The Core Six: The Right Research-Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Literacy Skills


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June 27, 9 – 11:30am, Room: Delaware C&D
The Common Core State Standards challenge students to process rigorous texts, evaluate arguments, make inferences, use evidence, synthesize information, write in key genres, and use technology to enhance presentations. Students need to develop these critical literacy skills in order to be successful in college and the careers of the 21st century. How can teachers ensure that their instruction is building these critical Common Core skills? By integrating the right research-based strategies into their practice.
Main Presenter: Harvey Silver, Silver Strong and Associates

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The Core Six: The Right Research-Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Literacy Skills

  1. 1. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills THE CORE SIX:  THE RIGHT RESEARCH‐BASED STRATEGIES FOR BUILDING 21ST CENTURY LEARNING SKILLS Presented by: Tr. Harvey F. Silver EdD Introducing the Core Six The Core Six is a collection of research‐based  strategies that will help teachers and students  respond to the demands of the Common Core. Making Research Work Research has shown us which strategies increase  engagement and raise student achievement,  which allows student learning to take off. 1
  2. 2. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills The Core Six • Reading for Meaning • Compare and Contrast • Inductive Learning • Circle of Knowledge • Write to Learn • Vocabulary’s CODE In this workshop we’ll explore four strategies from  ASCD’s Core Six.  These strategies help teachers address  the four strands in the Common Core ELA Standards. • Reading—Reading for Meaning • Writing—Write to Learn • Speaking and Listening—Circle of Knowledge • Language—Vocabulary’s CODE Reading for Meaning Reading for Meaning helps students develop the  skills that proficient readers use to make sense of  rigorous texts.  The strategy builds these Common Core skills: gy • Managing text complexity. • Evaluating and using evidence. • Developing the core skills of reading (e.g., finding  main ideas, making inferences, and analyzing  characters and content). 2
  3. 3. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Circle of Knowledge Circle of Knowledge is a strategic framework for  planning and conducting classroom discussions that  engage all students in deeper thinking and  thoughtful communication. The strategy builds these Common Core skills: • Speaking, listening, and presenting. • Integrating and evaluating information. • Collaborating with peers. Write to Learn Write to Learn helps teachers integrate writing into daily  instruction and develop students’ writing skills in the key  text types associated with college and career readiness.  The strategy builds these Common Core skills: • Developing higher‐order thinking through writing. • Writing in the key Common Core text types:  arguments, informative/explanatory texts, and  narratives. • Writing for a wide range of tasks, audiences, and  purposes. Vocabulary’s CODE Vocabulary’s CODE is a strategic approach to  vocabulary instruction that improves students’  ability to retain and use crucial vocabulary terms.  The strategy builds these Common Core skills: The strategy builds these Common Core skills: • Mastering academic vocabulary. • Improving literacy across all strands (reading,  writing, speaking/listening, and language). • Building background knowledge as a foundation  for success in school, college, and career. 3
  4. 4. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Six Tips for Inspired Instruction 1. Capture students’ interest. 2. Explain the strategy’s purpose and students’  roles in the strategy. 3. Teach the thinking embedded in the strategy. 4. Use discussion and questioning techniques to  extend student thinking. 5. Ask students to synthesize and transfer their  learning. 6. Leave time for reflection. READING FOR MEANING Reading for Meaning is a research‐based strategy that helps all  readers build the skills that proficient readers use to make  sense of challenging texts. Reasons for Using Reading for Meaning to Address the Common Core • Managing text complexity (Reading Anchor 10, Appendix A  in ELA Standards) • Evaluating and using evidence (Reading Anchors 1 and 8,  Writing Anchors 1 and 9) • Developing the core skills of reading, including determining  main ideas (Reading Anchor 2) analyzing characters and main ideas (Reading Anchor 2), analyzing characters and  ideas (Reading Anchor 3), interpreting meanings (Reading  Anchor 4), and assessing point of view (Reading Anchor 6). • Interpreting visual and quantitative information (Reading  Anchor 7) • Reading, interpreting, and solving complex mathematical  problems (Mathematical Practices 1, 2, 3, and 7) 4
  5. 5. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills What is Reading for Meaning? “To read is to fly: it is to soar to a point of vantage which gives a  view over wide terrains of history, human variety, ideas, shared  experience and the fruits of many inquiries.” ‐ A C Grayling, Financial Times (in a review of A History of Reading by Alberto  Manguel) “The habit of reading is the only enjoyment in which there is no  g y j y alloy; it lasts when all other pleasures fade.” ‐ Anthony Trollope “We read to know we are not alone.” ‐ C.S. Lewis “If you can read this, thank a teacher.” ‐ Anonymous teacher What is Reading for Meaning? Is it reading words and understanding them? Are Between Consists Continuously Corresponding Curve Draws Variation Graph If Isolated  With Making Only Often One Points Relation Set Table Values Variables Known 14 What is Reading for Meaning? Draw a picture explaining your understanding of the text below. If the known relation between the variables consists of  a table of corresponding values, the graph consists only  of the corresponding set of isolated points. If the  variables are known to vary continuously one often variables are known to vary continuously, one often  draws a curve to show the variation. ‐Basic Math, 1945. 15 5
  6. 6. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills What is Reading for Meaning? Is it reading words carefully? I cdnuolt blveiee that I cluod aulacity uesdnatnrd what I  was rdanieg. The phaonmeal pweor of the hmuan  mnid. Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch sdtuy at Cmabrigde  Uinervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in  a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is that the frist  and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a  taotl mses and you can still raed it wouthit a porbelm.  This is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey  lteter by istlef, but the word as a wlohe. Amzanig huh?  Yaeh and I awlyas thought sipeling was ipmorantt! 16 What is Reading for Meaning? Is it answering comprehension questions? The Montillation of Traxoline It is very important that you learn about traxoline. Traxoline is a  new form of zionter. It is montilled in Ceristanna. The Ceristannians  gristeriate large amounts of fevon and then bracter it to quasel  traxoline. Traxoline may well be one of our most  lukized snezlaus in  the future because of our zionter lescelidge. Why is it important to know about traxoline? Where is traxoline montilled? How is traxoline quaselled? What is traxoline? What is Reading for Meaning? An Anthology of Rigorous Texts Select one of the readings from the Anthology of Rigorous  Texts taken from Reading for Meaning Strategic PLC Guide.   Read your chosen text and be ready to summarize it in your Read your chosen text and be ready to summarize it in your  own words for your partner. What made your text rigorous?   What moves did you make to  comprehend the text you read?  See next page for reading 6
  7. 7. 6 Reading for Meaning Let’s Get Started Adults tend to forget just how challenging the act of making meaning out of the words on a page can be. Thus, we begin this Strategic Teacher PLC Guide on Reading for Meaning with a few short texts that can put us in better touch with the challenges that many of our students face as readers. We deliberately selected these texts as reminders that understanding what we read is not always a snap. We call the following five texts “An Anthology of Rigorous Readings.” Preview all of the read- ings and then pick two for close reading—the one you believe will be the most challenging, and the one you believe will be the least challenging. An Anthology of Rigorous Readings Rea d i n g O n e : R e ad in g T wo : Excerpt from the Federalist Papers, “There’s a certain Slant of light,” “Concerning the General Power of by Emily Dickinson Taxation,” by Alexander Hamilton There’s a certain Slant of light, It has been already observed that the federal Winter Afternoons — government ought to possess the power of pro- That oppresses, like the Heft viding for the support of the national forces; in Of Cathedral Tunes — which proposition was intended to be included the expense of raising troops, of building and Heavenly Hurt, it gives us — equipping fleets, and all other expenses in any We can find no scar, wise connected with military arrangements and But internal difference, operations. But these are not the only objects to Where the Meanings, are — which the jurisdiction of the Union, in respect None may teach it — Any — to revenue, must necessarily be empowered to ‘Tis the Seal Despair — extend. It must embrace a provision for the sup- An imperial affliction port of the national civil list; for the payment of Sent us of the Air — the national debts contracted, or that may be contracted; and, in general, for all those mat- When it comes, the Landscape listens — ters which will call for disbursements out of the Shadows — hold their breath — national treasury. The conclusion is, that there When it goes, ’tis like the Distance must be interwoven, in the frame of the govern- On the look of Death — ment, a general power of taxation, in one shape or another. Pages from Reading for Meaning: How to Build Students Comprehension, Reasoning, and Problem-Solving Skills Strategic PLC Guide 7ReadingForMeaning pages.indd 6 12/2/10 12:47 PM
  8. 8. Section 1: Why Reading for Meaning? 7 R e ad i n g T h r e e : A Description of the Healing Process Adapted from a High School Biology Textbook Endothelial cells bud and grow from existing blood vessels, undergo canalization, and form a vascular network by connecting to other cell buds. New vessels are all similar in appearance, with thin walls made of endothelium. Protein leaks out of the vessels, bathing the wound area in plasma and providing a rich nutrient medium that promotes rapid cell growth. Once this nutrient medium is established, differentiation can begin. Some vessels will become venules, which are large and have thin walls, while others will become arterioles, which have muscular coats. As granulation tissue steadily changes, some vessels will disappear. Those that remain will become part of the capillary bed. R e ad i n g F o u r : Excerpt from The Souls of Black Folk, by W. E. B. Du Bois Between me and the other world there is ever an unasked question: unasked by some through feelings of delicacy; by others through the difficulty of rightly framing it. All, nevertheless, flutter round it. They approach me in a half-hesitant sort of way, eye me curiously or compassionately, and then, instead of saying directly, How does it feel to be a problem? they say, I know an excellent colored man in my town; or, I fought at Mechanicsville; or, Do not these Southern outrages make your blood boil? At these I smile, or am interested, or reduce the boiling to a simmer, as the occasion may require. To the real question, How does it feel to be a problem? I answer seldom a word. R e ad i n g F i v e : What Is the Hailstone Sequence? Exploring a Mathematical Mystery One mystery that has puzzled mathematicians for years is a strange series of numbers known as a hailstone sequence. To create a hailstone sequence, take any positive integer n. If n is even, divide it by 2. If n is odd, multiply it by 3 and add 1. Then, take the result and repeat the process over and over to generate a sequence of numbers. If we apply this procedure to n = 11, we get: 34, 17, 52, 26, 13, 40, 20, 10, 5, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 4, 2, 1. . . . These sequences are called hailstone sequences because the numbers mimic the up-and-down movement of hailstones as they form in clouds. Notice that the sequence above ends in a repeating pattern—4, 2, 1, 4, 2, 1. . . . It is believed that every value for n will settle into this 4, 2, 1 pattern. But some values gener- ate long sequences before the pattern emerges. For example, n = 27 yields 109 numbers before the 4, 2, 1 pattern begins. So what’s the mystery? No mathematician has yet proven that every positive integer will generate a sequence that eventually settles into a repeating 4, 2, 1 pattern. Pages from Reading for Meaning: How to Build Students Comprehension, Reasoning, and Problem-Solving Skills Strategic PLC Guide 8ReadingForMeaning pages.indd 7 12/2/10 12:47 PM
  9. 9. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills An Anthology of Rigorous Texts Reading One: Excerpt from the Federalist Papers, “Concerning the  General Power of Taxation,” by Alexander Hamilton Reading Two: “There’s a certain Slant of light,” by Emily Dickinson Reading Three: A Description of the Healing Process Adapted from  g p g p a High School Biology Textbook Reading Four: Excerpt from The Souls of Black Folk, by W.E.B.  DuBois Reading Five: What is the Hailstone Sequence?  Exploring a  Mathematical Mystery What Reading and Thinking Skills Did You Use?  Before reading did you . . .  Draw forth relevant background knowledge to help you put the reading in context?  Make predictions about what the text would say or include? Establish a purpose for reading? During reading did you . . .  Apply criteria that helped you separate critical information from less relevant information? Apply criteria that helped you separate critical information from less relevant information?  Pay attention to how the ideas were presented and organized?  Make notes to help you highlight and clarify important ideas?  Form images in your head to help you “see” the content?  Note when the text confirmed or refuted your initial ideas or prereading predictions? After reading did you . . .  Reflect on what you read?  Try to assess and shore up gaps in your comprehension? (What do I need to better understand?)  Look for opportunities to discuss your ideas with other readers? Thinking About the Skills of Comprehension • How did the skills you checked off help you understand the  texts you read? • What are some ways you teach these skills in your classroom? • What are some of the recurring challenges you face in helping  students build their reading and reasoning skills? 9
  10. 10. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills What is Reading for Meaning? Reading for Meaning What is it? A reading strategy that uses simple statements to help  students find and evaluate evidence and build  thoughtful interpretations. What is Reading for Meaning? Reading For Meaning • Present students with list of ‘agree or disagree statements’ about an  assigned text (e.g., “Frog is a good friend.”)  • Have students preview the statements and then begin reading the  p g g text. • Ask students to indicate whether they agree or disagree with the  statements based on what they read. • Have students justify their agree/disagree positions by citing  appropriate evidence from the text. 23 A Sample Reading for Meaning Lesson The Gettysburg Address:  A Study in the Power of Words (Common Core Mini Unit) y ( ) 10
  11. 11. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Common Core State Standards This lesson will focus on the Gettysburg Address. Teaching students how to read primary documents supports these Common Core State Standards: • [RH.6-8.1] Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. • [RH.6-8.2] Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source y p y distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. • [RH.6-8.6] Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose. Students will also be writing an editorial addressing these Common Core State Standards: • [WHST.6-8.1] Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. • [WHST.6-8.9] Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Mental Companions We all have mental companions whose voices reside  inside our minds.  Perhaps these voices come from a  friend, your parents, a coach, or even the words from a  song, a poem, or a famous person. What voices have helped you to define who you are?   Identify one of these voices and explain how it has  influenced you. There are many famous Americans whose voices have played an important role in our American heritage. Today we’re going to look at the words from a great speech given by Abraham Li Ab h Lincoln at G tt b l t Gettysburg t hto honor th the soldiers who fought and died there in the Civil War. As you listen to Lincoln’s words, I want you to ask yourself if Lincoln’s speech is as relevant today for all Americans as it was on Thursday, November 19, 1863. 11
  12. 12. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Sticky Notes (Summarize) Now use “sticky notes” to briefly summarize each portion of the Gettysburg Address. See next page for activity sheet Statements Read the statements below and take a critical stance. Use evidence from Lincoln’s speech to defend your position. • The primary goal of the speech was to honor the soldiers who had fought and died. • Li Lincoln believed that our nation was at a crossroads. l b li d th t ti t d • The style of the speech (separate from its content) contributes to its power, persuasiveness, and beauty. • Lincoln believed that the outcome of the war had implications for the entire world, not just the United States. • Lincoln took his listeners on a journey through time. • Lincoln would agree that actions speak louder than words. Online Editorial Lincoln reminds us in the Gettysburg Address that the work of maintaining a “United” States of America remains unfinished. Do you agree or disagree with his thesis? A local university is developing a website to commemorate President Lincoln and is looking for editorial content related to his Gettysburg Address. Develop an editorial in which you discuss the importance of Lincoln’s message at Gettysburg and what it means to Americans today. Guidelines •Make sure you… •Provide a valid argument. •Indicate whether you agree or disagree with Lincoln’s thesis. •Avoid summarization. Instead, include specific references from the speech that help you make your case. •Organize your ideas so that they follow a logical sequence. •Follow the conventions of standard written English. 12
  13. 13. Sticky Notes (Summarize) Use “sticky notes” to briefly summarize each portion of the Gettysburg Address.   GETTYSBURG ADDRESS  STICKY NOTES Four score and seven years ago our fathers   brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.  Now we are engaged in a great civil war,   testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war.    We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.    But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here.  It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated   here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom ‐‐ and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.   13
  14. 14. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills The Gettysburg Address Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this  continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the  proposition that all men are created equal.  Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that  nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long  endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have  g come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for  those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is  altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.  Lincoln believed that our nation was at a crossroads. Lincoln would agree that actions speak louder than words. The Gettysburg Address But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate—we cannot consecrate—we  cannot hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who  struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or  detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here,  but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to  be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here  have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to  y the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we  take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full  measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall  not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth  of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the  people, shall not perish from the earth. Lincoln believed that the outcome of the war had implications  for the entire world, not just the United States. Reading for Meaning Statements Reading for Meaning statements can be designed to fit whatever skills students are developing. They can also be designed to support various Common Core Anchor Standards for Reading. Determine what a text says Lincoln believed that the outcome of the war explicitly. (R.CCR.1) had implications f th entire world, not j t h d i li ti for the ti ld t just the United States. Make logical inferences Lincoln would agree that actions speak from a text. (R.CCR.1) louder than words. Identify main ideas and The primary goal of the speech was to honor themes. (R.CCR.2) the soldiers who had fought and died. 33 14
  15. 15. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Reading for Meaning Statements Analyze how and why Lincoln believed that our nation individuals, events, and was at a crossroads. ideas develop, connect, and interact. (R.CCR.3) Assess how point of view or The style of the speech (separate purpose shapes the content from its content) contributes to its and style of a text; power, persuasiveness, and distinguish between what is beauty. said and what is meant or true. (R.CCR.6) 34 Reading for Meaning Statements Integrate and evaluate Lincoln took his listeners on a journey content that is presented through time. visually and quantitatively as well as in words. R.CCR.7) 35 Introducing Reading for Meaning • Good reading is active reading. • Comprehension involves a repertoire of skills, or reading and thinking strategies. • Comprehension skills can be taught successfully to nearly all readers, including young and emerging readers. • A wide body of research shows that teaching students comprehension skills has “a significant and lasting effect on students’ understanding” (Keene, 2010, p. 70). 15
  16. 16. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills The Four Principles of Reading for Meaning Principle One: Before You Get Reading, Get Ready Good readers… • call up relevant background knowledge. • make predictions. • establish their purpose for reading. The Four Principles of Reading for Meaning Principle Two: Read Like You Mean It Good readers… • are actively engaging their mind. • separate relevant information from irrelevant information. • make notes and check their comprehension while reading. The Four Principles of Reading for Meaning Principle Three: Just Because You’re Done Reading Doesn’t Mean You’re Done Reading Good readers… • look back on the text. • revisit predictions. • discuss evidence. • reflect on how the text has influenced their understanding. 16
  17. 17. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills The Four Principles of Reading for Meaning Principle Four: Put Reading to Use The most powerful form of reading is applied reading — reading that leads to a product in which students synthesize what they have learned. y Reading for Meaning and the Common Core Reading for Meaning can be used to address several common themes that are found in the Reading Anchor standards, such as: • Text complexity • E id Evidence • Core skills of reading Read the text then identify the  Read the text then identify the  theme, main ideas and key details  in the reading that you want your  students to focus on .  Develop  students to focus on .  Develop  four to eight  thought provoking  statements for your students to  examine before they read the text  to help them focus on the themes,  main ideas and key details. 42 See next page for reading 17
  18. 18. Weighing the Elephant by Baoquing Xu Almost two thousand years ago, there lived a very smart young Chinese prince namedCao Chong. When the prince was seven years old, an envoy from Siam presented his father with ahuge elephant. The king and his court had never seen a creature like this before, and theymarveled at its great size and wondered how much it weighed. “Why don’t we find out?” asked Cao Chong. “ How?” asked his father. “We don’t have a scale big enough!” Cao Chong thought for awhile. “It’s not that hard,” he said. “Follow me to the river, andI’ll show you.” Now, the important people in court-the lords, the ladies, the generals-all hesitated.They knew that Cao Chong was brilliant, but he was just a little boy. Everyone looked at theking to see if they should take Cao Chong seriously.The king knew his son. Smiling, he rose from his royal throne and said to Chao Chong, “Goahead. You are the commander. We’ll all follow your orders.” So out they marched. Cao Chong and the king led the way, carried on a magnificent royal litter, followed by the big elephant decorated with silk and precious stones, generals and lords on horseback, the queen and princesses in sedan chairs, and servants and guards on foot. As they went down the street, more and more people followed. By the time they arrived at the riverbank, Cao Chong had an audience of several thousand. Everybody was curious and anxious to see how a seven-year-old would weight such a huge animal. As soon as the royal family stopped, Cao Chong hopped out and started giving orders. First, the elephant was led onto a boat which sankseveral inches right away under the beast’s weight. Cao Chong marked the boat’s new waterline with a chalk and led the elephant out. Then he ordered servants to pile big rocks into theboat until it again sank to the marked water line. When the rocks were carried back to shore,he weighed them one by one on a regular scale. With an abacus,Cao Chong quickly added all the weights. Finally, he looked upand announced: “The elephant weighs one hundred and thirtytons.” The king heaved a sigh of relief and smiled broadly. Hedidn’t say anything. There was no need to-the spectators werewild with applause, and all were proud of the young prince. 18
  19. 19. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Weighing the Elephant Almost two thousand years ago, there lived a very smart young Chinese prince named Cao Chong. When the prince was seven years old, an envoy from Siam presented his father with a huge elephant. The king and his court had never seen a creature like this before, and they marveled at its great size and wondered how much it weighed. “Why don’t we find out?” asked Cao Chong. “ How?” asked his father. “We don’t have a scale big enough!” Cao Chong thought for awhile. “It’s not that hard,” he said. “Follow me to the river, and I’ll show you.” Now, the important people in court—the lords, the ladies, the generals—all hesitated. They knew that Cao Chong was brilliant, but he was just a little boy. Everyone looked at the king to see if they should take Cao Chong seriously. The king knew his son. Smiling, he rose from his royal throne and said to Cao Chong, “Go ahead. You are the commander. We’ll all follow your orders.” Weighing the Elephant So out they marched. Cao Chong and the king led the way, carried on a magnificent royal litter, followed by the big elephant decorated with silk and precious stones, generals and lords on horseback, the queen and princesses in sedan chairs, and servants and guards on foot. As they went down the street, more and more people followed. By the time they arrived at the riverbank, Cao Chong had an audience of several thousand. Everybody was curious and anxious to see how a seven-year-old would weigh such a huge animal. As soon as the royal family stopped, Cao Chong hopped out and started giving orders. First, the elephant was led onto a boat which sank several inches right away under the beast’s weight. Cao Chong marked the boat’s new water line with chalk and led the elephant out. Then he ordered servants to pile big rocks into the boat until it again sank to the marked water line. When the rocks were carried back to shore, he weighed them one by one on a regular scale. With an abacus, Cao Chong quickly added all the weights. Finally, he looked up and announced: “The elephant weighs 130 dan*.” The king heaved a sigh of relief and smiled broadly. He didn’t say anything. There was no need to—the spectators were wild with applause, and all were proud of the young prince. Weighing the Elephant How to find the main idea? Fill in the blank and explain your reasoning. Weighing the Elephant, A Story in: __________ 45 19
  20. 20. Before you read the text decide if you agree or disagree with the following statements.BEFORE AFTER Support Refute Support Refute Support Refute Support Refute 20
  21. 21. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Weighing the Elephant After you read the story try to come up with at least five reading  for meaning statements.  Answer the questions below before  making your statements. • What are three possible interesting vocabulary words that  you want students to know? • What are synonyms for these words that you can use in your  statements? • What are some words that mean the opposite of disprove? 46 See next page for activity sheet Weighing the Elephant Reading for Meaning Statements • People are intrigued by things they have never seen before. • Children can be smarter than adults. • You can tell what a child will be like as an adult by the way they go about solving problems. • A good leader needs to be creative and clever. • The king and his court were amazed at the great size of the elephant. • The king was very confident that his son, the prince, would be able to meet the challenge. • The little prince was very clever. • The people were excited to learn how much the elephant weighed. • The king was surprised that someone so young could solve the problem of how to weigh the elephant. • The little prince will make a good king someday. CIRCLE OF KNOWLEDGE Circle of Knowledge provides teachers with a strategic  framework for planning and conducting discussions  that foster student participation and critical thinking. t at oste stude t pa t c pat o a d c t ca t g 21
  22. 22. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Agree or Disagree Classroom discussion is one of the most powerful  techniques teachers have at their disposal. It is also one of the most fragile. What makes for an effective discussion? What Makes for a Good Discussion? Directions: 1. Read the statements 2. Indicate whether you agree or disagree. 3. Meet with three other participants. Meet with three other participants. 4. Share your responses and your reasonings. 5. Try to arrive at a consensus on all of the statements.  If you can’t arrive at a consensus on a statement,  rewrite the statement so you can all agree with it. 22
  23. 23. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills What Makes for a Good Discussion? 1. In order to engage in an effective discussion, you must feel strongly  about the topic. 2. Extroverts are better participants in discussions. 3. The purpose of a discussion is to persuade others to agree with your  point of view. 4. There must be balanced participation for discussion to be  productive productive. 5. Participants in a discussion must be knowledgeable about the topic. What Makes for a Good Discussion? Review your initial ideas from your conversation about  what makes discussion both powerful and fragile.  How  would you revise your initial thoughts? What Makes for a Good Discussion? What would a teaching strategy need to accomplish to  promote the behaviors you identified for an effective  discussion to occur? 23
  24. 24. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Learning how to conduct an effective classroom  discussion is an essential skill for any teacher to  master. What moves did we make during our discussion  about discussions? Moves for Successful Classroom Discussions • Participation • Focus • Higher Levels of Thinking Moves for Successful Classroom Discussions Moves for Increasing Participation • Allow students to test and share ideas in small  groups. • Use a variety of recognition techniques. y g q • Court controversy. • Get students personally and actively involved. 24
  25. 25. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Moves for Successful Classroom Discussions Moves for Keeping Focus • Integrate note making into discussions. • Record responses and summarize frequently. Moves for Successful Classroom Discussions Moves for Encouraging High Levels of Thinking • Encourage students to stop and think about  the question. • Use question and response techniques to Use question and response techniques to  shape discussions. • Ask students to reflect on the quality of their  contributions. Circle of Knowledge Sample Lesson Sample Lesson: High School Geometry Purpose High school geometry teacher Eileen Cho believes that too many  math classrooms run through important concepts too quickly,  sealing students off from the provocative issues and ideas that  make mathematics interesting. So she builds “big idea”  discussions into the culture of her classroom. It is the second week of school. Students have made “multimedia”  notes (notes that include verbal, visual, and mathematical  information) on the key concepts in the course: point, line, angle,  line segment, and so on. Eileen believes that students are ready  for their first big idea discussion.  25
  26. 26. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Circle of Knowledge Circle of Knowledge provides teachers with a  strategic framework for planning and conducting  discussions that foster student participation,  learning essential content, and thinking  g , g critically. Three Reasons for Using Circle of Knowledge to Address the Common Core 1. Effective oral communication is a crucial 21st century  skill. 2. Speaking and listening require thinking. 3. Discussions build collaborative and interpersonal skills. Discussions build collaborative and interpersonal skills. The Research Behind Circle of Knowledge Research shows that students in discussion‐rich  classrooms experience real academic and social  benefits: deeper comprehension, greater empathy and  respect for their peers, and an increased ability to  h dl i handle rigorous content. t t Polite & Adams, 1997;  Tanner & Cascados, 1998; Tredway, 1995 26
  27. 27. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Common Core Skill: Oral Communication “To become college and career ready, students  must have ample opportunities to take part in a  variety of rich, structured conversations—as  part of a whole class, in small groups, and with a  p , g p, partner—built around important content”  (CCSS for ELA, 2010, p. 48) Common Core Skill: Speaking and Listening Students need to be able to “build on others’  ideas” (SL.CCR.1), “integrate and evaluate  information” (SL.CCR.2), and “evaluate a  speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of  p p , g, evidence” (SL. CCR.3). Common Core Skills: Collaboration and  Interpersonal Skills “twenty‐first century classroom and workplace  are settings in which people from often widely  divergent cultures and who represent diverse  experiences and perspectives must learn and  p p p work together” (p. 7). 27
  28. 28. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Discussions in Classrooms The problem is in many classrooms what  teachers call discussion, is actually recitation. What’s the difference between What’s the difference between                       recitation and discussion? Value of Discussions in Classrooms • Students are more engaged in academic learning • Students co‐construct knowledge • Students are able to explore their own thinking and  compare it to other’s thoughts • Students move from low level thinking responses to  application, analysis and synthesis of ideas Preparing Students for Discussion • See and question evidence linked to an  explanation • Clarification and common understanding • Set ground rules Set ground rules • Identify biases and unsubstantiated beliefs— evidence in support of explanation 28
  29. 29. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Circle of Knowledge Strategy Moves Through  Four Phases • Sparking the discussion • Kindling the discussion • Fanning the discussion • Synthesizing the content and reflecting upon  the process Four Ways to Spark Your Discussion Mastery Interpersonal What do you believe are the three  Think about some discussions you  most quality elements of an effective  have participated in, how do you feel  discussion? during a good discussion?  How do  you feel during one that doesn’t go  well?  What causes you to feel that  y way? Understanding Self‐Expressive How are classroom discussions is one  How is an effective discussion like a  of the most powerful techniques  campfire? teachers have at their disposal?  How  are also one of the most fragile? Sample Lesson 2: Elementary ELA/Social Studies Purpose. Students in Sam Carlyle’s 2nd grade class are learning about the  Underground Railroad. The class has just finished reading F. N. Monjo’s  (1970) The Drinking Gourd, a chapter book about a family of abolitionists  who help a family of runaway slaves to freedom. At the heart of the book lies  a question that is provocative for readers of any age: When is it acceptable  to break the law? Sam is using Circle of Knowledge to help students explore  and develop their own perspective on this rich and controversial question. Sparking questions. Why do we have laws? What do laws do for us? Focusing question. Were the Fullers right to break the law? Synthesis activity. With Sam’s help, students write an “I think” essay, taking a position on whether the Fullers were right or wrong to break the  law. 29
  30. 30. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Sample Lesson 3: Middle School Science Purpose. As part of their unit on genetics, Carla Giordana’s students are exploring the  controversy related to genetically modified foods. Carla wants students to formulate and  express their own opinions about this controversial topic through discussion. Before the  discussion begins, students read two brief articles on genetically modified foods—one for  and one against. They also use the Physical Barometer tool to group themselves according  to the strength of their opinions (Strongly Oppose, Oppose, Support, Strongly Support) and  engage in initial discussion in smaller opinion based groups. Sparking questions. What roles do values and morals play when it comes to scientific  progress? Can science go too far? Focusing questions. How can we decide whether the benefits of genetically modified food  outweigh the concerns and risks surrounding it? What role should the public play in this  debate? What role should the government play? Synthesis activity. Students group themselves again using the Physical Barometer tool and  explain why their positions did or did not change as a result of the discussion. Each Physical  Barometer group develops a public service announcement that either warns against or  touts the benefits of genetically modified food, depending on the group’s position. Kindling a Question What is it? Kindling is a tool that teachers use to help students  generate more thoughtful responses to a question. Kindling a Question “Kindling a question” involves 5 steps: 1. Prepare students for the question. 2. Pose the question. 2. Pose the question 3. Provide an opportunity for all students                                  to respond by using provisional writing. 4. Pair students up.  Have them share & compare. 5. Probe, prompt, and praise students’ responses                   to stretch their t h i n k i n g . 75 30
  31. 31. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Prepare Take a moment to reflect on your classroom  practice.  See yourself posing a question to your  students.  What do you see or hear? Pose the question According to the research of Mary Bud Rowe,  most teachers wait less than three seconds after  they ask a question to get a response.  The  research demonstrated that if teachers waited  ten to twenty seconds after posing a question  students’ responses would be longer and more  thoughtful. Pose the question Most teachers have heard of Rowe’s research,  yet wait time is still an issue in many classrooms. Why don’t teachers wait? Why don’t teachers wait?  What’s causing them to rush? 31
  32. 32. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Provide time to respond Jot down, scribble, or draw at least two ideas on  your paper that explains why teachers don’t wait. Pair students up Meet with a partner share your responses try to  decide on the number one reason you believe  teachers don’t wait. Probe, prompt, and praise students’ responses          to stretch their t h i n k i n g . Q‐SPACE to fan your discussion and extend  student thinking Questing—search/journey before and after thinking Silence before and after thinking Silence before and after thinking Probing for evidence Acceptance—provisional Clarifying—specificty and meaning Elaboration—extending and applying 32
  33. 33. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills WRITE TO LEARN Write to Learn is a set of nested tools for writing and learning in  all content areas. Careful use of the tools embedded in this  strategy can drastically improve students’ thinking, deepen their  comprehension of content, and help teachers conduct the kind of  p , p formative assessment needed to improve student writing without  getting caught in an endless cycle of paperwork. List three things you know about yourself as a  writer and a thinker. How are writing and thinking similar?  How are they different? Similarities Differences 33
  34. 34. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills How can we use writing as a strategy to teach  content and to assess learning? Three Reasons for Using Write to Learn to Address the Common Core 1. Writing develops higher‐order thinking • Writing “allows us to see conceptual relationships, to  acquire insights, and to unravel the logic of what was  previously murky or confusing” (Schmoker, 2011, p.  211).  • Help students shape their thinking into more  powerful, refined products. Three Reasons for Using Write to Learn to Address the Common Core 2. Writing in different text types.  • Write to learn helps students develop high‐quality  written responses  in arguments (W.CCR.1);  informative/explanatory texts (W.CCR.2); and  narratives (W.CCR.3).  34
  35. 35. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Three Reasons for Using Write to Learn to Address the Common Core 3. Range of writing.  • Write to Learn provides teachers and students with  various writing formats and tools that support a wide  range of objectives and writing demands. The Research Behind Write to Learn “Writing is the skill most directly related to  improved scores in reading, social studies,  science, and even mathematics.” It also brings “engagement, interest, and fun” to  the classroom. Douglass Reeves, Reason to Write, 2002 The Research Behind Write to Learn In 2010, researchers from Vanderbilt University  conducted a meta‐analysis of more than 100 studies on  writing in the classroom.  They found that asking  students to write regularly has significant and positive  i impact on their comprehension. t th i h i Graham, S., & Hebert, M. (2010) Writing to read: Evidence for how writing can  improve reading (A report from Carnegie  Corporation of New York) 35
  36. 36. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills The Research Behind Write to Learn According to David Conley (2007), perhaps the  foremost expert on college readiness, “If we  could institute only one change to make  students more college ready, it should be to  g y, increase the amount and quality of writing  students are expected to produce” (pp. 27–28). Classroom Writing and Write to Learn Write to Learn involves three different types of  classroom writing: • Provisional • Readable • Polished What do you think are the differences between each of  these types of writing?  Discuss with a neighbor. Implementing Write to Learn in the Classroom Provisional Writing Provisional writing is a form of quick writing, like  brainstorming, that slows down and opens up the  thinking process. Students write spontaneously for two  to five minutes to generate, clarify, or extend ideas or  to react to important content. 36
  37. 37. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Provisional Writing Tools Learning Logs A Learning Log is an active response journal that  infuses writing into the daily instructional routine. Provisional Writing Tools 4‐2‐1 Free Write A tool that both solidifies and tests students’ grasp of what  they’ve learned from readings, lectures, etc. by having them  identify, discuss, and summarize key points with their classmates Individually: FOUR key  ideas Pairs: The TWO most  important ideas Groups of four: The ONE most  important idea 95 4‐2‐1 Free Write Example In the 1900s, Today, there are Humans have Tigers are also Individually: there were more less than 3200 destroyed a lot of getting killed FOUR key than 100,000 tigers left on the tiger’s habitat. by poachers ideas tigers in the Earth. and farmers. world. Pairs: Today, there are Tigers are getting killed The TWO most Less than 3200 and their habitat is important ideas tigers left on Earth. being destroyed. Groups of four: Tigers will go extinct if we The ONE most don’t do something about it. important idea 96 37
  38. 38. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Readable Writing Tools Readable writing, like a classroom essay test or  assignment, requires students to clarify their thoughts  and develop an organizational structure for their ideas.  Unlike provisional writing, readable writing is intended  f for an audience—usually the teacher, who uses it to  di ll th t h h it t assess students’ depth of understanding and ability to  construct soundly reasoned responses. Readable Writing Tools Readable Writing Prompts On the next slide are seven readable writing prompts.   Each prompt has been designed around key writing Each prompt has been designed around key writing  genres highlighted in the Reading and Writing  Standards.  Match each prompt to the genre of writing  it supports. Readable Writing Tools Readable Writing Prompts Based on the article we just read on the dangers of  mobile phones, do you think there should be a  minimum age for children to carry mobile phones?  Argument Use specific information from the article to defend  your position. p y Water freezes at 32°F. Explain why it sometimes  snows when the temperature is warmer than 32°F. Informative/explanatory text Our textbook includes two primary accounts of the  events at Wounded Knee: one from a member of the  Lakota tribe and one from a U.S. soldier. Compare  these eyewitness accounts. In your essay, make sure  Comparison you address these two questions: What is the tone of  each written account? What does the tone reveal  about the author’s perspective of the events? 38
  39. 39. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Readable Writing Tools Readable Writing Prompts We have learned a lot about honeybees. Now it’s your turn to imagine yourself as a honeybee. Give yourself a  Narrative name, draw yourself, and describe three things you do  during your day. Select one of Edgar Allan Poe’s horror stories that we read  during this unit. Conduct a literary analysis of the story by  explaining how Poe achieves the “unity of effect” he  explaining how Poe achieves the  unity of effect he Analysis (textual) y ( ) describes in his essay “The Philosophy of Composition.” Analyze the data charts showing the sales for best‐selling  fiction titles in hardcover, paperback, and e‐book formats  over the last 10 years. What conclusions can you draw?  Analysis (mathematical) What do you anticipate the sales in each format to be 10  years from now? Explain your reasoning. After reading the first few vignettes in Sandra Cisneros’s The House on Mango Street, briefly describe the character Description Esperanza and her Chicago neighborhood. Readable Writing Tools 3 x 3 Writing Frame The 3 x 3 Writing Frame uses a simple visual organizer  to help students see the structure of a good essay and  plan out its beginning, middle, and end. The frame can  be easily adapted to fit the three text types highlighted  in the Common Core: argument (W.CCR.1),  informative/explanatory (W.CCR.2), and narrative  (W.CCR.3). Polished Writing Polished writing engages students in the full  writing process, from coming up with initial  ideas to writing a final draft. The process moves  through a set of progressive phases. g p g p 39
  40. 40. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Polished Writing Tools Writing folders Writing folders structure the complex processes  associated with polished writing. The folders house  students’ ongoing work—the records and artifacts of  the writing process. Polished Writing Tools Writing folders Pocket 1: Initial ideas. Students keep  their prewriting and planning  documents, such as organizers,  notecards, and outlines, in this pocket. Polished Writing Tools Writing folders Pocket 2: First draft. Students  correct and revise their first  drafts by reading them against a  set of criteria. 40
  41. 41. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Polished Writing Tools Pocket 3: Second draft. Students use the  Writing folders third pocket to shape their first draft into a  second draft. Students read aloud their  second drafts to a group of fellow writers  called a Writer’s Club. After the reading,  members of the Writer’s Club provide  f db k d feedback and constructive criticism based  t ti iti i b d on three criteria: • Does the composition complete the  requirements of the assignment? • Does it sound good? Is it highly readable? • Has the writer used the specific first‐draft  criteria to check and revise the  composition? Polished Writing Tools Writer’s Club The Writer’s Club is a support and feedback group for  writers that can be set up in various ways. For example,  members can choose to read their own pieces aloud, or  members can read one another’s pieces to help each  writer notice where his or her writing causes the reader  to falter. Let’s Participate in a Writer’s Club 1. Form a a group of five participants 2. One person will be the writer and read the  piece, “Life in Jamestown.” 3. Each member of the team will pick one  p question from the Writer’s Club Discussion  Questions to respond to (one from each box). 4. The writer will listen to the club member’s  responses and reflect on how to improve the  piece. See next page for reading 41
  42. 42. Jamestown Colony on the Brink of Ruin!     This could easily have been a headline in the 1620s. Plymouth Colony and Jamestown were the first two settlements established by the English on the North American continent. Although neither of these colonial ventures  found  it  easy  to  establish  a  successful  and  independent  settlement,  the  Virginia  colony  at Jamestown was in the greatest peril. Within its first 20 years, Jamestown had a death rate that was 75–80 percent of its population! Nearly 6,000 people had immigrated to Jamestown, but by 1622 there were only 700 residents left. By this time the local Native American tribes had moved into the interior and posed little danger.  What Happened to All the People? As  a  student  of  history,  you  have  been  asked  to  join  a  historical  study  team  to  determine  just  what conditions would result in such a large drop in population. Your challenge is to examine the clues provided and construct a theory that explains what happened in Jamestown. Specifically, your mission is to answer these questions:  • What was going on in the colony at the time?  • What was the cause of the excessive death rate?  • Who was dying?  • Why did the high death rate last for so long?                                             42
  43. 43.    Writer’s Club Discussion Questions    Literal Questions  Personal Perspective Questions • What is this piece about? What are the key  points?  • How did this piece make you feel? • How would you summarize this piece?  • If this were your piece, what aspect of it would • Does the piece address the question?  you be most proud of? • Are any important ideas or details missing?  • Did you learn anything from this piece that could • Are there any factual or grammatical errors that  help you as a writer?  should be fixed?   • Who is the intended audience? Did the writer  address the needs and interests of the intended  audience?   Analytical Questions  Original Thinking Questions • What are the greatest strengths of this piece?  •  If this piece were a type of clothing, music, or • What could be improved?  weather, what would it be, and why? • How well did the writer fulfill the requirements  • What might be the effect of adding or deleting  of this text type?  from the piece? –Argument (W.CCR.1): How clear and well supported  • What are some possible ways to improve this is the writers position?  piece? –Informative/explanatory text (W.CCR.2): How  • Did the writer "paint a picture" with words? clearly and accurately is the topic explained?  Were you able to see the ideas and images in –Narrative (W.CCR.3): How clearly and vividly  your mind?  described is the event/experience? • How does this piece compare with other pieces this writer has composed?    43
  44. 44. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Jamestown Colony on the Brink of Ruin! This could easily have been a headline in the 1620s. Plymouth Colony and Jamestown were the first two settlements established by the English on the North American  continent. Although neither of these colonial ventures found it easy to establish a  successful and independent settlement, the Virginia colony at Jamestown was in the  greatest peril. Within its first 20 years, Jamestown had a death rate that was 75–80  percent of its population! Nearly 6,000 people had immigrated to Jamestown, but by  1622 there were only 700 residents left. By this time the local Native American tribes  had moved into the interior and posed little danger. What Happened to All the People? As a student of history, you have been asked to join a historical study team to  determine just what conditions would result in such a large drop in population. Your  challenge is to examine the clues provided and construct a theory that explains what  happened in Jamestown. Specifically, your mission is to answer these questions: • What was going on in the colony at the time? • What was the cause of the excessive death rate? • Who was dying? • Why did the high death rate last for so long? Writer’s Club Discussion Questions Literal Questions Personal Perspective Questions • What is this piece about? What are the key  • How did this piece make you feel? points? • If this were your piece, what aspect of it  • How would you summarize this piece? would you be most proud of? • Does the piece address the question? • Did you learn anything from this piece that  • Are any important ideas or details missing? could help you as a writer? • Are there any factual or grammatical errors  • Who is the intended audience? Did the  that should be fixed? writer address the needs and interests of  the intended audience? Analytical Questions Original Thinking Questions • What are the greatest strengths of this piece? • If this piece were a type of clothing, music,  • What could be improved? or weather, what would it be, and why? • How well did the writer fulfill the  • What might be the effect of adding or  requirements of this text type? deleting from the piece? –Argument (W.CCR.1): How clear and well  • What are some possible ways to improve this  supported is the writers position? piece? –Informative/explanatory text (W.CCR.2): How  • Did the writer "paint a picture" with words?  clearly and accurately is the topic explained? Were you able to see the ideas and images in  –Narrative (W.CCR.3): How clearly and vividly  your mind? described is the event/experience? • How does this piece compare with other  pieces this writer has composed? VOCABULARY’S CODE Vocabulary’s CODE is a strategic approach to direct vocabulary  instruction that helps students master crucial concepts and  retain new vocabulary terms. Students work their way from  initial exposure to in‐depth understanding through a series of  t a e posu e to dept u de sta d g t oug a se es o progressive learning activities, which help students “crack”  Vocabulary’s CODE. 44
  45. 45. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills Three Reasons for Using Vocabulary’s CODE  to Address the Common Core 1. Vocabulary is a foundation for improved literacy. 2. Academic vocabulary is at the core of the Core. 3. Vocabulary fuels learning. The Research Behind Vocabulary’s CODE • Vocabulary instruction has the greatest effect when it focuses on a  reasonable number of important academic terms rather than o high‐ frequency word lists (Marzano, 2004). • Developing anything more than a superficial understanding of new  terms requires multiple exposures to the terms (Jenkins, Stein, &  Wysocki, 1984). Wysocki, 1984). • Understanding and retention improve when students interact with  words in a variety of ways (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002). • Students need opportunities to think deeply about new words using  thinking strategies like comparison, metaphors, and nonlinguistic  representation (Marzano, 2004). Vocabulary words are the building blocks  for future learning. for future learning (Robert Marzano 2004) The more you know the more you can know. 114 45
  46. 46. The Core Six: The Right Research‐Based Strategies for Building 21st Century Learning Skills If we except To close the achievement gap we  must close the vocabulary gap.  That is why  teaching vocabulary is one of the most  i t t i t ti ld i i k important instructional decisions you can make. 115 Experiencing Vocabulary’s CODE A Brain Based Approach to Learning New Vocabulary The Most Bizarre Meeting Ever 1. Read the passage.  It contains what Erin McKean calls  “Weird and Wonderful World”. 2. Generate a preliminary definition for each new  underlined word.  Record your definition in the “My  Educated Definition” column of the organizer. 3. Meet with a partner. Discuss your preliminary  d f definitions and how you came up with them. dh h h 4. Compare your definition with the actual definition.   Jot down then significant differences between your  definition and the actual definition. 5. Continue the activities to complete the phases of  CODE.  See next page for activities 46
  47. 47. Part 1: Learning the Compare & Contrast StrategyExperiencing Vocabulary’s CODEWe’re coming to the end of Part One of this Resource Guide. But before we wrap things up, we’d likeyou to experience the four phases of CODE.Below you will find a short reading called “The Most Bizarre Meeting Ever.” In it are a number ofunfamiliar words, which have been underlined. In the set of activities that follow, you will become“intimate” with these words by moving through the four phases of CODE. When you’re done, go backto your glossary (Figure 1.17) and list the specific techniques that were used in this lesson for eachphase of CODE. Begin by reading the passage below and seeing if you can figure out what eachunderlined word means. The Most Bizarre Meeting Ever Raul: That had to be the most bizarre meeting ever. Jahnelle: I don’t know whether to laugh or cry. I guess that’s what happens when your boss is suffering from the world’s worst case of torschlusspanik. Raul: Tell me about it! He peenged on and on about how he used to be a world class swimmer—how he used to “cut through the water like a torpedo” and how he used to look like “a million bucks in a Speedo.” Jahnelle: Did you see when he held up the picture of himself from his Speedo days and said, “Once upon a time I was a Speedo-sporting, back- stroke god. I was admired by women on four separate continents. Now I’m a Nobodaddy.” Raul: No. How could I have missed that? It must have happened right when Jake started to flaffer around the room in his overly-starched suit showing everyone his collection of breath mint wrappers from restaurants around Houston. Jahnelle: What a nihilarian! Raul: I do remember when Wendy got up and told the boss that she thought he looked more godlike than ever, and that she was sure he could beat his old swimming times. I mean, she’s got to be trying to make the boss look like a complete fool for some devious purpose. I think she’s trying to ruin us. Jahnelle: Whether Wendy’s a lordswike or not, I just wish the boss hadn’t taken her so seriously. I did not need to see him strip down and conduct the rest of the meeting in his Speedo to prove that he still had it. By the way, is that when you fainted? Raul: Yes, but it wasn’t because of that. Did you see the consultants the boss called in to bring fresh new ideas into the company? Jahnelle: Do you mean the guy with the eye patch and the parrot who handed out “free” copies of his book, Managing Like a Kye: How to Save Money the Pirate’s Way and then wanted to charge us $20 per book at the end of the meeting? 47 25 Silver Strong & Associates • Thoughtful Education Press • • 800.962.4432