If cats were made this way...

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I was hired once to review implementation of UCD process in a modern and fast paced publishing company.
It turned out, that a good idea can go wrong, if there’s temptation to subordinate it to managerial comfort - in this case, standardization. Enough to say, the creative process cannot be standardized at all.
My job was to get insight about the situation and find a solution.
After a two week long observation, I came with some conclusion and this presentation. It was just the beginning of fantastic journey with people I love to day.

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If cats were made this way...

  1. 1. Inspira(onal  (tle  goes  here And  here  goes  an  explana(on 1
  2. 2. What  the  presenta(on  is  about • I  was  hired  once  to  review  implementa(on  of  UCD   process  in  a  modern  and  fast  paced  publishing   company. • It  turned  out,  that  a  good  idea  can  go  wrong,  if  there’s   tempta(on  to  subordinate  it  to  managerial  comfort  -­‐  in   this  case,  standardiza(on.  Enough  to  say,  the  crea(ve   process  cannot  be  standardized  at  all. • My  job  was  to  get  insight  about  the  situa(on  and  find  a   solu(on. • AHer  a  two  week  long  observa(on,  I  came  with  some   conclusion  and  this  presenta(on.  It  was  just  the   beginning  of  fantas(c  journey  with  people  I  love  to  day. 2
  3. 3. Agenda • Issues  and  boKlenecks • Assembly  line • Framework  for  successful  design&deploy 3
  4. 4. Issues  and  boKlenecks 4
  5. 5. Issues • Produc(on  process  is  organized  as  linear  assembly   line. • No  proper  ini(a(on  and  closing  for  projects,   therefore: • No  proper  evalua(on • Allocated  share  of  liability • No  quality  check  in  the  process • Speed,  not  thought  oriented  process 5
  6. 6. Speed  over  quality • „Let’s  do  now  -­‐  we’ll  start  worrying  later”  aXtude   (cut  first,  then  measure). • Some  products  suffer  „leaking  boat  syndrome”,  that   results  in  enhanced  demand  for  resources  for   maintenance  of  defected  products. • Quick  fixes  that  are  conceptual  prostheses  tend  to   accumulate,  making  development  costly  and  sub   effec(ve. • Loss  of  opportuni(es  due  to  disappointed   expecta(ons  from  Users. 6
  7. 7. 7 Every project should start with a decent analysis of its business goals and expected outcome. It turns out, that 30% design time is actually dedicated to finding creative solutions for aligning business needs with actual user needs. It's challenging, but also very satisfying. Business oriented thinking
  8. 8. 8 Money. The only Esperanto! Use scenarios exploration reveals events of business importance. These are called „Opportunity Moments” - moments where we can convince User to execute various actions - registration, purchase, reccomendation etc. In simple words: we've got opportunities and we won't hesitate to use them! Business oriented thinking
  9. 9. 9 User Stories now They're in fact basic requirements indexes. Represent static concept of time. Everything here is just possibility waiting to happen with no actual hierarchy of actions. No modality. Do not describe various states under specific conditions. User Stories improved Scenarios matching identified business goals and user needs. Stories with real life background, giving answers for real life problems and needs. Structured as sequence of events under different conditions.
  10. 10. 10 Assembly  Line
  11. 11. IA/GUI (food processing unit) Development (transformational unit) deliverables Project management (food chamber) Sales (energy generator) (caloric fuel) Distribution (power grid) Assembly  line  logic  is  I/O  system 11 as  long  as  it  works  ok,  no  one  cares
  12. 12. In  every  I/O  system  failure  starts  at  input 12 IA/GUI (food processing unit) Development (transformational unit) deliverables Project management (food chamber) Sales (energy generator) (less caloric fuel) Distribution (power grid) Low quality food (ambiguous input) Stacks of unprocessed fuel (lower caloric value) Low efficiency and  it  oHen  does
  13. 13. 13 Development (transformational unit) deliverables Sales (energy generator) Project management (food chamber) IA/GUI (food processing unit) Wrong food (irrelevant input) Chaos (incommunicable madness) Substandard produce Wrong and uncontrollable reaction (days of joy and indomitable creativity) Obliterated turbines, no energy produced Diseases (self fired workers) Some(mes  it  goes  even  worse...
  14. 14. If  cats  were  made  this  way... 14 Project management IA/GUI UI testingCoders Screens! Improvements!It's alive! Business Idea! User Story! Sudden struck of insight First draft Product design Hey! The Product
  15. 15. Interac(ve  product  is  not  ar(fact • Web  applica(on  -­‐  in  fact  -­‐  is   conversa(on  agent. • Design  for  conversa(on/user   experience  needs  different  approach. • 19th  century  idea  of  assembly  line  is   dedicated  to  mul(plica(on  by   workforce  (humans  or  robots),  not   electronic  distribu(on  system,  where   copies  can  be  infinite. • Assembly  line  works  properly,  when   everything  is  standardized,  but  in   crea(on  process  it’s  fairly  impossible. 15
  16. 16. • In  21st  century  user  experience  is  strategic  driver  of   growth  for  products. • It’s  extension  of  brand  value  and  people  switch  to   products  they  find  well  designed,  thoroughly  thought,   smart  -­‐  just  as  they  wish  they  were  themselves. • The  only  way  to  avoid  issues  specific  to  assembly  line,  is   to  take  design  back  to  manufacture  produc(on  model,   create  great  product  prototypes  together,  then   replicate. 16
  17. 17. • We  need  a  design  studio  approach • We  need  a  different  set  of  prac(ces 17
  18. 18. Framework Techniques  for  successful   design  and  deploy 18
  19. 19. Build half a product, not a half-assed product You can turn a bunch of great ideas into a crappy product real fast by trying to do m all at once. You just can't do everything you want to do and do it well. You have You can turn a bunch of great ideas into a crappy product real fast by trying to do them all at once. You just can't do everything you want to do and do it well. You have limited time, resources, ability, and focus. You need to approach your idea the same way. Details make the difference. But getting infatuated with details too early leads to disagreement, meetings, and delays. You get lost in things that don't really matter. You waste time on decisions that are going to change anyway. So ignore the details--for a while. Nail the basics first and worry about the specifics later. Ignore the details early on When we start designing something, we sketch out ideas with a big, thick Sharpie marker, instead of a ballpoint pen. Why? Pen points are too fine. They're too high- resolution. They encourage you to worry about things that you shouldn't worry about yet, like perfecting the shading or whether to use a dotted or dashed line. You end up focusing on things that should still be out of focus. A Sharpie makes it impossible to drill down that deep. You can only draw shapes, lines, and boxes. That's good. The big picture is all you should be worrying about in the beginning. Walt Stanchfield, famed drawing instructor for Walt Disney Studios, used to encourage animators to "forget the detail" at first. The reason: Detail just doesn't buy you anything in the early stages. Excerpts from the book "Rework" by Jason Fried, founder of 37 Signals
  20. 20. Wireframes  don’t  work  as  crea(on  tool 20 Good for: Documenting: help other parties in the process get the idea of extent and nature of work Bad for: Innovation: describe page contents, not overall experience (wrong scope)
  21. 21. Explora(on • Build  an  interdisciplinary  team • Bring  lots  of  ideas  together • Pick  best  ones  and  remix 21
  22. 22. 22 Exploration = Structured Brainstorming + Collaborative Design New ideas Lot of funInnovationsReality check lots of time saved for succesive iterations Idea 1: don't waste time for documenting half-baked ideas. Instead, use this time to get best ideas fast, then document. Productivity sketch review repeat Idea 2: it's 100x more effective to multiply brainpower here and now by teamwork, than letting team members do the job apart in process chain
  23. 23. Roles  in  the  process  (design  team  composi(on) 23 Project manager Information architect UX Expert Developer Facilitator / Team Lead - providing relevant business input - capable of making business decisions on-the-fly - visioning the product - identyfying opportunities - providing web best practices, patterns - visioning interfaces and mechanics - being User's advocate - identyfying opportunities - translating sketches into wireframes and flow diagrams - providing input in technical area of the product - providing best practices, new possibilities - reviewing feasibility - structuring the process (keeping up with script) - moderating discussions - visioning product
  24. 24. Facilitators • Facilitator  role  should  be  given  to  a  person  working  across   all  projects. • Even  though  it’s  not  an  excep(onal  requirement,  it’s   beKer  to  have  couple  of  individuals,  that  contain   knowledge  of  all  projects  in  the  Organiza(on  at  their   idea(on  stages. • It  helps  to  avoid  requirements  conflicts  and  duplicates   between  different  projects. 24 Facilitator / Team Lead - structuring the process (keeping up with script) - moderating discussions - visioning product
  25. 25. Process  Structure 25 Business Analysis Product Design Design Sketches User Scenario Analysis Documentation
  26. 26. Business  analysis 26 Business Analysis Product Design Design Sketches User Scenario Analysis Documentation • We  have  2  handy  techniques  at  our  disposal:  CCU  and  Stack  Of   S+ckies • Stack  Of  S(ckies  is  rapid  method  and  does  not  require  much  effort.   Works  best  in  situa(ons  where  team  is  communica(ng  directly  with   business  owners  (or  BO  is  the  team  themselves),  team  is  aware  of   general  goals  in  the  project.  It  can  be  completed  in  less  than  15   minutes. • CCU  is  generally  heavy,  1-­‐2  day  consuming  workshop  script,  which  is   used  to  create  precise  vision  of  digital  product.  It’s  also  handy  in   situa(ons  of  ambiguous  managerial  input  and  helps  to  organize  pieces   of  knowledge  from  various  areas  of  organiza(on   (in  other  words:  for  cleaning  up  mess).
  27. 27. Stack  Of  S(ckies 27 Business Analysis Product Design Design Sketches User Scenario Analysis Documentation • Facilitator  gives  post-­‐it  cards  to  everybody   in  the  team   • The  task  is  to  write  one  sentence  goals  for   the  project  on  each  card.  Each  par(cipant   works  independently. • Facilitator  collects  cards  and  puts  them  on   wall.  Groups  similar  cards  and  creates   context  areas.  Duplicate  cards  can  be   disposed. • Team  examines  and  discusses  the  overall   strategy  to  achieve  its  objec(ves. WHAT WE’D LIKE TO ACHIEVE WITH THIS PROJECT? up to 15 min.
  28. 28. 28 - Mission [something we pursue]: - Operational short term goals [ up to 1 year ] - Operational long term goals [ 3 years+ ] - What are communicational goals for the project? What should Users remember in particular in context of the project? Is there a catch phrase, key thought we want to share? - Are there any communicational elements of great importance? - What are business goals for the project? (eg. building Client base, pursuit for specific position on the market etc.) - Having a look on local and foreign markets, do we have something we can use as standard? - Do we have any research input that could be helpful in the process? - Technology defines constraints we must embrace when designing IA. What is our playground? - What do we know about actions our competition takes in the area of our interest? - What are our measures for mission fulfillment? KPI's? What is the measurement architecture? Context Content Users - What is general idea of a structure we want to build? - What is the rule/system we use to organize content in the website? - Types of ads in the website Pareto rule: - 20% of content satisfies 80% users - what content is it? - 20% IA capabilities is oriented to stimulate consumption of 80% content - what content, what capabilities (features)? - 20% functional capabilities meets 80% users needs - what main features are? What are secondary? - What is the way we’d like to use so as to bind data within the system? Do we use manual CMS binding, or specific rules? - Do we expect that content will accrue? What could result from it and what problems in the future could we expect? - What is the way and who would be in charge to content entry? Do we anticipate need for content control (moderation)? How should we design CMS? - In the system we expect that some objects from different categories will require crosslinks. What logic should we apply? - What Users? Who are they? - What are they interested in? - Traffic sources? - How are we going to build value? up to 16 hrs.
  29. 29. Business Analysis Product Design Design Sketches User Scenario Analysis Documentation Product  Design 29 • Product  design  in  this  process  is  basically  discussion  about   Unique  Value  Proposi(on,  about  what  user  experience  we   want  to  give  our  customers • Techniques:  Design-­‐the-­‐Box  and  Elevator  Test
  30. 30. Business Analysis Product Design Design Sketches User Scenario Analysis Documentation Design-­‐the-­‐Box 30 Front Back Design the Box Think about: + the value proposition the box should convey + how the box is different/unique from other boxes on the shelf + the key message (front of the box) versus reassuring details (back of the box) Front Think about: + the value proposition the box should convey + how the box is different/unique from other boxes on the shelf + the key message (front of the box) versus reassuring details (back of the box) This  prac(ce  helps  bring  ideas   for  overall  user  experience  to   the  product. Par(cipants  draw  their  own   ideas  on  boxes. AHer  they’re  done,  they   present  their  ideas  to  the  rest   of  the  team. Par(cipants  can  re-­‐iterate,  or   take  elevator  test. up to 1 hr.
  31. 31. Elevator  test 31 Business Analysis Product Design Design Sketches User Scenario Analysis Documentation The  classic  way  to  validate  the  product  vision  is  to   answer  the  elevator  test:   “Can  you  explain  your  product  in  the  (me  it  takes  to   ride  up  in  an  elevator?”   This  test  leads  to  a  product  vision  that  is  clear,   engaging,  and  brief.   Product Vision A product vision helps team members pass the elevator test - the ability to explain the project to someone within two minutes. - For (target customer) - Who (statement of the need or opportunity) - The (product name) is a (product category) - That (key benefit, compelling reason to buy) - Unlike (primary competitive alternative) - Our product (statement of primary differentiation) less than 10 min.
  32. 32. Business Analysis Product Design Design Sketches User Scenario Analysis Documentation Personas • Personas  are  aKribu(on  models  used  to   envision  future  product  users. • Describe  how  ordinary  people  try  to   accomplish  things  in  their  daily  lives. • In  our  framework  we  start  modelling  business   processes  using  personas  as  entry  points. 32 up to 1 hr. Name, Last Name age education income motto personality marital status, familial situation technical skills interests, hobbies attitude and experience in area related to the product goals, lifetime expectations end goals, expectations related to product
  33. 33. Business Analysis Product Design Design Sketches User Scenario Analysis Documentation User  Scenarios • User  Scenarios  are  explora(ons  of  ac(ons  that  could  possibly  be  executed  by   Personas.  We  purposely  give  them  some  restric(ons  and  Persona-­‐specific   issues,  so  as  to  examine  how  would  they  behave  in  real  situa(ons. • We  start  giving  them  tasks,  that  contain  possible  obstacles.  These  obstacles   stand  for  opportuni(es  if  removed,  so  in  fact,  this  is  value  building  exercise. • Extensive  background  and  storytelling  makes  these  scenarios  even  more   detailed. 33 up to 4 hrs.
  34. 34. Business Analysis Product Design Design Sketches User Scenario Analysis Documentation User  Scenarios 34 up to 4 hrs. step step step • We  post  scenario  events  on  wall  as  steps  of  the  process. • Every  step  stands  for  a  screen. • We  like  to  use  S(ckies,  because  they’re  very  easy  to  rearrange. • Every  persona  should  be  examined  against  at  least  2  situa(ons. • Scenarios  of  other  personas  can  be  reused,  though  it  requires  examining   against  other  Persona’s  restric(ons.
  35. 35. Business Analysis Product Design Design Sketches User Scenario Analysis Documentation Collabora(ve  Design 35 up to 4 hrs. • Prac(ce  of  bringing  ideas  for  interfaces  and   itera(ng  with  team  members • We  use  method  of  successive   approxima(ons,  leading  to  genera(on  of   mul(ple  ideas  and  narrowing  choice   op(ons.
  36. 36. Business Analysis Product Design Design Sketches User Scenario Analysis Documentation Design  Sketches:  HP 36 up to 4 hrs. Every participant sketches 6 different ideas for one home page. Team discusses all designs. Pick 3 designs that contain most promising ideas. Team sketches chosen designs in higher fidelity Team discusses 3 favourite designs. Pick 1 that is the winner, or decide to mix ideas. Home Page is design guide for other pages, so they don't require so much treatment.
  37. 37. Courtesy of Adaptive Path
  38. 38. Courtesy of Adaptive Path
  39. 39. 39 Putting everything together
  40. 40. 40 Business Discussion Area Scenario Lane Scenario Lane Scenario Lane Scenario Lane Persona Persona Persona Persona Prototypes Area misc. annotations This shows how You can structure Your sketchboard. This structure proved to be very successful in many of my projects, but You can modify it to your taste. From now on, it's Your map to the user experience in Your product. Business Analysis Product Design Design Sketches User Scenario Analysis Documentation
  41. 41. 41 PersonasBusiness goals index (in groups) Scenarios, User Journeys, Use Cases Sticky Notes Sticky Notes Sticky Notes step step step step step step step step step step step step Sticky Notes Sticky Notes Sticky Notes Sticky Notes Paper prototypes and annotations
  42. 42. 42 After it’s done, IA can put everything into Axure and craft a prototype...
  43. 43. 43 ...that could be tested on real user
  44. 44. So,  if  cats  were  made  this  way... 44
  45. 45. Collabora(ve  design  of  a  cat 45 Has to be cute Has to chase mice. People hate mice Low milk consumption Good hearing, eyesight and agility Functional requirements to meet Product Purpose Technical requirements Unique Selling Proposition (user experience) Product purpose Business Analysis Product Design Design Sketches User Scenario Analysis Documentation
  46. 46. Cat  product  design 46 quadrupled motoric system sonic navigation subsystem ophtalmic navigation subsystem milk intake port olfactory sensor (navigation subsystem and fuel recognition device) CPU waste outlet (compatible with Brand™ cuvettes only) Cuteness generator mice graspers Cat run motoric phases Runs on CatOs v.1.1 Minimum requirements: - CPU - 128Mb RAM - Cache 32kb - bioFlash memory: 64Mb Business Analysis Product Design Design Sketches User Scenario Analysis Documentation
  47. 47. 47 Cat  at  user  tes(ng  sessions
  48. 48. 48 Cat  ready  for  shipping
  49. 49. 49 Thank You! In case You'd need to contact me: Tomek Jakubowski ojacie@gmail.com +48 510 196 996

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