HISTORY:    STOCK-                                                  Founded circa 1250, Stockholm has long                ...
Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm’s City         Trading rules were also created that gave    Council was made up of 24 memb...
GEOGRA-                                                                                             PHY:    Settlement beg...
POLITICALSYSTEM: Constitutionally, the 349-member Riksdag (Parliament) holds supreme authority in modern Sweden. The Riksd...
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T4 e6 inchaustegui


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T4 e6 inchaustegui

  2. 2. HISTORY: STOCK- Founded circa 1250, Stockholm has long been one of Sweden’s cultural, media, po- litical, and economic centres. Its strategic Stockholm’s location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, and in Heimskringla in con- HOLM: location on 14 islands on the south-central nection with the legendary king Agne. The earliest written mention of the name east coast of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an im- Mälaren, by the Stockholm archipelago, portant site in the iron trade. The first part of the name (stock) means log in Swedish, although it may also be connected to an old German word (Stock) meaning fortifica- Stockholm is the capital and the largest city has been historically important. Stock- tion. The second part of the name (holm) means islet, and is thought to refer to the of Sweden and constitutes the most popu- holm has been nominated by GaWC as a islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. The city is said to have been founded by lated urban area in Scandinavia.[4][5] It global city, with a ranking of Alpha-.[6] In The 2008 Global Cities Index, Stockholm Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from a sea invasion by foreign navies and to stop the pil- is the site of the national Swedish govern- ranked 24th in the world, 10th in Europe, lage of towns such as Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren. ment, the Riksdag (parliament), and the and first in Scandinavia.[7] Stockholm is Stockholm’s core of the present Old Town (Gamla Stan) was built on the central island official residence of the Swedish monarch known for its beauty, its buildings and ar- next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city originally rose as well as the prime minister. Since 1980, chitecture, its abundant clean and open to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm de- the monarch has resided at Drottning- water, and its many parks.[8] It is some- veloped strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Hamburg, Gdańsk, Visby, holm Palace outside of Stockholm and times referred to as Venice of the North.[9] Reval, and Riga during this time[citation needed]. uses the Royal Palace of Stockholm as his workplace and official residence. As of 2010, the Stockholm metropolitan area is home to approximately 22% of Swe- den’s population. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a popula- tion of 847,073 in the municipality (2010), 1.25 million in the urban area (2005), and more than 2 million in the 6,519 km2 (2,517.00 sq mi) metropolitan area (2010).2 3
  3. 3. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm’s City Trading rules were also created that gave Council was made up of 24 members, half Stockholm an essential monopoly over of whom were selected from the town’s trade between foreign merchants and oth- German-speaking burghers. The strategic er Swedish and Scandinavian territories. and economic importance of the city made In 1710 a plague killed about 20,000 (36 Stockholm an important factor in rela- percent) of the population.[10] After the tions between the Danish Kings of the Kal- end of the Great Northern War the city mar Union and the national independence stagnated. Population growth halted and movement in the 15th century. The Danish economic growth slowed. The city was in King Christian II was able to enter the city shock after having lost its place as the capi- in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre tal of a Great Power. However Stockholm of opposition figures called the Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Bloodbath took place and set off further Sweden and continued to develop cultur- uprisings that eventually led to the breakup ally under Gustav III. By the second half of of the Kalmar Union. With the accession the 19th century, Stockholm had regained of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establish- its leading economic role. New industries ment of a royal power, the population of emerged and Stockholm was transformed Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 into an important trade and service centre by 1600.The 17th century saw Sweden grow as well as a key gateway point within Swe- into a major European power, reflected in den. The population also grew dramatically the development of the city of Stockholm. during this time, mainly through immigra- From 1610 to 1680 the population multi- tion. At the end of the century, less than plied sixfold. In 1634 Stockholm became 40% of the residents were Stockholm-born. the official capital of the Swedish empire.4 5
  4. 4. GEOGRA- PHY: Settlement began to expand outside the city limits. The 19th century saw the establishment of a number of scientific institutes, including the Karolin- ska Institute. The city continued to expand with the creation of additional dis- Stockholm is located on Sweden’s south-central east coast, where Lake Mälaren meets tricts such as Rinkeby and Tensta, some with high proportions of immigrants. the Baltic Sea. The central parts of the city consist of fourteen islands that are continu- The General Art and Industrial Exposition was held in 1897. ous with Stockholm archipelago. The geographical city centre is situated on the water, Stockholm became a modern, technologically advanced, and ethnically di- in the bay Riddarfjärden. verse city in the latter half of the 20th century. Many historical buildings were torn Over 30% of the city area is made up of waterways and another 30% is made up of down during the modernist era, including substantial parts of the historical dis- parks and green spaces; in 2009, Stockholm was awarded title of first European Green trict of Klara, and replaced with modern architecture. However, in many other Capital by the European Commission.[11][12]For details about the other municipali- parts of Stockholm (such as in Gamla Stan, Södermalm, Östermalm, Kungsholmen ties in the metropolitan area, see the pertinent articles. North of Stockholm Munici- and Vasastan), many “old” buildings, blocks and streets built before the modern- pality: Järfälla, Solna, Täby, Sollentuna, Lidingö, Upplands Väsby, Österåker, Sigtuna, ism and functionalism movements took off in Sweden (around 1930-1935) sur- Sundbyberg, Danderyd, Vallentuna, Ekerö, Upplands-Bro, Vaxholm, and Nor- vived this era of demolition. Throughout the century, many industries shifted away rtälje. South of Stockholm: Huddinge, Nacka, Botkyrka, Haninge, Tyresö, Värmdö, from work-intensive activities into more high-tech and service industry areas. Södertälje, Salem, Nykvarn and Nynäshamn.6 7
  5. 5. POLITICALSYSTEM: Constitutionally, the 349-member Riksdag (Parliament) holds supreme authority in modern Sweden. The Riksdag is responsible for choosing the prime minister, who then appoints the government (the ministers). The legislative power is then shared between the parliament and the Prime Minister led government. The executive power is exercised by the government, while the judiciary is independent. Sweden lacks compulsory judi- cial review, although the non-compulsory review carried out by lagrådet (Law Council) is mostly respected in technical matters but less so in controversial political matters. Acts of the parliament and government decrees can be made inapplicable at every level if they are manifestly against constitutional laws. However, due to the restrictions in this form of judicial review and a weak judiciary, this has had little practical consequence. 8