MATTANCHERY PALACE- COCHINAN ANALYSIS OF AMSAR ACT ON ASI PROTECTED MONUMENTSPRESENTATION BY URBAN DESIGN STUDIOANJITH AUGUSTINE SPA NEW DELHI
Contents• Location• History• Character 1. Social Groupings 2. Cultural Setting 3. Built Character 4. Economic Profile• RULES & Authorities 1. UNESCO world heritage site ( world heritage committee) 2. Archeological survey of India AMSAR ACT 3. Moef Coastal management Notification ( CRZ rules) 4. Kerala state Govt (KMBR) 5. Cochin city corporation (Cochin city development plan) 6. C-HED, centre for heritage environment and development 7. Airport Authority rules 8. Port trust of India• Impact on Site• Analysis of the impact• Critical Appraisal & future directions
History• Mattancherry palace is one of the oldest examples of the Portuguese architecture with oriental influence and is unique from the historical and architectural point of view.• The palace was built around 1545 AD by the Portuguese and presented to Veera Kerala Varma in order to pacify him and to compensate for having plundered a temple in the vicinity of the place.• Major repairs at the hands of Dutch and hence the palace is also known as "Dutch palace.“• The palace represents the blending of the European and indigenous styles of architecture.
Social Groupings• The ruling by different countries has brought in people from different socio-ethnic backgrounds.• The entire area incorporates people like Konkanies Tamil Pathans Anglo Indians Muslims Jains Christians Indonesian Settlements.. Etc.• Many of these people came in as part of Trade and settled here.• Hence most of these communities are associated with a particular street of their market.• Jews until recently used to occupy the area around the site. Once they moved out these buildings started converting to commercial activites..• But other communities are intact with strong ethnic bonding.
SynagogueDue to the different social groups the area is rich with various social institutions and their owncultural identities which form the part of the heritage to be concerved.
Jew streetMost of the areas around the area are converted to commercial uses. They have shopsselling antique items as well as hotels restaurants lodging etc..
The Mattancherry jetty and bus standare behind the Palace.Antique shops in the meandering alleysof Jew Town, most of whose inhabitantshave since migrated to Israel. Pazhayannur Bhagavathy Temple, the ancestral deity or Paradevata of the Cochin Royal Family. The temple with royal patronage which shares its wall with the Jewish synagogue tells volumes about the religious tolerance and inter cultural amity that existed during the time of the Kingdom of Cochin. Paradesi Synagogue built in 1568.
Different State/national/international, Governmental/non-governmental, autonomous bodies and their legislations whichimpact the development of Mattanchery palace areaInternational • UNESCO world heritage site ( world heritage committee)National • Archeological survey of India AMSAR ACT • Moef Coastal management Notification ( CRZ rules) • Airport authority rules • Port trust of IndiaState • Kerala state Govt (KMBR) • Cochin city corporation (Cochin city development plan)Local Bodies • C-HED, centre for heritage environment and development
The Mattanchery site has been identified to be upgraded to a world heritage site Considering that parts of the cultural or natural heritage are of outstanding interest and therefore need to be preserved as part of the world heritage of mankind as a whole,Category-monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting,elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings andcombinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view ofhistory, art or science;Measures to be adopted:• A general policy which aims to give the cultural and natural heritage a function in the life of the community and to integrate the protection of that heritage into comprehensive planning programmes• to set up within its territories, for the protection, conservation and presentation of heritage.• to develop scientific and technical studies and research• to take the appropriate legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures• Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to take any deliberate measures which might damage directly or indirectly the cultural and natural heritage• Article 8: An Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the Cultural and Natural Heritage of Outstanding Universal Value, called "the World Heritage Committee“• the World Heritage Fund“ for finance
AMSAR ACT 300m regulated zone 100m prohibited zone Within the Prohibited zone No NEW CONSTRUCTION Only REPAIR WORK DRAINAGE.. PUBLIC WORKS ETC NEEDS TO GET PERMISSION For the regulated zone Will have to follow the development plan
AMSAR ACT It is important to note that the 100m radius is taken from the built edge and not the compound as the ASI protected monument is just the mattanchery palace. Areas coming under the 100m zone • The palace compound including the palace lake and the palace ground. • The Bhagawati temple which was an integral part of the palace. • The synagogue which was a jewish buildings is now part of heritage. • These buildings and their areas need no redevelopment. • But areas like part of jew street and the commercial in fron t of the synagogue which comes under 100 m zone will be affected badly. Areas coming under 500 m zone. • Entire jew street • Water front areas • Old Commercial establishments • Variuos community clusters with their relgiuos buildings •
CRZ 2011• 100 m from HTL• 500 m influence zone from HTL• Floor Space Index (FSI), which was restricted to between 1.25 and 1.66, has been increased to 2.5.CATEGORY iiThe areas that have been developed upto or close to the shoreline.Explanation.- For the purposes of the expression “developed area” is referred to as that areawithin the existing municipal limits or in other existing legally designated urban areas which aresubstantially built-up and has been provided with drainage and approach roads and otherinfrastructural facilities, such as water supply and sewerage mainsRULES(i) buildings shall be permitted only on the landward side of the existing road, or on thelandward side of existing authorized structures;(ii) buildings permitted on the landward side of the existing and proposed roads or existingauthorized structures shall be subject to the existing local town and country planningregulations including the ‘existing’ norms of Floor Space Index or Floor Area Ratio: Providedthat no permission for construction of buildings shall be given on landward side of any newroads which are constructed on the seaward side of an existing road:(iii) reconstruction of authorized building to be permitted subject with the existing Floor SpaceIndex or Floor Area Ratio Norms and without change in present use;
City development plan 100m influence zoneUrban Development Guidelines and Controls for Heritage Zones and Precincts• Restriction on development, redevelopment, repairs etc. in the listed areas to protectnatural / cultural heritage;• Special regulations on high value areas of environmental significance and also for itsimmediate surrounding region;• Guidelines to ensure protection, preservation, maintenance and conservation of heritagebuildings and precincts; Guidelines to ensure equity & development rights; • Guidelines and controls to ensure architectural500 m influence zone harmony and maintaining the skyline;
100m influence zone• Regulations on infrastructure to ensure effective traffic / water / waste / energymanagement;• Regulations to avoid environmentally hazardous development in natural areas andsensitive zones;• Alter / modify/ relax other development rights for the protection of heritage;• To grant transferable development rights for the protection of heritage;• Incentives for the use reuse of heritage structures and funding for their maintenance incase of public buildings;• Incentives for promotion of art, craft, culture, language etc.;• Regulations on public space design and treatment;• Regulations and Controls for Canal and Backwater Edge Development;• Regulations and Controls for regulating pollution levels due to port activity;• Regulations to ensure protection of natural elements such as trees, birds life, marinespecies in heritage zones;• Regulations for effective traffic management in intensely used old parts of the heritagezone;• Regulation and controls on urban art such as signage, advertisement billboards, streetfurniture, urban artefacts etc. 500 m influence zone
Policy Guidelines for Heritage Zones 100m influence zoneThe City Development Plan proposes the following 5 principles as the cornerstonesof KochiHeritage Zone Notification and Enforcement of Guidelines and Controls.• Integrating Conservation and Development to accommodate Changes demandedby the growing urban development activities in the city;• Protection of Natural Heritage of outstanding environmental significance andnatural beauty;• Protection of coastal areas and tidal zones and disaster mitigation planningtowards possible natural hazards;• Ensuring safety, equity and adequate infrastructure in planning; and• Tap Reuse, Renewal and Revitalization possibilities of heritage zones facing urbandegeneration. 500 m influence zone
Zones identified by city development plan as heritage precincts.. 500 m influence zone
C-hed: Centre for Heritage,Environment and Development Issues related to Heritage • Urban degeneration due to various factors. • Pulling down and unauthorised modification of valuable heritage c-hed is an autonomous institution structures. which function as a Research and • Unsympathetic developments destroying Development wing of the city the architectural harmony. administration of Cochin • Traditional streets and markets choke with (Corporation of Cochin), in the fields traffic jams due to overuse. of Culture, Heritage, Environment • Non conversion of opportunities into public and Development. Established in good 2002, c-hed has now become one of • Health & sanitation issues are mostly the most important wings of the City related to heritage areas administration of Cochin, looking • Lack of pollution controls near natural after many of its prestigious projects heritage areas. including the preparation of the • Lack of water edge development guidelines. MasterPlan for Cochin City.
PLAN PREPARED BY C-HED FOR CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN Old commercial spine to conserved.
AIRPORT AUTHORITY OF INDIA• The site falls near the air base of the air force which is the old cochin airport.• The airport rules of the earlier times has influenced the development of the .area as the air funnel needed to be considered.• This led to the absence of any tall buildings in the island .• Even now the airport rules apply as the airport is still used by the air force.• The airport fall in 1 km range and hence the respective rules apply. 2km Wellington Island Air base
PORT TRUST OF INDIA• The water bodies around the area is under the port trust• This is because of the Cochin port area in the Willington island• Hence any construction or activity that is on water needs to permitted by Port trust• Even uses like fishing, private Dock etc needs to be send for permission.• Port activites and projects like vallarpadam conrtainer terminal and port trust housing are under construction in nearby areas.
Kerala municipal building rules (KMBR) These are the development guidelines applicable for any normal plot available anywhere in Kerala barring the special zones.
OVERLAP OF DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT REGULATIONS 100m influence zone 500 m influence zone
Current allowed construction by Impact of AMSAR on Siterules and uses (Current scenario)• As a state decision the are is extensively • By the coming of the AMSAR act, people promoted as a tourism destination. Hence who are majorly affected are those who uses which are supportive are promoted in run facilities like hotels, restaurants, the area cafes, and the entire Jew street which is a• Specific features like Dutch architectural commercial spine. details are to incorporated in the construction activities. • They will fall under the prohibited zone• Only up to 3 floors are getting permission. where they cannot be doing any• Repair works are given permission construction activity. This can eventually• Uses like hotels, Guest houses etc which lead to the deterioration of the already are already in plenty is given permission for existing tourism activity also. repair and major modifications• Govt. projects for promoting tourism is • As the coastal rules are made easier more given permission construction can happen within the area.• Proposal for marina is under pipeline. But the AMSAR doesn’t allow this right now. Hence there is a mismatch between the idea of the two rules.
Comparison between allowed construction on a ordinary site and ASI site ConsideredSite area- 20*10 =200 sq.mG.C = 65%FAR= 3No of floors achieved 5 Site area- 20*10 =200 sq.m G.C = 65% FAR= 2 No of floors achieved 3 NORMAL SITEResidential useThe allowed FAR without extra pay is 3 whereas at thesite you are allowed only to built upto 2.But due to different rules and regulations newconstruction is impossible.
Comparison between allowed construction on a ordinary site and ASI site ConsideredSite area- 20*10 =200 sq.mG.C = 65%FAR= 2.5No of floors achieved 4 Site area- 20*10 =200 sq.m G.C = 65% FAR= 2 No of floors achieved 3 NORMAL SITECommercial useThe allowed FAR without extra pay is 2.5 ( 4 with pay)whereas at the site you are allowed only to built upto 2.Due to tourism promotive attitute certain commercialactivites are promoted and hence hotels/shopping andsouvenier shops are coming up.
Issues related to Heritage Future prospects• The fast transformation of the area into a hat is required is a site specific tourism destination. development plan for the area. For a site• Though the architectural character is tried like Mattanchery where already so many to be retained, the socio-cultural regulations are in place it is required to characteristics of the place is totally analyze each rule come to a negated by the current development directions. comprehensive solution in the form of a• People who are original residents of the development guideline. area are forced to move to other places or change their uses to commercial purposes It shouldn’t be restrictive in nature but due to growing pressure. only a guide to future development.• The strict building regulations doesn’t allow people of the place to continue there This will make sure the real cultural with changes according to time. heritage of the place is preserved and• Only an attempt to create a fossil of the not just the monument. past is achieved by this kind of a development strategy.• Multiple regulatory agencies acting on the area makes it literally impossible to do anything within these areas.• There is no proper compensation strategy which is implemented which covers for the lesser FAR.