Evaluation of OHS programmes using         programme theoryACC’s Workplace Safety Discount Scheme as an example        Cen...
Outline   •   Why and how do we evaluate OHS programmes   •   Programme theory introduction   •   The Workplace Safety Dis...
OHS programmes:- why?   • To improve OHS and reduce injuries, diseases and fatalities at work   • Too many work-related in...
Why and how are OHS programmes evaluated   • We want to find out if they achieve what was intended   • Outcome: injury cla...
Programme theory attempts to answer the question:                                         What works                      ...
Programme theory   • Intervention programmes are ‘theories’   • They begin in the heads of policy makers   • Pass into the...
Three basic types of mechanisms   1. Information provision      (sharing of information and argumentation)   2. Incentives...
Workplace Safety Discount (WSD) Scheme   • Small business < 10 employees   • High risk industries   • 10% discount in insu...
Evaluation of Workplace Safety Discount   Scheme in Agriculture   Semi-structured interviews with:   • ACC’s WSD programme...
What was in the creators heads   •   Small Businesses have high injury rate   •   Under estimate risks   •   Do not have O...
WSD Programme theory   •   Positive attitude towards the working environment   •   Economic incentive (discount)   •   Inf...
The WSD proramme                 Want to be good employer                  Fear of punishment/control                     ...
ACC’ evaluation of the WSD programme?   • No evaluation reports of the programme   • Uptake of WSD scheme:       3,357 had...
Evaluation of WSD in agriculture   using programme theory                                                                 ...
Difficulties   • Knowing about the scheme   • Difficulties to reach farmers that don’t know the     trainers   • Only the ...
What worked for whom?   • Knowing the FarmSafe trainers, financial advisors         • Helped during the self-assessment pr...
Thank you !                         And hope to see you at:Centre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Ma...
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Evaluation of Occupational Health and Safety Programmes Using Programme Theory: ACC’s Workplace Safety Discount Scheme as an Example

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Dr Kirsten B. Olsen
Senior Lecturer, Centre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety and Health, Massey University
Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North 4442
k.b.olsen@massey.ac.nz

(P10, Wednesday 26, Civic Room 1, 2.00)

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
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Evaluation of Occupational Health and Safety Programmes Using Programme Theory: ACC’s Workplace Safety Discount Scheme as an Example

  1. 1. Evaluation of OHS programmes using programme theoryACC’s Workplace Safety Discount Scheme as an example Centre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety and Health By Kirsten Olsen, Leigh-Ann Harris & Kristina Gunnarsson At OHSIG 2011
  2. 2. Outline • Why and how do we evaluate OHS programmes • Programme theory introduction • The Workplace Safety Discount (WSD) Scheme • Programme theory applied to WSDCentre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Management
  3. 3. OHS programmes:- why? • To improve OHS and reduce injuries, diseases and fatalities at work • Too many work-related injuries, diseases & fatalities claim rate per 1,000 full-time equivalent employees (142 – 116) 2002–2008 http://socialreport.msd.govt.nz/paid-work/workplace-injury-claims.html • Approx. 85 fatal work-related injuries in 2008 (source: DoL 2011) • Approx. 445 serious work-related injuries in 2009 (source: DoL 2011)Centre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Management
  4. 4. Why and how are OHS programmes evaluated • We want to find out if they achieve what was intended • Outcome: injury claims, accidents ... • Before and after measure (change in outcome) • Participation in programmes: attendence at training courses, uptake of guidelines, visit to websites • Surveys of self assessed effects/changes • Always possible to find evidence for failure • Programmes are seldom assessed to: • assess the implementation process • test the programme theoryCentre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Management
  5. 5. Programme theory attempts to answer the question: What works for whom, in what circumstances, in what respect, and how ?Centre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Management
  6. 6. Programme theory • Intervention programmes are ‘theories’ • They begin in the heads of policy makers • Pass into the hands of practitioners and managers and • Into the heads and minds of users Intervention Policy makers’ Practitioners Target group programme programme theory Intermediares users Outcome design ContextCentre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Management
  7. 7. Three basic types of mechanisms 1. Information provision (sharing of information and argumentation) 2. Incentives (economic and image promoting) 3. Punishment (demands, control and sanctions)Centre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Management
  8. 8. Workplace Safety Discount (WSD) Scheme • Small business < 10 employees • High risk industries • 10% discount in insurance levy • Demonstrate knowledge of risks and OHS management (2 free half-day courses ) • Self-assessment of OHS & OHS management • Possibility of audit • Re-apply every three yearsCentre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Management
  9. 9. Evaluation of Workplace Safety Discount Scheme in Agriculture Semi-structured interviews with: • ACC’s WSD programme/product manager • ACC’s Agriculture programme manager • FarmSafe manager • Three FarmSafe trainers • One financial advisor promoting the WSD • Five farmers that have applied for WSD • One auditorCentre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Management
  10. 10. What was in the creators heads • Small Businesses have high injury rate • Under estimate risks • Do not have OHS knowledge • Wants to be good employers • Do not have much time or money • They see ACC levies as an economic burden • Want to work with people in whom they have trust • Information (courses) and economic incentive 10 % discount) promoted through industry organisations should make SB owners improve OHSCentre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Management
  11. 11. WSD Programme theory • Positive attitude towards the working environment • Economic incentive (discount) • Information provision (free training courses) • Punishment/control (possible audit) • Use trusted intermediaries (industry organisations) • OHS management system => good working environment => reduction in injuries and ill-health => reduction in claims and compensation costCentre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Management
  12. 12. The WSD proramme Want to be good employer Fear of punishment/control Awareness course info A Change in Self U benefit Control assessm D 10% discount OHS mgt ent, appl I Fewer injuries Punish- y T Reduced cost ment OHS mgt course Economic benefitCentre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Management
  13. 13. ACC’ evaluation of the WSD programme? • No evaluation reports of the programme • Uptake of WSD scheme: 3,357 had joint the scheme in 2011 a third of the expected uptake by 2009 • Injury claims: no measurable result • Numbers of injury: indications that participants have reduced injuries • The self-assessment and audit feedback not used to evaluate the schemeCentre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Management
  14. 14. Evaluation of WSD in agriculture using programme theory Minister of ACC Creator of the ACC: WSD programme programme ACC: agriculture Federated ACC audit trainers programme Farmers Tertiary FarmSafe Training WSD auditor Education courses Commission Farmers FarmSafe regional trainersCentre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & Health FinancialSchool of Management advisers
  15. 15. Difficulties • Knowing about the scheme • Difficulties to reach farmers that don’t know the trainers • Only the leaders are reached? • It can be more expensive to be away from the farm if something happens to the stock, than the benefit from achieving the discount • Difficult to know what to write in the self-assessment • No funding of FarmSafe plans • Change in incentive to promote WSD from the trainers’ perspective • Reorganisation change in focus in ACCCentre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Management
  16. 16. What worked for whom? • Knowing the FarmSafe trainers, financial advisors • Helped during the self-assessment process • Emphasised benefit and punishment from trainers that knew the industry • Reaching the leaders • Farmers that had to meet audit requirements from customersCentre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Management
  17. 17. Thank you ! And hope to see you at:Centre for Ergonomics, Occupational Safety & HealthSchool of Management

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