UPA Israel event 2011 – Omer Tsimhoni


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Omer Tsimhoni's talk on "Persuasive design for eco-driving" at UPA Israel's 2011 event

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UPA Israel event 2011 – Omer Tsimhoni

  1. 1. Persuasive Design for Eco Display Thomas Seder, PhD Omer Tsimhoni, PhD HMI Research HMI ResearchGeneral Motors, R&D General Motors, R&D Warren, Michigan Herzliya, Israel
  2. 2. Agenda motivation project objective & overview theoretical underpinning of persuasive design project description results of persuasive design field research design of persuasive design eco displays simulator test results of concept gauges persuasive design – eco display Pg 2
  3. 3. Motivation EPA estimate: eco-driving can save ~15% of gasoline consumer USA Benefits (back of the envelope calculation):  green house CO2 (g) reduced by 36 B ft3 per year (~ 3% reduction)  crude oil imports reduced by 490 M barrels/ yr (~10% reduction)  stimulative to US economy due to per driver savings of ~$375 Systematize information display methods & design at GM ? persuasive design – eco display Pg 3
  4. 4. Project Objective & Overview Develop intra- and extra-vehicle ecosystem of information displays:  teach drivers optimal use patterns, accommodating of skill and style  adapt & evolve to retain interest and adapt to growing skill level  engage users to achieve continued use Use leading edge generative and evaluative design processes, including:  leverage behavioral science-led methods to encourage the efficient vehicle use  Lead User-UCD to discover needs, research themes and develop personas & scenarios  trans-disciplinary science basis (behavioral, design..)  iterative design with user evaluation cycles  evaluate efficacy of designs using GM Driving Simulator persuasive design – eco display Pg 4
  5. 5. technical background What is Persuasive Design? Simply put, the goal of Persuasive Design (PD) is to design a user experience (UX) to promote behavior change. Pioneered by BJ Fogg (Stanford) Theoretical basis detailed by Sunny Consolvo (displaying info to encourage health and wellness) Persuasive design used primarily in the website UX to create return traffic and ‘stickiness’ persuasive design – eco display Pg 5
  6. 6. technical background Theoretical Underpinning of Persuasive DesignFive Theoretical Underpinnings: Goal Setting Theory Transtheoretic Model of Behavior Change Presentation of Self in Everyday Life Cognitive Dissonance Theory Fogg Behavior Change Model persuasive design – eco display Pg 6
  7. 7. technical background Theoretical Underpinning of Persuasive Design (1/5)Goal Setting Theory  Reveals how people attach to goals & characteristics that motivate  Goals selected by the user, not the designer  Expert help in goal selection beneficial (goal credibility)  Challenging & realistic  Positive feedback & rewards for progress, not just for goal attainment  Real-time vs cumulative summary data after Consolvo persuasive design – eco display Pg 7
  8. 8. technical background Theoretical Underpinning of Persuasive Design (2/5) Transtheoretic Model of Behavior Change  Describes stages of behavior modification towards a goalStage Description Design ImplicationPrecontemplation No recognition of Focus on education need for changeContemplation Considering Focus on techniques for overcoming change barriers or provide rewards for changePreparation Intends to change, Reward behaviors even if there is prior attempts inconsistency, increase pattern awareness Action Performs desired Track progress, incorporate elements of behavior < 6 mo social influenceMaintenance and Performs desired Acknowledge setback without punishmentrelapse behavior > 6 moprevention Source: Zimmerman et al., 2000; Tabor and Lopez, 2004 persuasive design – eco display Pg 8
  9. 9. technical background Theoretical Underpinning of Persuasive Design (3/5) Presentation of Self in Everyday Life  Impression management; ‘what user wants others to think’  Theatre/ performance with front stage and back stage behaviors  Dramatic realization (play with cufflings)  Misrepresentation (lie)  Secret consumption (eating cake while dieting)  Persuasive technology must allow control of access to backstage  Person must be in control of information collected by persuasive technology to enable impression management after Consolvo persuasive design – eco display Pg 9
  10. 10. technical background Theoretical Underpinning of Persuasive Design (4/5) Cognitive Dissonance Theory  Psychological discomfort erupts upon realization of inconsistency in attitudes and behaviors  Motivated to eliminate dissonance, depending on importance of behavior to the individual  Can also reduce importance (rationalize)  Persuasive technology needs to be persistent yet subtle and allow focus on commitment to change Information display should evolve and adapt to style and skill and take user to heightened goals as competency increases persuasive design – eco display Pg 10
  11. 11. technical background Theoretical Underpinning: Fogg Behavior Model (5/5) target behaviors    triggerable   motivation increasing  untriggerable   motivation + ability    behavior activation threshold     triggers ineffective triggers effective  ability a target behavior can be activated or triggered if the individual:  is sufficiently motivated  has the necessary ability even if the individual has high motivation and high ability, a trigger is necessary to cue expression of the targeted behavior  this is the task of excellent design enhancing ability often enables the behavior by making it simpler  simplicity chain – linked attributes that make behavior simpler save reduce reduce reduce increase create time cost physical mental social a effort effort acceptance habit persuasive design – eco display Pg 11
  12. 12. Project Description – What We Did Generative Research  Persuasive–design literature review  User Centered Design  Customer field research (driving around with users)  Respondents: lead users, early adopters & majority users  Locations: Chicago & San Francisco  UCD Method: contextual inquiry – model building  behavior, activity, cultural & artifact models  consolidated model of research themes informing design  Eco Information Display Format Designs  Information architecture  Information management schema  Information display design  Linkage to eco algorithms Evaluative Research (Iterative Design)  Heuristic analysis, cognitive walk-through  User performance & preference testing in VDR HMI System Lab and Driving Simulator persuasive design – eco display Pg 12
  13. 13. Project Description UCD Respondents: S-Curve  lead users (LU): hyper-milers Describing Technology Adoption Dynamics Population Using New Device/ Feature  early adopters (EA): hybrid Lead Users Early Majority Users owners, high mpg vehicles Adopters  majority users (MU): teachable average drivers Scored questionnaire used to categorized LU, EA & MU Employ multiple ethnographic tools time Ethnographic Methods in UCD Jumping the S-Curves Innovation Diffusion Driven by Lead User Velocity Videotape & Visual Photography Population Using New Device/ Feature Artifacts & Material Early Adopters, Gen 3 Culture Collection Majority Users Local Model & Lead Users Statistical Representation Collection Data Collection Journals Gen 2 Passive Observation Participant Observation Gen 1 Quantitative Archival & Qualitative Document Collection Surveys & Group Interviews Questionnaires Oral Histories Linguistic Data Collection Structured & Semi-Structured Interviewsafter shelley evenson Verbal time persuasive design – eco display Pg 13
  14. 14. Sidenote: Hypermiling Techniques Hypermiler Techniques  Maintenance  Minimizing mass and improving aerodynamics  Efficient speeds  Choice of gear (manual transmissions)  Acceleration and deceleration (braking)  Coasting or gliding  Anticipation  Minimizing ancillary losses  Fuel type  Trip computer  Burn and coast  Auto-stop, forced stop, and draft-assisted forced stop  Drafting Source: “Fuel economy-maximizing behaviors” Wikipedia persuasive design – eco display Pg 14
  15. 15. Model Building affinity diagramsactivities behaviors activity model behavioral model task & goals; motivations for goal temporal sequence selection artifacts artifact model cultural model objects & tools; use societal, tech & purpose env linkages field notes consolidated model of what “is” persuasive design – eco display Pg 15
  16. 16. Status - Research Findings 24 respondents from two major cities  13 from Chicago  11 from San Francisco 12 journal respondents Interviews with Cultural Experts  Luscious Garage  New car dealers – Tesla, Ford, Honda  Prof. BJ Fogg  Prof. Cliff Nass persuasive design – eco display Pg 16
  17. 17. Summary Models of ‘What Is’ persuasive design – eco display Pg 17
  18. 18. Preliminary Guidance for Info Display DesignVehicle must provide: Quantitative instantaneous energy consumption/ efficiency gauge as a primary instrument  Exceedingly high use rate in equipped vehicles (Prius)  promotes trial and error learning about efficient use modes  Drag, coasting, regen braking, tire pressure, fuel quality, weight, a/c use, battery temp  behavior change requires real time actionable feedback  Allows nostrums to be deflated Accurate summary per tank statistics or last 500 miles  almost everyone calculates summary mgp; varying accuracy  ‘in my head’, Vehicle provided, Spreadsheets, Web sites (fuelefficiency.gov)  Strongly motivated by competition with others and self  Used as indicator of required maintenance persuasive design – eco display Pg 18
  19. 19. Preliminary Guidance for Info Display DesignVehicle must provide: Acknowledge range of motivations and allow users to select desired statistic from a range of offerings  Miles per gallon, cents per mile, amount CO2 per mile, An adaptable information system that evolves with user skill and interest An information system that has features to remain engaging and promotes continued use and exploration A system that triggers desired behavior and enables real efficacy by improving ability (simplifications)  Currently:  Motivations exist  Abilities are low  Triggers are largely absent persuasive design – eco display Pg 19
  20. 20. Preliminary Guidance for Info Display DesignVehicle must provide: Route specific energy consumption information (heat map)  Segments to avoid  Multiple vehicle complied statistics – you relative to others  Vehicle as a probe – Web 3.0 Collaborative goal setting assistance  Pilot’s associate operating in background indentifying opportunities  Gentle offering of suggested improvements  Recommended goals in a ‘sought information’ screen Rewards for progress, as well as goal attainment  Acknowledge context dependent performance and never punish  Merging onto freeway, carried with the flow of traffic, late for work, shifting priorities and motivations  Allow secret consumption  Enable ‘bragging’ with artifacts of achievement and allow user to present self as she wishes Driver specific goals, statistics, reports and rewards Foster web 2.0 networking for competition, learning Adopt a ‘master’ to set a standard, or not! persuasive design – eco display Pg 20
  21. 21. Ecosystem Design Concept Development Phase time driver Secondary Display forever me this week Roy • summary statistics today everyone • goal visualization • triggers Primary Display • recommended vehicle config. • real time, actionable info P tire T batt weight • terrain heat map • triggers • rewards drag Speed history • rewards • competition rankings • inst. performance vs goal • progress to goal visualization • visualization consistent with motivation Smart Phone • light weight version of web aps tangible, relevant-selectable • social networking visualization • summary statistics • badges$s Saved CO2 Saved Oil Saved Population -- you -- Joe Segment Perf. GM Web Applications • social networking – goals of others • learning - statistical analysis • competition - badges, rewards, SWAG Vehicle as probe • tools for goal setting • record keeping • teaching persuasive design – eco display Pg 21
  22. 22. Primary Display Actionable Real-Time Data• Broken ring and pointer color change indicates deviation from eco-optimalacceleration / deceleration rate persuasive design – eco display Pg 22
  23. 23. Concept Efficiency Heat Map & Range Map persuasive design – eco display Pg 23
  24. 24. Thank You!2011 World Usability Day persuasive design – eco display Pg 24