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Africa International Journal of Management Education
and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online
Publication) Vol. 4 (...
Africa International Journal of Management Education
and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online
Publication) Vol. 4 (...
Africa International Journal of Management Education
and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online
Publication) Vol. 4 (...
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Influence of-instructional-drama-on-the-development-of-ecde-learners-in-elgeyo-marakwet-county

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The ways in which drama is used today may differ in a number of respects from the ways it has been used in the past. This study was designed to investigate the influence of instructional drama on the development of ECDE learners in Elgeyo Marakwet County. The study was guided by Piaget’s Cognitive development theory and utilized a cross-sectional descriptive survey research design.

The ways in which drama is used today may differ in a number of respects from the ways it has been used in the past. This study was designed to investigate the influence of instructional drama on the development of ECDE learners in Elgeyo Marakwet County. The study was guided by Piaget’s Cognitive development theory and utilized a cross-sectional descriptive survey research design.

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Influence of-instructional-drama-on-the-development-of-ecde-learners-in-elgeyo-marakwet-county

  1. 1. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org Influence of Instructional Drama on the Development of ECDE Learners in Elgeyo Marakwet County 1Boinett F. Jepkogei 2 Professor Mwaka – Kyalo 2Dr. David Wanyonyi 1 Ph.D Moi University 2 Lecturer Moi University Corresponding Author- jepkogei67@gmail.com Type of the Paper: Research Paper. Type of Review: Peer Reviewed. Indexed in: worldwide web. Google Scholar Citation: AIJMEG Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) A Refereed International Journal of OIRC JOURNALS. © Oirc Journals. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License subject to proper citation to the publication source of the work. Disclaimer: The scholarly papers as reviewed and published by the OIRC JOURNALS, are the views and opinions of their respective authors and are not the views or opinions of the OIRC JOURNALS. The OIRC JOURNALS disclaims of any harm or loss caused due to the published content to any party. How to Cite this Paper: Boinett, F. J., Kyalo, M. and Wanyonyi, D. (2019). Influence of Instructional Drama on the Development of ECDE Learners in Elgeyo Marakwet County. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG), 4 (2), 14-31.
  2. 2. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org 15 | P a g e Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org Influence of Instructional Drama on the Development of ECDE Learners in Elgeyo Marakwet County 1 Boinett F. Jepkogei 2 Professor Mwaka – Kyalo 2 Dr. David Wanyonyi 1 Ph.D Moi University 2 Lecturer Moi University ABSTRACT The ways in which drama is used today may differ in a number of respects from the ways it has been used in the past. This study was designed to investigate the influence of instructional drama on the development of ECDE learners in Elgeyo Marakwet County. The study was guided by Piaget’s Cognitive development theory and utilized a cross- sectional descriptive survey research design. It made use of 513 respondents comprising 334 teachers, 172 Head teachers, and 7 officials in charge of ECDE in Elgeyo Marakwet County. Data was collected through questionnaire, interview schedule and observation checklist. Quantitative data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques whereas qualitative data was presented thematically and reported verbatim. It was found that the use of instructional drama improves pupil ability to use symbols and think abstractly, improves cognitive/intellectual capabilities, improves communication skills of the pupils, improves reading skills of the pupils and improves pupils’ sense of sight, hear and touch. Drama play enable children to express and communicate their feelings and understanding in their own ways and that using instructional drama increases sensitivity involvement in sharing with other people and party by determining for himself the sort of the world he wishes to live in. The study recommends that teachers of ECDE schools to join in- service training so that they can learn about using instructional drama in ECDE and that there should be partnership between schools and teachers training colleges to fully prepare teachers adequately for use of instructional drama. It is hoped that the findings will be used by the Ministry of Education, ECDE head teachers and other educational stakeholders to enhance the use of drama as an effective method for teaching and learning process in ECDE centres in Kenya. 1.0 Background of the Study Drama is an activity where the participant portrays himself/herself in an imaginary situation providing an opportunity for the learner to listen, speak, read and write. Drama is considered to have a positive impact on participants’ communicative competence. It provides an opportunity for participants to learn the language as an enjoyable experience. According to Bergen (2009), dramatic arts education is an important means of stimulating creativity in problem solving and communication. It can challenge students' perceptions about their world and about themselves. Dramatic exploration can provide students with an outlet for emotions, thoughts, and dreams that they might not otherwise have means to express. A student can, if only for a few moments, become another person, explore a new role, try out and experiment with various personal choices and solutions to very real problems from their own life, or problems faced by characters in literature or historical figures. This can happen in a safe atmosphere, where actions and consequences can be examined, discussed, and in a very real sense experienced without the dangers and pitfalls that such experimentation would obviously lead to in the "real" world. This is perhaps the most important reason for dramatic arts in schools (Baldwin, Patrice; Fleming, Kate, 2003). O’Neil and Lambert (1982) have observed that drama can provide powerful motivation to learning and this does not occur in isolation. Learners are provided with a context that enables them to learn the concepts with ease. Drama provides an opportunity for learners to practice what they have ARTICLE INFO Received 24th April, 2019 Received in Revised Form 6th May, 2019 Accepted 8th May, 2019 Published online 9th May, 2019 Keywords: Instructional, Drama, ECDE Leaners, Development
  3. 3. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org 16 | P a g e Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org acquired in the classroom. Based on this proposition, this study is designed to determine the use of drama in the teaching and learning process in ECDE. Drama gives an opportunity for actors to share messages without having to worry about its implications. It helps people learn how to participate in open discussions without fear of tempers flaring. Drama can provide a situation where ordinary people can feel at ease in sharing their true feelings, laying a basis for understanding their motivation and concerns. It encourages children to use their imagination and creativity. In drama opportunities arise for role-play, expression of own identity and how each individual views the self, teamwork and story generation. Linguistically there are opportunities for descriptive language, storytelling, verbal prediction, giving directions, verbal negotiation, expression of feelings and emotions, use of abstract concepts and use of auditory and visual memory (Chatterton & Butler, 1994). According to the Kenya National Drama Festival Syllabus (2013), learners are supposed to benefit immensely from the use of drama in their communication. Drama provides learners with opportunities for practical language use that could improve communicative competence. According to Ochieng and Borg (2011) students who consistently participated in drama achieved better communicative competence in English language than those who did not. Drama appears to be a very appropriate mode of providing the learner with opportunities to acquire effective communication skills, values and attitudes (Andang'o & Mugo, 2007). Drama activities are important in helping pupils become more confident in their language use by allowing them to experience the language in operation. In Kenya, schools that perform well in drama have been known to also produce the good results in KCPE not only in English but also in other subjects offered in the primary school curriculum (Lloyd, Mensch & Clark, 2000). Linking the drama activities to the curriculum is also a challenge, especially where there is no specific provision for drama in education. While it may be fairly straightforward to use drama to teach language skills, it is not immediately apparent how they can use drama to teach numeracy skills. This may be complicated further by the lack of adequate instructional materials, thereby making the teacher's task seemingly impossible (McGregor, 1976). It is with such concerns in mind that the current study sought to inquire into the interaction between drama and early childhood education and development. Their interrelationship has not been adequately studied, especially in the context of the developing world, and thus the current study sought to redress this anomaly by shedding light on how drama can effectively be employed as a teaching method in ECDE. Statement of the Problem Early Childhood Development Education (ECDE) is a crucial part of schooling, because it affects all the subsequent education of individuals. Thus all children require thorough ECDE if they are to be competent in later levels of education. However, there is no universal consensus on the methods that should be applied to teach children during ECDE (Wambiri & Muthee, 2010). While some are in favour of formal instruction that mimics the type of learning that they will later experience in primary school, other authorities are in favour of a more child-centred interaction with learning materials. However, findings from other countries indicate that drama can be used as a mode of instruction within ECDE, and that it helps pupils to engage with what they are learning, in a playful manner that takes full advantage of children's characteristics, such as curiosity, playfulness, and enthusiasm and so on. Children also have a capacity for imagination which can be realized through drama (Rogers & Evans, 2007). Encouraging imaginative play in the classroom is an effective way to teach young children how to think creatively and interact socially- vital parts of their cognitive, social, and emotional development. In this way, the cognitive skills of children in ECDE will be improved, with potentially positive outcomes for their transitions to primary school. Despite the significant role played by use of drama in the teaching and learning, there is a tendency of both teachers and parents to emphasize on reading and writing well and even good performance academically. This is, of course, very important, but how well does the child communicates orally? Are they confident, clear speakers? How do they interact with others in the school and at home? Chances are, that within the school system, a child spends majority of the time focused on writing and reading skills, while not so much time on oratory ones. There has been a decline in children’s creativity since 1990, especially in younger children (Carlsson-Paige, 2008). Other research indicates that teachers believe drama is an important part of their curriculum, yet they often fail to plan for drama experiences and rely on their instincts in lieu of specific goals and objectives for drama (Bodrova & Leong, 2004). It has been established that drama is a dominant activity from birth through adolescence and that it is a child’s way of understanding their
  4. 4. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org 17 | P a g e Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org world. Drama allows children to make important discoveries, including what they like and what they do not like. Drama is deeply satisfying to young children. Children do not separate drama and learning. Although research supports the value of drama in the classroom, the jump has yet to be made from theory to practice. Rote and drill activities have replaced providing time for children to construct knowledge and understanding in order for children to arrive at the correct answer. Many opportunities are lost in early childhood classrooms every day because the contributions of drama to children’s learning and development are ignored or underestimated. By depriving children of drama opportunities, implies depriving the opportunity to learn critical social skills and develop flexibility and strength to cope with difficult situations. Therefore the current study sought to find out influence of instructional drama on the development of ECDE learners in Elgeyo Marakwet County. Objectives of the Study The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of instructional drama on the development of ECDE learners in Elgeyo Marakwet County. Research Hypothesis HO1; there is no significant relationship between the use of instructional drama and the development of ECDE learners. Theoretical Framework This study was guided by Social Cognitive Theory by Bandura (1977) The theory of Social Cognitive discloses that environment and personal variables influence human behaviour. Social Cognitive theory is based on the construct of self-efficacy. According to the Social Cognitive theory, behaviour is best understood in terms of “triadic reciprocity” where behaviour, cognition and the environment exist in a reciprocal relationship and influence each other (Bandura, 1986). In addition, Bandura (1982) reveals that Self-efficacy influences behaviour through selection processes. Teachers who feel that they will be successful in using music as a medium of instruction will be more likely to be so because they adopt challenging goals, try harder to achieve them, persist despite setbacks, and develop coping mechanism for managing their emotional states. Bandura (1982) further says that self-efficacy is determinant of choice of behaviour because it influences the choice of behaviour settings. When people recognize coping as inadequate for addressing threatening situations, they avoid the situations. Bandura (1986) more specifically believes that two cognitive processes influence one’s behaviour. These are result expectancy and self- efficacy. Outcome expectancy is one‟s beliefs that behaviour for example use of music as a medium of instruction will produce a desired effect while self-efficacy is ones belief in his / her ability to perform behaviour in a given situation. According to Bandura, self-efficacy beliefs develop in response to four sources of information. Bandura (1986) also emphasized that the first is “enactive experience” in which self-efficacy for behaviour is increased by successfully performing the behaviour during teacher training. The second is “explicit experience” in which other people that is, model pre- school teachers are seen to perform the behaviour successfully by using music as a medium of instruction. The third source of influence is verbal point of view, which encourage efforts that are likely to increase efficacy through success. This means that the school management encourages teachers to use music as a medium of instruction. Finally, self- efficacy belief is also affected by physiological factors for example stress and fear. Pre-primary school teachers who fear music may not use music as a medium of instruction. Consequently, according to this theory, proper pre- school teacher training increases self-efficacy and can be achieved through proper demonstration to the teachers on how to use music in teaching during teacher training. Lack of adequate resources like musical instruments may make it impossible for teachers to develop positive self-efficacy beliefs and hence may not use music as a medium of instruction. This theory is therefore, relevant in this study because teacher training” and “attitudes towards drama are important variables in the study. The theory describes the behaviour of pre- primary school teachers in that, if they believe that using drama as a medium of instruction will improve pupils performance and feel competent in using it as a medium of instruction, they will do so while the opposite applies to those who do not believe. Therefore, this study adopted the Social Cognitive Theory by Bandura (1977) and Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory to investigate the use of instructional drama in Early Childhood Education centres in Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya. 2.0 Literature Review Influence of Instructional Drama on the Development of ECDE Learners Drama in the classroom is ultimately indispensable because it offers a lens for learners to use their imagination. It draws upon learners abilities to imitate and express them and, if well handled, it should arouse interest and foster personality development. Drama encourages adaptability,
  5. 5. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org 18 | P a g e Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org fluency and communicative competence. It puts language into context and, by giving learners experience of success in real-life situations; it should arm them with the confidence for tackling the world outside the classroom (Desialova, 2009). Drama has been recognized for its pedagogical contributions to learning by a number of scholars in the fields of drama/theatre in education (Neelands, 2000), process drama, role drama and story drama (O’Neill 1995) as well as drama and literacy (Baldwin & Fleming 2003). Using various drama-based approaches to teaching and learning, these scholars propose, to varying degrees, aesthetic, creative, imaginative, and educational experiences for participants. The mentioned authors (as well as others) offer insights as to how and why the application of drama fosters learning in multiple ways, in multiple contexts, and with multiple learners including ECDE learners. A detachment of scholars have focused some of their thinking on ways that drama can support learners (O’Neill, 1998). Their work points to ways that educational drama supports learners to develop expertise in a second language as they “actively imagine and process information through the use of language and other symbolic forms” (Baldwin & Fleming 2003). Most often students who participate in educational drama activities are invited to engage with a story, looking at the narrative and characters from multiple perspectives and interpretations, and then responding to the work in diverse and often interactive ways. These kinesthetic as well as cognitive and emotional educational experiences that drama often fosters are empowering to classrooms (as well as other learning contexts). As such, a pedagogical and scholarly interest in the role of educational drama in children learning has evolved in tandem with pedagogical attempts towards more contextualized, communicative, and socially attuned learning experiences. To offer a critical perspective on the landscape of recent scholarship in drama and learning, we closely reviewed and synthesized published scholarly work and research studies within the last 20 years. Our research synthesis, largely North American-based, along with some European studies, extends the work of two key studies that gathered research in areas closely related to educational drama: Deasy (2002) looked at over 120 arts-based studies, of which 19 were in drama and its potential impact on learning; and Podlozny’s (2000) meta-analysis about drama instruction and student verbal achievement which looked at 80 studies. This study looks at studies published until 2012, as well as narrows the scope of Deasy and Podlozny’s meta-analyses by specifically looking at drama. This article builds on the scholarly interest ignited by Stinson and Winston’s 2011 special issue of Research in Drama Education where an insightful editorial essay along with seven key articles on the topic of drama and learning were gathered from international scholars. The use of educational drama has increasingly been of interest to teachers and practitioners, from ECDE to tertiary levels, in the field of learning and teaching. Application of drama in the classroom is based on dramatic activity where physical and mental involvement, often through improvisation, role play and games, creates situations in which the possibilities of life can be explored. When we put drama into the service of education, it means that we pick the content of the drama from curricular subjects and the goals from the curriculum. Therefore, which content is suitable for drama in schools and which curricular goals and objectives are achievable through the method of drama? Although the ideas behind content selection for drama vary, it may be meaningful to consider it from an instructional perspective. When deciding content, the drama teacher plays an important role. The use of drama requires from teachers a special knowledge about how to apply it to the selected content and how to plan the process. Therefore, it is necessary to know the features of dramatic contexts and build an educational environment in which children can solve problems through active techniques like improvisation, role playing, still image and so on. After applying this knowledge effectively, as Bolton (1984) stated, content that allows children to discuss different opinions and experience difference perspectives with a universal understanding can be selected. In that sense, it may be useful for the teacher to ask him/herself which methodology is more effective regarding time, energy, outcome and permanence. Drama is a powerful tool for teaching and learning through supplying an enjoyable, creative learning environment which fosters discovery and provides long-lasting knowledge (Bolton & Heathcote, 1994), although neither the planning nor the application of dramatic methods are time effective. Conceptual Framework A conceptual framework is a scheme of concept (or variables) which the researcher used to operationalize in order to achieve set objectives. This conceptual framework is presented as a model where research variables and the relationship between them are translated into the visual picture below to illustrate interconnections between the independent and dependent variables.
  6. 6. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org 19 | P a g e Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org Independent variable Figure 1: Conceptual Framework 3.0 Research Methodology Research Methodology This study will employ mixed methodology. Mixed methods research is a methodology for conducting research that involves collecting, analyzing and integrating quantitative and qualitative research. This approach to research is used when this integration provides a better understanding of the research problem than either of each alone. Quantitative data includes close-ended information such as that found to measure attitudes (rating scales), behaviours (observation checklists), and performance instruments. The analysis of this type of data consists of statistically analyzing scores collected on instruments (questionnaires) or checklists to answer research questions. Mixed methodology enabled the study to generate both qualitative and quantitative data from early childhood education centres in Elgeyo-Marakwet County, Kenya. Research Design While carrying out the study, the researcher adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. This is because it makes use of both qualitative and quantitative data to describe the state of affairs as they exist in the field. This design is simple and easy to carry out yet can yield suitable information desirable by the study (Mugenda & Mugenda, 2003). Descriptive studies are more than mere data collection; they involve measurement, classification, analysis, comparison and interpretation of data (Kothari, 2009). Detailed information can be gathered by subjecting the respondents to a series of items in a questionnaire, interview schedule and observations. Descriptive survey design was useful in the collection of original data from a population which is too large to observe directly. In this case data were collected from head teachers, ECDE teachers, and ECDE officials and also through observations. The descriptive analysis approach was chosen for the study, because it sought to gain insight into a phenomenon as a means of providing basic information in an area of study (Koul, 2003). Finally, descriptive research design was adopted in this study based on the conceptual relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. Dependent Variable Target Population The population refers to the group of people or study subjects who are similar in one or more ways and which forms the subject of the study in a particular survey (Kerlinger, 2003). The target populations in this research comprised of ECDE tteachers, ECDE head teachers and Elgeyo Marakwet county ECDE officials. Elgeyo Marakwet County comprises of Keiyo and Marakwet sub-counties. The county has a target population of 573 ECDE centre, 1090 ECDE teachers, 573 Head teachers and 7 ECDE officials (Elgeyo Marakwet DICECE, 2015). The study area was purposively selected due to significance of the study information to the researcher and other stakeholders. Therefore it is expected that this target population provided the required sample size for the study. Table3.1 Target Population Categories Target population Head teachers 573 ECDE teachers 1090 ECDE officials 7 TOTAL 1670 Sample Size and Sampling Technique This study employed both probability and non- probability sampling techniques in selecting the respondents who participated in this study. The researcher used stratified sampling to stratify Elgeyo Marakwet County into sub-counties that form 155 Keiyo North, 144 Keiyo south, 118 Marakwet East and 156 Marakwet West. Simple random sampling was used to select 47 ECDE schools from Keiyo North, 43 from Keiyo South, 35 from Marakwet East and 47 from Marakwet South sub-counties. These represented 30% of the total number of ECDE schools in Elgeyo Marakwet County. Simple random sampling was used to select 2 ECDE teachers from each of the selected schools. This implies that 344 teachers participated in this study. All the 172 head teachers in the schools selected were included in the study. Table 3.2 Sampling Categorie s Target populatio n Sampl e Size Percentag e Influence of Instructional Drama Use of instructional drama
  7. 7. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org 20 | P a g e Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org Head teachers 573 172 30.0 ECDE teachers 1090 344 31.6 ECDE officials 7 7 100.0 TOTAL 1670 523 Research instruments In this study, data was collected by questionnaires, interview guide and observation checklist as shown below. The selection of these tools was guided by the nature of data to be collected, the time available as well as by the objectives of the study (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2007). Questionnaires Questionnaires were used to collect information from ECDE teachers and head teachers. A questionnaire consisting of a number of questions printed or typed in a defined order or form. This is a method of data collection by which the questionnaires were mailed to respondents who were expected to read, understand the questions and write down the answers in the space meant for the purpose in the questionnaire (Kothari, 2008). The researcher prepared questionnaire for head teachers and ECDE teachers. Bothe questionnaire consisted of two sections; section A comprised structured questions concerned with the respondents demographic variables namely gender, age, professional qualification, experience and number of learners in the ECDE centres. Section B sought for information related to research questions. Questionnaires with both closed and open ended questions were used because they were easy to administer and are economical in the use of time and money. They were also easier to analyze and interpret. Likert Scale was used for some questions. This is because they are easy to complete and are unlikely to put off respondents. They also consume less space and allow easy comparison of responses given to different items. Also, when it is necessary to protect the privacy of the participants, questionnaires are easy to administer confidentiality. Often confidentially is needed to ensure participants respond honesty. To ensure this confidentiality, the researcher administered and collected the questionnaires personally. Interviews This study collected qualitative data from ECDE officials using interview schedule. An interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral- verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses (Kothari, 2009). The interview schedule was used for this study because it provided the researcher with great opportunity to describe the purpose of the study as stated by Best and Kahn (2005). Interview method provides for qualitative and in-depth data as it presents opportunity to explain the purpose of the study. An interview schedule was prepared with pre-coded questions to produce quick, cheap and easy qualitative data which is highly reliable but low in validity. The researcher therefore prepared an interview schedule to be used on the ECDE officials. The aim is to elicit information on the subject matter. This helped collect data and also assist in making clarification where it is not possible through a questionnaire. An interview allows the researchers to get a detailed data (Kombo and Tromp, 2006). The researcher noted down answers given during the interview. This helped in capturing relatively adequate information. Classroom Observation Schedule Observation means that a researcher studies or observes a specific situation. This is a primary technique for collection of data on non-verbal behavior. Personal observation is a suitable technique especially in ascertaining facts drawn from the respondents; it provides basis to confirm or justify some issues that may not have been clearly understood by either party in the survey. This technique further minimizes chances of recording incorrect data. Observation indicators are useful for evaluation of physical condition. The researcher was able to observe various drama activities that teachers use to teach ECDE pupils. The researcher observed the types and state of drama instructional material, other infrastructures and teaching session within the study area. Pilot Study Pilot test was carried out in early childhood education centres in Uasin Gishu, Kenya that was not involved in the main study, in order to ascertain validity and reliability of the research instruments. The researcher administers 52 questionnaires to respondents representing 10% of sample size (Browne, 1995). Respondent who participated in pilot were 17 head teachers, 34 ECDE teachers and 1 ECDE officials. Validity of Research Instruments Validity is the degree to which a test measures; what it is supposed to measure. All assessment of validity was subjected to opinions based on the judgment of researchers and experts according to Best (2005). The researcher piloted questionnaire to assess its clarity as well as to improve the items. According,
  8. 8. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org 21 | P a g e Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org to best (2005), content validity of an instrument was improved through the researcher’s and expert’s judgment. Content validity was determined using constructive criticism from thesis supervisor who had an extensive experience and expertise in questionnaire construction. Researcher revised and improve according to the supervisor advice and questions. The researcher also sought the assistance of experts in the field of Early Childhood Education, School of Education, Moi University and guidance from fellow doctorial students. Their comments were incorporated so as to improve the validity of the instrument. Reliability of Research Instruments Reliability is the ability of research instruments to generate same /consistent results when used (Kimberlin, & Winterstein, 2008). Reliability was ensured through piloting of research instruments. Piloted data was used to test for reliability using Cronbach's alpha. The Cronbach’s alpha ranges between 0 and 1. The closer Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is to 1.0 the greater the internal consistency of the items in the scale. According to George and Mallery (2016) if the value of alpha is >0.9 = Excellent, >0.8 =Good, >0.7 = Acceptable, >0.6 = Questionable, >0.5 =Poor, and <0.5 = Unacceptable. The results of the piloted research instruments enabled the researcher to determine the consistency of responses to be made by respondents and adjust the items accordingly by revising the document. Research instruments were developed carefully to fit the research design and the plan of data analysis so that the data collected facilitate the testing of hypotheses. Data Processing and Analysis The data collected for the purpose of the study was adopted and coded for completeness and accuracy of information at the end of every field data collection day and before storage. The data from the completed questionnaires were cleaned, coded and entered into the computer using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Qualitative data were organized into themes which assisted the researcher to analyses data in thematic way based on objectives. The analyzed data were presented in form of written reports. Quantitative data was calculated from the data obtained in the field. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques (frequencies and percentages). Inferential statistics was also used to test the hypotheses (Pearson’s chi-square). Quantitative data were presented using frequency tables. Ethical Considerations In this study, the researcher sought permission from NACOSTI. An introductory letter was presented to the relevant office so as to carry out the research. Participants were given enough information pertaining to the study before the administration of the research instrument. The possible benefits and value of the study were explained to the participants. To follow ethical principles, the researcher sought informed consent from the respondents to participate in the research study; the data was kept confidential through using serial numbers. Their information’s were not disclosed and their names were not identified during and after collection of data. In addition, no information revealing the identity of any individual was included in the final report or in any other communication prepared in the course of the research, unless the individual concerned has consented in writing to its inclusion beforehand. No pressure or inducement of any kind was applied to encourage an individual to become a subject of research. The respondents had the right not to associate themselves with the information they give. Based on this background, respondent’s identity was kept confidential. To establish good working relationship with the participants, the researcher developed a rapport with them. 4.0 Data Analysis, Presentation and Interpretation Response Rate Data was collected from the teachers, head teachers and education officers using questionnaire and interview schedule. Out of 344 ECDE teachers 305 responded and completely filled the questionnaires, out of 172 head teachers, 150 responded and completely filled the questionnaires and all 7 ECDE officials were interviewed. This represents a response rate of 88.3%. This is in agreement with Groves and Peytcheva (2008), who assert that high response rates are preferable to reduce the risk of non-response bias and ensure the sample is representative. Gender of the Respondents As shown in Table 4.1, 54.8% (167) of the teachers who participated in this study were male whereas 45.2% (138) were female. Table 4.1 Gender of Respondents Gender Frequency Percent Male 167 54.8 Female 138 45.2 Total 305 100.0
  9. 9. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org 22 | P a g e Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org Age of the Respondents The respondents were asked to state their age bracket. The results were presented in the Table 4.2. Table 4.2 Ages of the Respondents Age bracket Frequency Percent Below 25 163 53.4 25-35 118 38.7 36-45 24 7.9 Total 305 100.0 As shown in Table 4.2, 53.4% (163) of the respondents were aged below 25 years whereas 38.7% (118) were aged 25-35 years old. Only 7.9 % (24) were aged 36-45 years old. Professional Qualification Good education comes from professional trained teachers. The centre handled by trained teachers is likely to have a higher enrolment as opposed to the one handled by untrained teachers. The respondents were asked to state their professional qualification. Their responses are presented in Table 4.3. Table 4.3 Professional Qualification Professional Qualification Frequency Percent None 52 17.0 Certificate 156 51.1 Diploma 62 20.3 Degree 23 7.5 Others 12 3.9 Total 305 100.0 Table 4.3 indicates that 51.1% (156) of the respondents had Certificate, 20.3% (62) had Diploma and 7.5% (23) had Degrees. However, 17.0% (52) had not attained any professional qualification. According to KESSP (2005), children at the pre-school stage almost entirely depend on their teachers to guide them in their learning activities. That is why teachers are left to interpret and to implement the curriculum which seeks to develop the child holistically. This demands that teachers should have sound knowledge of how children grow, develop and learn and they should have the required academic qualification to be able to guide the learners as expected. Teaching Experience There was need to determine the teaching experience of the teachers who participated in this study. This is because teacher experience might have an effect on the use of drama in teaching and learning in the schools where the study was done. Teachers’ responses are presented in Table 4.4. Table 4.4 Teaching Experience Experience Frequency Percent Below 1 year 171 56.1 1-5 years 106 34.8 6-10 years 18 5.9 11-15years 8 2.6 Above 15 years 2 .7 Total 305 100.0 It should be noted that 56.1% (171) of the respondents stated that they had a teaching experience of less than 1 year, whereas 34.8% (106) had taught for 1-5 years. Another 0.9 % (18) had taught for 6-10 years. Only 0.7% (2) had taught for a period of more than 15 years. This shows that majority of the teachers who participated in this study had taught for less than 5 years. This implies that majority of the teachers who participated in this study did not have long experience in teaching profession. This has a bearing on the way they use drama as an instructional method and the attitude towards the same. Gender of the Head Teachers The gender distribution of the participants indicated that majority (Table 4.5) of the head teachers were male 122(81%) and the rest 28(19%) were female. However the study found no relationship between gender distribution and the impact of head teacher‘s role use instructional drama in early childhood education academic achievements of the pupils. Table 4.5 Gender of the head teachers Gender Frequency Percentage Male 122 81 Female 28 19 Total 150 100 Age Bracket of the Head Teachers The study findings on the age bracket of the head teachers showed that 6(4%) were between 26-30 years, 24(16%) were between 31-35 years, majority 60(40%) were between 36-40 years, 55(36.7%) were between 41-45 years and finally 5(3.3%) were 46 years and above. Age is a factor that has been observed to affect the performance of head teachers. Hence the older the head teacher the more experienced thus the more effective they are in implementation duties.
  10. 10. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org 23 | P a g e Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org Table 4.6 Age Bracket of the Head Teachers Age Frequency Percentage 26-30 years 6 4 31-35 years 24 16 36-40 years 60 40 41-45 years 55 36.7 46 years and above 5 3.3 Total 150 100.00 Highest Level of Education Table 4.7 shows that the highest proportion of the head teachers in academic education is diploma. This was clear indication that the diploma academic qualification of the head teachers was majority since 10.0 percent and 6.0 percent had masters and PhD respectively. Teachers’ academic qualification was high since most of the teachers indicated that they were B.Ed. and Diploma holders (41.1 % and 42.2% respectively. Head teachers’ administrative role is essential in the school, therefore there is need for head teachers to have higher academic qualification more than the teachers thus will enhancing effective leadership which is essential to the provision of quality education. Table 4.7 Highest Level of Education Level of education Frequency Percentage Diploma 63 42.2 B.ED 62 41.1 M.Ed 15 10.0 PhD 10 6.7 Total 150 100.0 Head Teachers Stay in Their Current Stations The table 4.8 reveals that majority of the head teachers had stayed in their current stations for over 6 years and above. This length of stay was not satisfactory for the head teachers’ competence in implementation of school rules and regulations; hence they are in the capacity of instilling discipline and are in a better position to give information about the area of study. Table 4.8 Head Teachers Stay in Their Current Stations Frequency Percentage 1-5 years 7 4.7 6-10 years 45 30 11-15 years 40 26.7 16-20 years 20 13.3 21-25 years 20 13.3 26-30 years 18 12 Total 150 100 Influence of Instructional Drama on the Development of ECDE Pupils Greenberg et al. (2003) assert that school-based prevention programming with coordinated social, emotional, and academic learning should be a fundamental aspect of preschool and beyond. There is a perception that to use drama the ECDE practitioner will have to have strong personal acting skills. However, drama in education is not trying to make children into actresses and actors any more than physical education is trying to make them into the athletes or gymnasts of the future (Dodge & Colker, 2012). Using drama activities with young children puts them on the path of a creative journey and helps them to develop their social, cognitive and language skills. Children who experience better quality preschools were more advanced in their development over a five-year period. It is necessary to provide the highest quality programs to children of all races and levels of social-economic status. High quality child-care, with attention to social- emotional development as well as overall mental health is imperative for successful preschool programs. Studies show that between one-third and one-half of children are not ready for school because they lack the needed social and emotional skills. Therefore, the skills include the ability to follow directions, relate to others, and manage their own impulses and behaviors appropriately. It has become a national priority to make certain our young children enter school socially and emotionally ready to learn. Teachers response on the influence of Instructional Drama on the Development of ECDE Pupils The study also sought to determine the influence of instructional drama on the development of the ECDE pupils. The areas of development investigated were: cognitive, emotional, social and physical development. The teachers were given 20 items that they were to indicate the extent to which they agree to each of the items. The results are presented in Table 4.9.
  11. 11. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org Table 4.9 Influence of Instructional Drama on Development of ECDE Pupils Statement SD D N A SA TOTAL F % F % F % F % f % f % Cognitive development Imaginative play is so central to children’s development 62 20.3 110 36.1 29 9.5 37 12.1 67 22.0 305 100.0 Using drama activities with young children puts them on the path of a creative journey 55 18.0 54 17.7 44 14.4 74 24.3 78 25.6 305 100.0 Creative problem solving through drama works because drama is a social activity. 27 8.9 28 9.2 80 26.2 86 28.2 84 27.5 305 100.0 Experiences in the drama play a valuable role in helping pupils to achieve their potential 34 11.1 61 20.0 98 32.1 62 20.3 50 16.4 305 100.0 Emotional development Imaginative play is so central to children’ emotional development 53 17.4 37 12.1 14 4.6 116 38.0 85 27.9 305 100.0 Using drama activities with young children puts them on the path of a creative journey and helps them to develop their emotional development 46 15.1 58 19.0 16 5.2 114 37.4 71 23.3 305 100.0 With drama play children will be able to express and communicate their feelings 15 4.9 44 14.4 10 3.3 158 51.8 78 25.6 305 100.0 Drama is the catalyst for the establishment of interpersonal relationships 28 9.2 51 16.7 4 1.3 107 35.1 115 37.7 305 100.0 Social development Imaginative play is so central to children’ social development 28 9.2 65 21.3 15 4.9 163 53.4 34 11.1 305 100.0 Using drama activities with young children puts them on the path of a creative journey and helps them to develop their social development 55 18.0 54 17.7 8 2.6 129 42.3 59 19.3 305 100.0 Using drama to teach ECD pupils increases the sensitivity involved in sharing with other people 28 9.2 58 19.0 62 20.3 103 33.8 54 17.7 305 100.0 Drama is a catalyst for the establishment of interpersonal relationships outside of the classroom so that it will lead to social development 24 7.9 114 37.4 6 2.0 80 26.2 81 26.6 305 100.0 Drama provide a natural vehicle through which ECD pupils can explore and express themselves 37 12.1 51 16.7 63 20.7 98 32.1 56 18.4 305 100.0 To engage in dramatic play with others, children have to negotiate roles 31 10.2 64 21.0 57 18.7 87 28.5 66 21.6 305 100.0 Play gives children a venue to make sense of the world 40 13.1 44 14.4 65 21.3 98 32.1 58 19. 305 100.0 When children engage in dramatic play they deepen their understanding of the world and develop skills that will serve them throughout their lives 52 17.0 84 27.5 7 2.3 106 34.8 56 18.4 305 100.0 Physical development Imaginative play is so central to children’ physical development 12 3.9 66 21.6 5 1.6 170 55.7 52 17.0 305 100.0 Using drama to teach ECD pupils enable the children to acquire skills to cooperate with peers 46 15.1 46 15.1 77 25.2 67 22.0 69 22.6 305 100.0 Using drama to teach enhances proper coordination in large and small muscles enabling children’s growth 6 2.0 70 23.0 2 0.6 172 56.4 55 18.0 305 100.0 Use of drama creates coordination and balance in organs, flexibility in movements and agility 53 17.4 49 16.1 4 1.3 93 30.5 106 34.8 305 100.0
  12. 12. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org Table 4.9 shows that 34.1% (104) of respondents stated that imaginative play was central to children’s development particularly cognitive and social development whereas 56.4% (172) disagreed. Another 49.9% (152) of the respondents stated that using drama activities with young children puts them on the path of creative journey and helps them to develop their social, cognitive and language skills whereas 35.7% (109) disagreed. There were 49.9% (152) of the respondents stated that with drama play children will be able to express and communicate their feelings and understanding in their own ways while 19.3% (59) disagreed and 30.8% (94) were neutral. Further, 51.7% (157) of the teachers who participated in this study stated that using drama to teach ECD pupils increases sensitivity involvement in sharing with other people and party by determining for himself the sort of the world he wishes to live in. Only 28.2% (86) disagreed. Majority (53.7%) of the teachers stated that the creative, problem solving is a social activity. There were 59.9% (182) of the teachers who stated that drama is the catalyst for the establishment of interpersonal relationships outside of the classrooms that it lead to personal or emotional development, whereas 25.9% (79) disagreed. This shows that majority of teachers have strong believe that drama is very important in the social development of ECD pupils. It should also be noted that 36.7% (112) of the respondents stated that experiences in the drama play available role in helping pupils to achieve their potential as learners and to participate fully in their community. Only 31.1% (95) disagreed and 32.1% (98) were neutral. Table 4.11 also shows that 50.5% (154) of the respondents agreed that drama provides a neutral vehicle through which ECDE pupils can explore and express themselves through which they can discover and interpret the world around them. Less than half (28.9%) or the respondents were of contrary opinion. As shown by the Table 4.11, 50.1% (153) of the respondents agreed that to engage in dramatic play with others, children have to negotiate roles, agree on a topic and cooperate to portray different situations. However, 31.1% (95) disagreed. Another 44.6% (136) of the teachers who participated in this study were of the opinion that using drama to teach ECD pupils enable the children to acquire skills to cooperate with peers, control impulses and are less aggressive than children who do not engage in this type of play. On the contrary, 30.2% (92) of the teachers were of different opinion and 25.2% (77) were neutral. The findings indicates that 50.1% (156) of the respondents stated that play gives children avenue to make sense of the world, and to practice, consolidate and externalize newly acquired skills whereas 27.5% (84) disagreed. It should be noted that poor social and emotional development predicts poor academic outcomes (Raver & Knitzer, 2002). Blair and Peters (2003) found a relationship between the development of social and academic competence and adaptation to preschool among Head Start children. They postulated that emotionality and the processes relating to social competence are most important for future academic success. Their findings appear to provide evidence for correlations between social and adaptive behavior and success in meeting preschool academic expectancies in children from low-income families. They proposed more than one pathway (academic skills training, social emotional training) to competence in the early school years among children. From this study, it is evident that all options need to be explored as part of those early interventions that are designed to promote academic success and prevent school failure. Blair and Peters (2003) argued for the importance of examining several aspects of child regulation for preventive intervention. Examining externalizing (i.e. disruptive) and internalizing behaviors, as well as adaptive skills would provide a more in-depth look at the child’s behavior. Early childhood is a vital period for socio emotional advancement. Although emotion regulation skills and related behaviors improve as children mature (Cole et al., 2003), there are strong individual variations in the development of early regulatory abilities. Linking these differences to intrinsic and extrinsic influences provides a foundation for understanding the development of children’s social and emotional competence during the school-age years (Blandon et al., 2008). According to a research conducted in the University of Texas, when the variable of time is held constant, the rate for remembering is as follows; people remember 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of what they see and hear, 70% of what they say, 90% of what they do and say. As can be observed, as the number of active sense organs increases, permanency of education increases at the same rate. Therefore the most effective method in learning is being active during learning. In addition, in other words learning by doing and experiencing. In his work, Fulford et al. (2001), state that participants make sense of themselves, others and many aspects of the world they live in by creating, progressing and reflecting the same. In this case, people, by presenting different opinions, are able to analyze their own opinions against others’. Establishing empathy and different perspectives through theatre and drama, as revealed by the findings of our study, correspond to this information. In his study, Akyol, A. K. & Hamamci
  13. 13. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org 26 | P a g e Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org (2007) states that getting to know different lives, gaining experience for various incidents and occasions through enacting different roles, perceiving life in multi-dimension and providing development for will for research, learning through doing and experiencing, providing permanent learning are among expected individual gains as result of drama studies. Taking a lead in showing the important role of outdoor play in the development of social skills, several studies have been carried. Ginsburg (2007) showed that during play, children form enduring bonds of friendship, including with their adult playmates. In addition, Laushey and Heflin (2000) revealed that children aged five to seven years with proficient pretend play skills are socially competent with peers and are able to engage in classroom activities. Moreover, children who scored poorly on the play assessment were more likely to have difficulty interacting with their peers and engaging in other school activities. This was a clear attestation that social competence is related to a child’s ability to engage in pretend play. Psychiatrist Stuart Brown (2009) discovered that the absence of social play during childhood stages was a common link among murderers in prison. They lacked the normal give- and-take skills necessary for learning to understand others’ emotions and intentions, and the self-control that one must learn to play successfully with others. All these activities can be done if there are qualified teachers recruited and when the educational policies provide room for play in educational institutions. The facilities should also be available to enable the learners play and therefore interact well with each other in the pre-schools. Dramatic acts are all interpersonal interactions or people’s interactions with objects, pragmatic and prepared points that occur. Drama involves doing something as it is genuine. Therefore, it provides a presentation and interpretation of a mental activity and is a way to change students’ mental and physical prospective into imaginative acts. The experiences, intellectual background and knowledge gained during education and dreams are all foundation for drama. The drama technique provides cooperative learning surroundings in which students can employ methodical values in their daily life. In drama, students are assigned various roles. They then act as the character they were assigned. They talk and think in the way the related character talks and thinks. In this fashion, students get better in their language and communication skills. Drama in educational surroundings makes students dynamic participants in the learning progression. It also strengthens student inspiration due to its pleasurable character. Since students animate the roles in their preferred way, they are not timid, leading to an increase in their self-confidence. During role playing, children try different solutions and exclude those that do not work in the relevant situation, and employ useful ones that are further improved upon. This process eventually improves their problem-solving skills (Kocayörük et al., 2015). In short, drama as an educational method allows students to reflect, discuss, make connections with real life, and look at the events from different angles (Littledyke, 2001). Some scholars argue that drama reinforces the attainment of cognitive, emotional and technical skills related to analysis, synthesis and evaluation (Dorion, 2009). The drama method can be used as an innovative way of helping students to learn. It is important for students who learn better through games or game- like activities that curriculum designer and educators understand the value of drama (Hendrix et al., 2012). New examples should be developed nowadays so as to correct the wrongly known and applied activities in using the drama method. In his study, Akyol & Hamamci (2007) states that getting to know different lives, gaining experience forvarious incidents and occasions through enacting different roles, perceiving life in multi-dimension and providing development for will for research, learning through doing and experiencing, providing permanent learning are among expected individual gains as result of drama studies. These statements are in conformity with the perception for social gains of an individual who is competent and knowledgeable in theatre or drama as provided with our findings of this study. Despite its challenges, the professional learning, learning opportunities with colleagues to improve the quality of education is an indispensable requirement. Co-operation between schools, teachers, learning together and provide new ideas and opportunities to increase their professional development (Özdemir, P., & Üstündağ, 2007; Kase-Polisini & Spector, 2002). Head teachers’ response on the influence of Instructional Drama on the Development of ECDE Pupils The study also sought to determine the head teachers’ response on the influence of instructional drama on the development of the ECDE pupils. The areas of development investigated were: cognitive, emotional, social and physical development. The teachers were given 20 items that they were to indicate the extent to which they agree to each of the items. The results are presented in Table 4.10.
  14. 14. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org Table 4.10 Influence of Instructional Drama on Development of ECDE Pupils Statement SD D N A SA TOTAL F % F % F % f % F % F % Cognitive development Imaginative play is so central to children’s development 11 7.33 3 2 7 4.7 22 14.7 107 71.3 150 100 Using drama activities with young children puts them on the path of a creative journey 14 9.33 20 13.3 15 10.0 22 14.7 79 52.7 150 100 Creative problem solving through drama works because drama is a social activity. 0 0.00 18 12 12 8.0 21 14.0 99 66.0 150 100 Experiences in the drama play a valuable role in helping pupils to achieve their potential 4 2.67 7 4.66 15 10.0 89 59.3 35 23.3 150 100 Emotional development Imaginative play is so central to children’ emotional development 3 2.00 4 2.66 13 8.7 84 56.0 46 30.7 150 100 Using drama activities with young children puts them on the path of a creative journey and helps them to develop their emotional development 3 2.00 3 2 14 9.3 100 66.7 30 20.0 150 100 With drama play children will be able Ato express and communicate their feelings 3 2.00 5 3.33 4 2.7 100 66.7 38 25.3 150 100 Drama is the catalyst for the establishment of interpersonal relationships 7 4.67 9 6 6 4.0 110 73.3 18 12.0 150 100 Social development 0.00 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 150 Imaginative play is so central to children’ social development 3 2.00 4 2.66 13 8.7 20 13.3 110 73.3 150 100 Using drama activities with young children puts them on the path of a creative journey and helps them to develop their social development 12 8.00 21 14 4 2.7 17 11.3 96 64.0 150 100 Using drama to teach ECD pupils increases the sensitivity involved in sharing with other people 12 8.00 2 1.33 11 7.3 26 17.3 99 66.0 150 100 Drama is a catalyst for the establishment of interpersonal relationships outside of the classroom so that it will lead to social development 4 2.67 14 9.33 3 2.0 39 26.0 90 60.0 150 100 Drama provide a natural vehicle through which ECD pupils can explore and express themselves 4 2.67 19 12.66 67 4 2.7 56 37.3 67 44.7 150 100 To engage in dramatic play with others, children have to negotiate roles 4 2.67 20 13.3 37 24.7 63 42.0 26 17.3 150 100 Play gives children a venue to make sense of the world 5 3.33 16 10.7 28 18.7 65 43.3 36 24.0 150 100 When children engage in dramatic play they deepen their understanding of the world and develop skills that will serve them throughout their lives 13 8.67 11 7.3 11 7.3 104 69.3 11 7.3 150 100 Physical development 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 150 Imaginative play is so central to children’ physical development 9 6.00 26 17.3 5 3.3 72 48.0 38 25.3 150 100 Using drama to teach ECD pupils enable the children to acquire skills to cooperate with peers 13 8.67 0 0.0 21 14.0 71 47.3 45 30.0 150 100 Using drama to teach enhances proper coordination in large and small muscles enabling children’s growth 6 4.00 13 8.7 5 3.3 85 56.7 41 27.3 150 100 Use of drama creates coordination and balance in organs, flexibility in movements and agility 9 6.00 0 0.0 12 8.0 75 50.0 54 36.0 150 100 The study findings on cognitive development showed that majority 107(71.3%) of the head teachers strongly agreed with the statement that Imaginative play is so central to children’s
  15. 15. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org 28 | P a g e Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org development, majority of the respondents 79(52.7%) strongly agreed with the statement that using drama activities with young children puts them on the path of a creative journey, majority 99(66%) of the respondents strongly agreed with the statement that Creative problem solving through drama works because drama is a social activity and finally majority 89(59.3%) of the subjects agreed with the statement that experiences in the drama play a valuable role in helping pupils to achieve their potential. The study findings on cognitive development reveals that Imaginative play is so central to children’s development. Also, drama activities in young children makes them creative. Further, instructional drama make them creative in problem solving and finally, instructional drama play a valuable role in helping pupils to achieve their potential. The study findings on emotional development showed that majority of the respondents agreed that; Imaginative play is so central to children’ emotional development 84(56%); Using drama activities with young children puts them on the path of a creative journey and helps them to develop their emotional development 100(66.7%); With drama play children will be able Ato express and communicate their feelings 100(66.7%) and finally Drama is the catalyst for the establishment of interpersonal relationships 110(73.3%). The study findings on emotional development also showed that imaginative play is so central to children’ emotional development. Use of drama activities with young children puts them on the path of a creative journey and helps them to develop their emotional development. Use of drama also enables children to Ato express and communicate their feelings. Finally, drama act as a catalyst for the establishment of interpersonal relationships. The study findings on social development showed that majority of the head teachers agreed with the statements that; Imaginative play is so central to children’ social development 110(73.3%); Using drama activities with young children puts them on the path of a creative journey and helps them to develop their social development 96(64%); Using drama to teach ECD pupils increases the sensitivity involved in sharing with other people 99(66%); Drama is a catalyst for the establishment of interpersonal relationships outside of the classroom so that it will lead to social development 90(60%); Drama provide a natural vehicle through which ECD pupils can explore and express themselves 67(44.7%); To engage in dramatic play with others, children have to negotiate roles 63(42%); Play gives children a venue to make sense of the world 65(43.3%) and finally When children engage in dramatic play they deepen their understanding of the world and develop skills that will serve them throughout their lives 104(69.3%). The study findings on social development shows that Imaginative play is so central to children’ social development. Using drama activities in young children puts them on the path of a creative journey and helps them to develop their social development. It also increases the sensitivity involved in sharing with other people and acts as a catalyst for the establishment of interpersonal relationships outside of the classroom so that it will lead to social development. Drama also gives children a venue to make sense of the world and deepen their understanding of the world making them develop skills that will serve them throughout their lives. Finally, the study findings on physical development showed that majority of the respondents agreed that; Imaginative play is so central to children’ physical development 72(48%); Using drama to teach ECD pupils enable the children to acquire skills to cooperate with peers 71(47.3%); Using drama to teach enhances proper coordination in large and small muscles enabling children’s growth 85 (56.7%) and that Use of drama creates coordination and balance in organs, flexibility in movements and agility 75 (50%). The study findings also on physical development showed that Imaginative play is so central to children’ physical development. Use of drama in teaching of ECDE children will make them acquire skills to cooperate with peers. Use of drama also enhances proper coordination in large and small muscles enabling children’s growth. Finally, use of drama creates coordination and balance in organs, flexibility in movements and agility. The study findings are in agreement with (Howes, 2000) who asserts that Kindergarten professionals have an influence on children’s life and their emotional well-being. Many children spend a big part of the days in some nursery, therefore the behaviour of the professionals can make a difference in the child’s development. If the kindergarten is a safe and peaceful place for the child, the adults are doing their responsibilities; their emotional development will increase, especially in social fields. Relation-ships with adults (parents, educators, etc.) predict future success how the child can get personal connection to other peers.
  16. 16. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org 29 | P a g e Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org ECDE officials interview schedule on the influence of Instructional Drama on the Development of ECDE Pupils The ECDE officials noted that using drama activities in young children puts them on the path of creative journey and helps them to develop their social, cognitive and language skills. They also noted that drama play enable children to express and communicate their feelings and understanding in their own ways and that using drama to teach ECD pupils increases sensitivity involvement in sharing with other people and party by determining for himself the sort of the world he wishes to live in. furthermore, use of drama makes one creative in problem solving is a social activity. Hypothesis Testing HO1: there is no significant relationship between the use of instructional drama and the development of ECDE learners. There were 20 items measuring the development of ECDE pupils in the questionnaire which were scored using a five point likert scale. In the questionnaire, strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Neutral (N), Disagree (D), Strongly Disagree (SD) were scored as 5,4,3,2 and 1 respectively. The highest score was 100 and the lowest was 20. A respondent who scored 80-100 implied that the use of drama had a high influence on the development of the ECDE pupils while those who scored between 41 and 79 were neutral and those who scored 40 and below were of the opinion that the use of drama had a low influence on the development of the ECDE pupils. The chi- square results are presented in Table below. Table 4.11 Contingency Table for influence of drama on the development of ECDE learners Availa bility Frequency of use of Drama Alw ays Somet imes N ot su re Rar ely Ne ver To tal Positiv e 13 74 13 23 9 13 2 Ambiv alent 13 63 17 12 4 10 9 Negati ve 12 19 24 7 2 64 Total 38 156 54 42 15 30 5 χ2 = 482.271, df. =8 and sig = 0.000 As shown in Table 4.16, a Pearson’s chi-square value of 482.271, degrees of freedom of 8 and p- value of 0.000 was obtained. Since p<0.05, the null hypothesis is rejected. This means that there was a significant relationship between use of drama and the development of ECDE learners. Classroom Lesson Observations From the classroom lesson observations, the study found out that majority of teachers in studied schools didn’t planned for drama activities in terms schemes of work, record of work covered lesson plan and objectives. This implies that drama activities in schools are given less concerns in ECDE curriculum. However, learners participate in drama activities during some other thematic areas such as outdoors activities and language activities. It was also observed that adopt of drama activities were limited by inadequate instructional materials used for the drama activities. 5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations Summary of the findings The study summarizes findings of each objective as follows; Influence of Drama on Cognitive and Social Development of ECDE Pupils The study also sought to determine the influence of drama on cognitive and social development of the ECDE pupils. The study established that using drama activities with young children puts them on the path of creative journey and helps them to develop their social, cognitive and language skills. The findings also show that half of the teachers stated that with drama play children will be able to express and communicate their feelings and understanding in their own ways whereas another half stated that using drama to teach ECD pupils increases sensitivity involvement in sharing with other people and party by determining for himself the sort of the world he wishes to live in. Another half stated that the creative, problem solving is a social activity. There were half who stated that drama is the catalyst for the establishment of interpersonal relationships outside of the classrooms that it leads to personal or emotional development. This shows that majority of teachers have strong believe that drama is very important in the social development of ECD pupils. Further, half of the teachers stated that drama provides a neutral vehicle through which ECDE pupils can explore and express themselves through which they can discover and interpret the world around them. Similarly, half agreed that to engage in dramatic play with others, children have to negotiate roles, agree on a topic and cooperate to portray different situations. Less than half of the teachers
  17. 17. Africa International Journal of Management Education and Governance (AIJMEG) ISSN: 2518-0827 (Online Publication) Vol. 4 (2) 14-31, May, 2019 www.oircjournals.org 30 | P a g e Boinett et al. (2019) www.oircjournals.org were of the opinion that using drama to teach ECD pupils enable the children to acquire skills to cooperate with peers, control impulses and are less aggressive than children who do not engage in this type of play. It was also found that half of the teachers stated that play gives Children Avenue to make sense of the world, and to practice, consolidate and externalize newly acquired skills. Similarly, half agreed that when children engage in dramatic play they deepen their understanding of the world and develop skills that will serve them throughout their lives. Conclusions The study established that drama provides a neutral vehicle through which ECDE pupils can explore and express themselves through which they can discover and interpret the world around them and it enables the children to acquire skills to cooperate with peers, control impulses and are less aggressive than children who do not engage in this type of play. It was also found that play gives children avenue to make sense of the world, and to practice, consolidate and externalize newly acquired skills. Through dramatic play, children deepen their understanding of the world and develop skills that will serve them throughout their lives. Recommendations Based on the findings and conclusions of this study, the following recommendations are made: Teachers, parents and other educational stakeholders should pool resources to provide books, periodicals and other resources which deal with using drama as a method of teaching and learning in ECDE schools. Using drama activities with young children puts them on the path of creative journey and helps them to develop their social, cognitive and language skills. Suggestions for Further Research The study drew the following suggestions for Further Research from the findings; i. Research should be done on the influence of external factors on the use of drama in teaching and learning in ECDE centres in Elgeyo Marakwet County. References Andang'o, E., & Mugo, J. (2007). Early childhood music education in Kenya: Between broad national policies and local realities. Arts education policy review, 109(2), 43-52. Baldwin, P. (2004). With Drama in Mind. New York: Network Educational; press Baldwin, P. and Fleming, K. (2004). Teaching literacy through drama London 2nd edition: Routledge Falmer. Baldwin, Patrice; Fleming, Kate (2003): Teaching Literacy through Drama: Creative Approaches 1st edition. London: Routledge/Falmer Baldwin, Patrice; Fleming, Kate (2003): Teaching Literacy through Drama: Creative Approaches 1st edition. London: Routledge/Falmer Bandura, A. (2001). Social foundations of thought and action: A Social cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Prentice Hall Printers. Bergen, D. (2009) Play as the learning medium for future scientists, mathematicians, and engineers. American Journal of Play. Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 413-428 Bergen, D. (2009). Play as the learning medium for future scientists, mathematicians, and engineers. American Journal of Play. Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 413-428 Best, J. W. & Kahn. V.J. (2005).Research in Education (`10th ed). U.S.A.: Prentice. Hall. Blair, C., & Peters, R. (2003). Physiological and neurocognitive correlates of adaptive behavior in preschool among children in Head Start. Developmental neuropsychology, 24(1), 479-497. Bodrova, E., and Leong, D.J. (2003). Building language and literacy through play. Scholastic Early Childhood Today, 18, 34- 8, 40-3. Bolton, G. & Heathcoate, D. (1995). Drama for Learning: Dorothy Heathcote’s Mantle of the Expert Approach to Education. Portsmouth: Heinemann. Carlsson-Paige, N. (2008). Taking back childhood: Helping your kids thrive in a fast-paced, media-saturated, violence-filled world. Hudson Street Press. Chatterton, S., & Butler, S. (1994). The development of communication skills through drama. Down Syndrome Research and Practice, 2(2), 83-84. Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. London, UK: Routledge. Deasy, R. J. (2002). Critical links: Learning in the arts and student academic and social development. Arts Education Partnership, One Massachusetts Ave., NW, Suite 700,
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