V  =>  We  can  not  neglect  that  even  the  most   altruistic  Human  being  in  times  has  individual   rational  aims  *  Promotions  being  depended  on  performance   will  limit  employees  willingness  to  share  their   knowledge,  but  *  this  is  conditional  on  aspects  summarized   under  the  label  of  “social  capital”  (Wang  2004;   Chua  2003)   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  31. 31. Social  Identity  Theory   Group-­‐membership   -­‐ assimilation  to  prototype   -­‐   social  attraction  hypothesis   -­‐   Leadership  based  on  prototypicality   Leadership  allows   -­‐   change  in  def.  of  prototype   -­‐   define  new  norms   -­‐   pressure  on  deviant  members     Results:   -­‐ Leaders  are  not  selected  based  on  capabilities   -­‐   overall  in  the  orga.  management  is  a  rep.  of    a  dominant  type   -­‐   overall  org.  are  becoming  prone  to  be  abusive  to  others  (Hogg/Terry 2000) Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  32. 32. On  the  way  to   Knowledge  Integration  I  *  Members  of  a  project  are  reflecting  different   domains  of  a  organisation  *  From  psychology  it  is  known  that  a  process  can   be  observed  by  which  domain  members     *  Depersonalise  (reduce  own  characteristics)   *  Adapt  their  behaviour  to  that  of  their  domain   *  Try  to  imitate  the  behaviour  of  a  sub-­‐group  leader  *  This  phenomena  is  in  particular  observable  if  a   given  domain  is  subject  to  „intra  – organisational“  stress  factors   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  33. 33. Gouvernmentality  and   knowledges  ì  Describes  in  modern  guise  a  form  of  governance  that  relies  on   community  based  control    ì  Often  uses  as  expression  of  its  „tacit“  character  technological   expert  knowledge  ì  Behaviour  is  evaluated  by  others  and  staff  itself  in  line  with  role-­‐ models  of  a  given  work  community  ì  Diverse  knowledges  and  work  communities  are  an  expression   of  different  arena  in  which  disciplinarisation  happens    ì  Thus  there  is  a  linage  of  becoming  factual  acquainted  with   knowledge,  while  also  subjected  to  group-­‐control  effects  of   knowledge     Dr. Oliver Krone 54 Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  34. 34. Knowledge  Integration  I  ì  „It  [KI]  examines  the  processes  under  which  a  successful   exchange  of  Information  and  Knowledge  is   happening“  (Hislop  2003)  ì   “synthesis  of  individual  specialised  Knowledge  into   situation-­‐specific  systemic  knowledge”  (Alavi/  Timawa   2001)  ì  “the  compilation  of  systemic  networked  meta-­‐ knowledge  which  forms  a  bridge  between  previously   isolated  areas  of  knowledge  and  experience.  It  relies  on   the  ability  to  define  problems  independently  of   disciplines  and  to  solve  them  on  an  interdisciplinary   basis“  (Ganz/Hermann  1999)     Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  35. 35. 58 Terminological  Clarifications  ì  Knowledge  Integration   ì  Knowledge  Integration  (KI)  as  an  activity  [..],     ì  is  a  process  in  which  individuals  from  different  domains   ì  communicate  information  and  knowledge  in  a  way  that  the   respective  recipient  [..],   ì  can  act  based  on  the  information/knowledge  obtained.   ì  It  is  an  activity  of  knowledge  generation.   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  36. 36. 59 Technologies  of  KM  ì  KM  today  has  become  more  and  more  split  into     ì  Delivery  of  ICT  infrastructural  components  that  support  KM     ì  Motivational  elements  that  seek  shaping  organisational   internal  interactions  to  make  them  conducive  to  knowledge   sharing  ì  In  both  fields  psychological  components  are  important,   but  need  to  tackle  different  aspects  of  using  these   technologies   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  37. 37. 60 Technologies  (ICT  of  KM)  ì  IS  are    ì  “[..]  system[s]  of  communication  between  people.    ì  Information  systems  are  systems  involved  in  the  gathering,   processing,  distribution  and  use  of  information.    ì  Information  systems  support  human  activity   systems.“  (Beynon-­‐Davies,2002)   Dr. Oliver Krone Lay, 2013, Organizations and Management
  38. 38. What    (K)now?   I  ì  Can  Knowledge  Management  exist?  ì  KM  is  also  about  the  study  of  the  interaction  among   people  of  different  knowledge  sets,  and  between  people   and  organisations  ì  Knowledge  includes  many  facets  that  structure  its  bearers   behaviour  in  line  with  his/her  peer-­‐group  ì  If  knowledge  is  outcome  of  conversations:  What  about  the   rational  side  of  the  knowledge  generation  process?    ì  Organisations  and  knowledge  are  interdependent  and  do   have  mutual  re-­‐inforcing  characteristics  
  39. 39. What    (K)now?   II  ì  What  is  academic  knowledge  generation  for?    ì  What  are  methods  that  should  be  used  allowing  for   discourses  (communication)  among  people  from  different   domains  in  academia  and  real-­‐life?    If  knowledge  is  outcome  from  communication,  should  we  not  have  respectful  communication  with  our  communicative  partner,  and  then  generate  knowledge  by  means  of  our  shared  language  and  collective  sense  making  that  respects  differences  of  what  is  seen?  

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