New Zealand OHSIG Conference –      26-28 October 2011Two Streams _ Egocentric and Ergonomic –    In Which One Are You Swi...
Classes of Damage         Classes of DamagePermanent -          Multiple Fatalities           -         Single Fatality   ...
Vision     Zero HarmEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
A Strategic Pathway to the Vision of                     Zero Harm• Elimination of Permanent Personal  Damage• Systematic ...
Cost & Size of Personal Damage            Australia 2005/2006100                     30,900                        $40.2B ...
Class I Non-Fatal Damage          (Injury and Disease – All Industries)                        Percentage                 ...
Likelihood of Class I Non-Fatal Damage    (Injury and Disease – All Australian Industries)                                ...
New Zealand – 2007-2008•   Work-related Fatalities:                  119•   Work-related Injuries (> 1 week):      37,700•...
New Zealand – 2007-2008• Fatality Likelihood:                1:18,700 worker years• Injury Likelihood:                  1:...
GOAL                           Organisational                            Psychology≈ 80 years                             ...
Preamble• 1500 Industrialisation of Britain• 1833 British Factory Inspectorate• 1867 Massachusetts Factory Inspection• 187...
“Egocentric” Stream1.   1:29:3002.   Unsafe acts, unsafe conditions3.   88:10:24.   Lapse, Error, Mistake, Violation5.   A...
Foundation of a major injury (Heinrich) - 1929                         1               MAJOR INJURIES                     ...
Heinrich’s Domino Model Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
Swiss Cheese ModelEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
Egocentric Stream• Failure model• Unsafe acts model    These models are useful if fixing the point      of failure / unsaf...
The Bird accident ratio study - 1969 1    Serious or Disabling ANSI Z16.1 10      Minor Injuries 30         Property Damag...
The Ergonomic Stream Attributes         (compared with Egocentric Stream)1. Behaviour, Knowledge and Skills present/absent...
The Ergonomic Stream Attributes          (compared with Egocentric Stream) cont.5. “Is” thinking (versus cause-effect)6. D...
Incident Prevention Extended to       Damage Reduction Stability / Metastability / Instability    Engineering Safer Workpl...
Key Dates / People / Concepts                  – prior to 1970’s• 1949 – Gordon and Gibson                   – Injuries ca...
McDonald’s Contribution                (1960’s and 1970’s)1. Haddon’s 5 physical energies→ 13 describers2. Event phase of ...
McDonald’s Contribution               (1960’s and 1970’s) cont5. Essential and Contributory Factors6. Classifying Damaging...
Pre-event               Event                       Post EventStable   Metastable              Unstable Damage            ...
MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
“Is” ThinkingEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
Summary & Conclusion•   Fatality rates decreasing•   Non-fatal permanent rates increasing/static?•   Describe your stream•...
Egocentric Stream -v- Ergonomic Stream    Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
Egocentric Stream -v- Ergonomic Stream    Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
Egocentric Stream -v- Ergonomic Stream    Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
•Which stream are you in?•Do we need elements of “both” streams?        Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
The EndEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
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Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?

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Roger Kahler
Director, InterSafe Group

(Invited, Friday 28, Ilott Room, 8.30)

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  • Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?

    1. 1. New Zealand OHSIG Conference – 26-28 October 2011Two Streams _ Egocentric and Ergonomic – In Which One Are You Swimming? Roger Kahler Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    2. 2. Classes of Damage Classes of DamagePermanent - Multiple Fatalities - Single Fatality - Non-fatal Permanent DamageTemporary - Temporary e.g. LTIMinor - Minor e.g.MTI Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    3. 3. Vision Zero HarmEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    4. 4. A Strategic Pathway to the Vision of Zero Harm• Elimination of Permanent Personal Damage• Systematic reduction of Temporary and Minor Damage Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    5. 5. Cost & Size of Personal Damage Australia 2005/2006100 30,900 $40.2B 80 $1301k av. 227,000 60 33,100 $0.7B 231,897 164,000 $10.5B $4.3B $3k av. ≈$0 40 $317k av. $26k av. 2,603 $1.9B 20 $730k av. 0 Permanent Permanent >5 days, <5 days, Minor Fatal no return to reduced full duties full duties work income % of all occurences % of all costs Total Incidents = 689,500 Total Cost = $57.6 billion Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    6. 6. Class I Non-Fatal Damage (Injury and Disease – All Industries) Percentage Percentage Number of Number of Change in Change in Class I People in Numbers Workforce Year cases – No Workforce – from Size from Return to Full and Part Previous Previous Work* Time (million) Period Period1991-92 19290 - 7.5 -2000-01 26900 28% 9.9 32%2005-06 30900 15% 10.16 2.6% * Excludes Permanently Reduced Income Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    7. 7. Likelihood of Class I Non-Fatal Damage (Injury and Disease – All Australian Industries) Likelihood (1 case per Number of Class I Year ‘x’ person years of Cases* exposure)1992-93 50,000 1:1502000-01 48,900 1:2022005-06 64,000 1:158 * No Return to Work and Permanently Reduced Income Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    8. 8. New Zealand – 2007-2008• Work-related Fatalities: 119• Work-related Injuries (> 1 week): 37,700• Workforce Numbers: 2.26 million• 91.6% returned to work within year• 82.3% returned to work within 6 months• Does the 18% cost the most? Source: ACC Facts Sheet Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    9. 9. New Zealand – 2007-2008• Fatality Likelihood: 1:18,700 worker years• Injury Likelihood: 1:60 worker years Permanent Impairment Likelihood ? Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    10. 10. GOAL Organisational Psychology≈ 80 years ≈ 60 years 1930 1950 Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    11. 11. Preamble• 1500 Industrialisation of Britain• 1833 British Factory Inspectorate• 1867 Massachusetts Factory Inspection• 1874 France – Inspection of workshops• 1885 Germany – Workers’ Compensation Act• 1921 ILO – Geneva• 1929 Egocentric Stream emerges Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    12. 12. “Egocentric” Stream1. 1:29:3002. Unsafe acts, unsafe conditions3. 88:10:24. Lapse, Error, Mistake, Violation5. A goal of “Accident Prevention”6. Zero harm7. “Cause-Effect” thinking Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    13. 13. Foundation of a major injury (Heinrich) - 1929 1 MAJOR INJURIES 29 MINOR INJURIES 300 NO-INJURY ACCIDENTS UNSAFE ?000 - - - 000? UNSAFE PRACTICES CONDITIONS Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    14. 14. Heinrich’s Domino Model Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    15. 15. Swiss Cheese ModelEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    16. 16. Egocentric Stream• Failure model• Unsafe acts model These models are useful if fixing the point of failure / unsafe act is an effective solution Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    17. 17. The Bird accident ratio study - 1969 1 Serious or Disabling ANSI Z16.1 10 Minor Injuries 30 Property Damage Accidents600 Incidents with No Visible Injury or Damage Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    18. 18. The Ergonomic Stream Attributes (compared with Egocentric Stream)1. Behaviour, Knowledge and Skills present/absent (versus unsafe acts)2. Equipment and Environment aspects (present/absent) (versus unsafe conditions)3. 100:100:100 (versus 88:10:2)4. Damage Reduction (versus Accident Prevention) Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    19. 19. The Ergonomic Stream Attributes (compared with Egocentric Stream) cont.5. “Is” thinking (versus cause-effect)6. Damage as a consequence of an Energy Exchange7. Energy Management Strategies (versus Hierarchy of Control)8. Pareto Focus (versus Zero Harm) Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    20. 20. Incident Prevention Extended to Damage Reduction Stability / Metastability / Instability Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    21. 21. Key Dates / People / Concepts – prior to 1970’s• 1949 – Gordon and Gibson – Injuries can be researched same as infectious disease• 1961 – Gibson and Haddon – Injury as a consequence of an energy exchange• 1960s – Haddon – Pre Event / Event / Post Event – 2D Matrix formed when he added Human, Vehicle and Environment• 1962 – Haddon – 10 Energy Management Strategies (“Escape of Tigers”) Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    22. 22. McDonald’s Contribution (1960’s and 1970’s)1. Haddon’s 5 physical energies→ 13 describers2. Event phase of Haddon’s Pre-event / event / post- event → Stable, Metastable, Unstable, Damage3. Pareto Focus (80-20 Rule)4. “Is” thinking versus cause/effect Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    23. 23. McDonald’s Contribution (1960’s and 1970’s) cont5. Essential and Contributory Factors6. Classifying Damaging Energies → Class I, Class II, Class III7. Accidents / Incidents → Damaging and Non- Damaging Occurrences8. The Taxonomic Process Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    24. 24. Pre-event Event Post EventStable Metastable Unstable Damage Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    25. 25. MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    26. 26. MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    27. 27. MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    28. 28. MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    29. 29. MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    30. 30. MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    31. 31. “Is” ThinkingEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    32. 32. Summary & Conclusion• Fatality rates decreasing• Non-fatal permanent rates increasing/static?• Describe your stream• To enter Ergonomic stream requires “faith”• Damaged people pay the price of leaders’ “high level” thought/activity Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    33. 33. Egocentric Stream -v- Ergonomic Stream Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    34. 34. Egocentric Stream -v- Ergonomic Stream Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    35. 35. Egocentric Stream -v- Ergonomic Stream Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    36. 36. •Which stream are you in?•Do we need elements of “both” streams? Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    37. 37. The EndEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions

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