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Algae Fuels: Emerging Opportunities for Indian Entrepreneurs


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Algae Fuels: Emerging Opportunities for Indian Entrepreneurs

  1. 1. Algae Fuels : Emerging opportunities for Indian Entrepreneurs<br />
  2. 2. The story behind Oilgae…<br />
  3. 3. Why are we here for?<br />To give a overall summary about algae biofuels<br />To highlight the opportunities in this sector<br />
  4. 4. List of Contents<br />Introduction<br />Classification of energy<br />Biofuels<br />Biomass as fuel source<br />Introduction to algae biofuels<br />History<br />Uniqueness of algae fuels<br />Technology <br />Algae fuels: Growth and Investments<br />Role of India in algae biofuels<br />Current status of algae fuels in India<br />Benefits to Emerging entrepreneurs<br />Challenges and bottlenecks<br />Conclusion<br />
  5. 5. Introduction<br /> Incremental need for alternative fuels is mainly due to:<br />Rising crude oil prices<br />Resulting impact on our environment due to fossil fuels<br /> (e.g., global warming)<br />
  6. 6. Classification of energy<br />ENERGY SOURCE<br />Non RenewableEnergy<br />Renewable Energy<br />Solar<br />Alternative<br />Traditional<br />Wind<br />Oil<br />Hydro<br />Nuclear<br />Gas<br />Ocean<br />Tar Sands<br />Coal<br />Oil Shale<br />Geothermal<br />Gas Hydrates<br />Biomass<br />
  7. 7. Biofuels<br />Less common types:<br /><ul><li>Biobutanol
  8. 8. Synfuel</li></li></ul><li>Biomass as biofuel source<br /><ul><li>Any liquid that stores energy, which is typically utilized by an engine or generator, can be called a “fuel.”
  9. 9. Biofuels are fuels that are derived from organic biomass, rather than minerals
  10. 10. Classified into </li></ul> 1st , 2nd & 3rd generation biofuels<br />
  11. 11. First generation biofuels<br />Made from soybeans, palm, canola and rapeseed <br />Pros<br /><ul><li>Simple and well-known production methods
  12. 12. Familiar feedstocks
  13. 13. Scalable to production capacities
  14. 14. Experience with commercial production and use in several countries</li></ul> Cons<br /><ul><li>Feedstocks compete directly with crops grown for food
  15. 15. Low land-use efficiency
  16. 16. Modest net reductions in fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions with current processing methods</li></li></ul><li>Second generation biofuels<br />Non-food bio-feedstocks are considered as feedstock for second generation biofuels (jatropha, cellulose)<br />Pros <br /><ul><li>Eliminates competition for food and feed
  17. 17. More efficient and environmentally friendly
  18. 18. Less farmland is required
  19. 19. Useful by-products</li></ul>Cons<br /><ul><li>Same downfall as the first generation fuels but without as great of an eco imprint. </li></li></ul><li>Third generation biofuels<br />Algae are considered to belong to the third generation feedstock. <br />Pros<br /><ul><li>superior yields
  20. 20. not directly affecting the human food chain
  21. 21. grown in places that are not suitable foragriculture
  22. 22. enhanced efficiencies or reduction in cost</li></ul>Cons<br />The problem of course isin developingtechnologies that will enable this kind of biofuel to be more cost effective to make. <br />
  23. 23. Introduction to algae fuels<br />
  24. 24. History of energy from algae<br />Aquatic Species Programme, (1978 and 1996)<br />Mainly focused on microalgae for oil (biodiesel)<br />25 million dollar investment<br />Production of algae for fuel is not economically viable<br />Since 2002, there have been a number of commercial and research efforts in the algae energy field, and the activities have further accelerated starting 2008. <br />While most of the efforts in the first few years focused on biodiesel as the end-product, recently a number of efforts have recently been initiated to explore the viability of using algae as feedstock for other energy products.<br />
  25. 25. Uniqueness of algae fuels<br />Higher oil yield<br />Lesser land requirement<br />food vs. fuel <br />Algae fuels<br />Adaptability<br />Range of products<br />WWT & CO2 capture<br />
  26. 26. Higher oil yield<br />
  27. 27. Lesser land requirement<br />Algae is capable of producing 30 times more oil per acre than the current crops now utilized for the production of biofuels.<br />Algae could produce up to 94,000 liters of oil per acre, shrinking land requirements<br />
  28. 28. Adaptability to a range of environment<br />Grown under conditions which are unsuitable for conventional crop production<br /> (marine water, wastewater, open ponds)<br />
  29. 29. Solve the food versus fuel problem<br />Does not compete directly with crops grown for food <br />Algae can make use of marine and waster water<br />Some algae can be grown in desert regions<br />Some algae can be grown in ocean environment<br />Does not require expensive nutrients for growing<br />
  30. 30. A wide range of fuel products<br />Algae<br />
  31. 31. Integrated with Wastewater Treatment and CO2 capture<br />
  32. 32. How to obtain fuel from algae?<br />Picking up the best algae<br />Growing the algae<br />Harvesting <br />Generating the fuel product<br />
  33. 33. Open systems<br />
  34. 34. Closed systems<br />Tubular PBR<br />Flat plate PBR<br />Also referred as Photobioreactors<br />
  35. 35. Product generation via different routes<br />Biodiesel<br />Ethanol<br />Hydrogen<br />Methane<br />Electricity – where algae biomass is directly used for combustion<br />Other hydrocarbon fuel variants, such as JP-8 fuel, gasoline, biobutanol etc.<br />
  36. 36. Biodiesel from algae<br /> Cultivation of Microalgae species<br /> Harvesting of Microalgae<br /> Extraction of Oil from Microalgae<br />Transesterification<br /> Biodiesel<br />
  37. 37. Ethanol from algae<br /> Algae Biomass<br /> Fermentation<br /> Ethanol<br />
  38. 38. Hydrogen from algae<br /> Biomass<br />Gasification<br />Biogas Fermentation<br />Dark Fermentation<br />Steam Reformation<br /> H2<br />
  39. 39. Methane from algae<br />Algal Biomass<br />Anaerobic digestion<br /> Methane<br />
  40. 40. Challenges & Bottlenecks<br />Economical<br />Biological<br />Technical<br />
  41. 41. Picking up an algae strain <br />
  42. 42. Technical Challenges<br />Maintenance of open pond cultivation<br />Cost of closed systems<br />Harvesting of microalgae<br />
  43. 43. Economics<br />
  44. 44. Algae fuels: Growth and Investments<br />
  45. 45. Growth<br />More than 100 companies are working on algae fuels, especially in USA and UK <br />
  46. 46. Investments<br />
  47. 47. Opportunities for Entrepreneurs <br />Biofuel production<br />R&D<br />Investor<br />Equipment manufacturer<br />Biofuel refineries<br />Bioremediation using algae<br />
  48. 48. Tremendous opportunities for Indian entrepreneurs<br />
  49. 49. Supports<br />Government funds<br />Cleantech investors<br />Carbon credits and nutrient credits<br />
  50. 50. Key players<br />Research Institutes & Organizations<br />> 25<br />Pilot plant<br />Commercial plant<br /><5<br />0<br />
  51. 51. MCRC - pioneer in algae cultivation <br /><ul><li> A non-Governmental Voluntary Research Organisation
  52. 52. Established in 1977
  53. 53. The first major research on algae technology at MCRC was on Spirulina
  54. 54. Technology was licensed to the sister concern, The New Ambadi Estates (now Parry Agro Industries Ltd.) </li></li></ul><li> Indian oil and petroalgae<br /><ul><li> ICOL is the 18th largest petroleum company in the world, and is currently India’s largest company by sales.
  55. 55. PetroAlgae has signed an MOU to license its proprietary technology for producing and harvesting algae for fuel to Indian Oil
  56. 56. Announcement was on Nov 2009</li></li></ul><li>DBT funded projects on algae fuels<br />
  57. 57. ONGC and teri research<br /><ul><li> TERI, a leader in the field of bio-remediation and has been giving services to ONGC.
  58. 58. StatoilHydro and India's leading oil company ONGC have signed an MOU
  59. 59. Explore the potential of Algae-based Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), and CDM (clean development mechanism) projects in India.</li></li></ul><li>Other Indian companies<br />Hydrolina Biotech Pvt Ltd.,<br />BioMax<br />Enhanced biofuels<br />
  60. 60. Conclusion<br /><ul><li>Even with few challenges taken into consideration, algae biofuel ’s natural advantages look to make it one of the foremost players in the clean energy market
  61. 61. Algae biofuel production holds future promise for developing countries.
  62. 62. More jobs
  63. 63. Energy independence</li>