Indian buddist chithya sanchi

1,001 views

Published on

Published in: Design, Technology, Spiritual
  • Be the first to comment

Indian buddist chithya sanchi

  1. 1. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine BUDDHIST PERIOD
  2. 2. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine MAURYA EMPIRE
  3. 3. Maurya Dynasty ca. 322-185 BCE King Ashoka (r. 273- Paliputra Sarnath
  4. 4. The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 322 to 185 BCE. Chandragupta Maurya founded The Maurya Empire was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, with help from Chanakya, a Brahmin teacher at Takshashila. According to several legends, Chanakya traveled to Magadha, a kingdom that was large and militarily powerful and feared by its neighbors, but was insulted by its king Dhana Nanda, of the Nanda Dynasty. Chanakya swore revenge and vowed to destroy the Nanda Empire.Meanwhile, the conquering armies of Alexander the Great refused to cross the Beas River and advance further eastward, deterred by the prospect of battling Magadha. Alexander returned to Babylon and re-deployed most of his troops west of the Indus river. Soon after Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BCE, his empire fragmented, and local kings declared their independence, leaving several smaller disunited satraps. Ashoka the Great Ashoka implemented principles of ahimsa by banning hunting and violent sports activity and ending indentured and forced labor. Magadha, the center of the empire, was also the birthplace of Buddhism. Ashoka initially practiced Hinduism but later embraced Buddhism; following the Kalinga War, he renounced expansionism and aggression, and the harsher injunctions of the Arthashastraon the use of force, intensive policing, and ruthless measures for tax collection and against rebels. Ashoka sent a mission led by his son Mahinda and daughter Sanghamitta to Sri Lanka, whose king Tissa was so charmed with Buddhist ideals that he adopted them himself and made Buddhism the state religion.
  5. 5. Ashokan Pillars h. 32’ History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
  6. 6. Capital of Pillar erected by King Ashoka at Sarnath, ca. 250 BCE (“Lion Capital”) Sandstone, h. 7’ Archaeological Musem, Sarnath History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
  7. 7. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
  8. 8. Animals of the Four Directions: East: Elephant History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
  9. 9. Animals of the Four Directions: South: Horse History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
  10. 10. Animals of the Four Directions: West: Bull North: Lion History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
  11. 11. ca 2000 BCE ca 250 BCE History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
  12. 12. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine SANCHI COMPLEX-SANCHI STUPA
  13. 13. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine Sanchi Stupa is located at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the state of Madhya Pradesh, India, it is located 46 km north east of Bhopal. MAURYA PERIOD The 'Great Stupa' at Sanchi is the oldest stone structure in India and was originally commissioned by the emperor Ashoka the Great in the 3rd century BC. Its nucleus was a simple hemispherical brick structure built over the relics of the Buddha. It was crowned by the chatra, a parasol-like structure symbolising high rank, which was intended to honour and shelter the relics. The construction work of this stupa was overseen by Ashoka's wife, Devi herself, who was the daughter of a merchant of Vidisha. Sanchi was also her birthplace as well as the venue of her and Ashoka's wedding. In the 1st century BC, four profusely carved toranas or ornamental gateways and a balustrade encircling the whole structure was added.
  14. 14. Bharhut Sanchi Shunga Dynasty (ca. 185-73 BCE) Sarnath History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
  15. 15. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine SUNGA PERIOD Stupa may have been vandalized at one point sometime in the 2nd century BC, an event some have related to the rise of the Sunga emperor Pusyamitra Sunga who overtook the Mauryan Empire as an army general. It has been suggested that Pushyamitra may have destroyed the original stupa, and his son Agnimitra rebuilt it.During the later rule of the Sunga, the stupa was expanded with stone slabs to almost twice its original size. The dome was flattened near the top and crowned by three superimposed parasols within a square railing. With its many tiers it was a symbol of the dharma, the Wheel of the Law. The dome was set on a high circular drum meant for circumambulation, which could be accessed via a double staircase. A second stone pathway at ground level was enclosed by a stone balustrade with four monumental gateways (toranas) facing the cardinal directions. The buildings which seem to have been commissioned during the rule of the Sunga's are the Second and Third stupas (but not the highly decorated gateways, which are from the following Satavahana period, as known from inscriptions), and the ground balustrade and stone casing of the Great Stupa.
  16. 16. Principal Components of the Buddhist Stupa History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
  17. 17. Ritual of circumambulation History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
  18. 18. Great Stupa at Sanchi plan and elevation Dimensions: Diameter 120’ Height (w/o parasols) 54’ Gates (torana) 34’ Four gates: East (Birth of Buddha) South (Enlightenment) West (First Sermon) North (Nirvana) History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
  19. 19. Sanchi, East Gate Inner side History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
  20. 20. East Gate of Stupa #1 at Sanchi Early Andhra Period, ca. 50 BCE – 50 CE History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
  21. 21. Yakshi on East GateSanchi East Gate History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
  22. 22. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine SATVAHANA PERIOD The gateways and the balustrade were built and colored, then appeared to have been commissioned by the Satavahana. Although made of stone, they were carved and constructed in the manner of wood and the gateways were covered with narrative sculptures. They showed scenes from the life of the Buddha integrated with everyday events that would be familiar to the onlookers and so make it easier for them to understand the Buddhist creed as relevant to their lives. On these stone carvings the Buddha was never depicted as a human figure. The human body was thought to be too confining for the Buddha.
  23. 23. Harmika, Yasti, and Chatras on the Great Stupa, Sanchi Harmika, Yasti, and Chatras on the Great Stupa, Sanchi
  24. 24. Lower ambulatory and stone railing of the Great Stupa, Sanchi Lower ambulatory and stone railing of the Great Stupa, Sanchi
  25. 25. Half of double stairway leading to upper ambulatory of the Great Stupa, Sanchi Half of double stairway leading to upper ambulatory of the Great Stupa, Sanchi
  26. 26. Upper ambulatory and stone railing of the Great Stupa, Sanchi Upper ambulatory and stone railing of the Great Stupa, Sanchi
  27. 27. Eastern Torana of the Great Stupa, Sanchi, mid-1st century BC - AD 1st century Eastern Torana of the Great Stupa, Sanchi, mid-1st century BC - AD 1st century
  28. 28. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine LATER PERIODS Further stupas and other religious Buddhist structures were added over the following centuries until the 12th century AD. Temple 17 is probably one of the earliest Buddhist temples as it dates to the early Gupta period. It consists of a flat roofed square sanctum with a portico and four pillars. The interior and three sides of the exterior are plain and undecorated but the front and the pillars are elegantly carved, giving the temple an almost ‘classical’ appearance (Mitra 1971). Temple 45 was the last Buddhist temple built during 10- 11th century. Also at this time the monuments were enclosed within a wall. With the decline of Buddhism in India, the monuments of Sanchi went out of use and fell into a state of disrepair. In 1818, General Taylor of the Bengal Cavalry recorded a visit to Sanchi. At that time the monuments appear to have been left undisturbed for long time and in generally good preservation.
  29. 29. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine CHAITYA HALL
  30. 30. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine A chaitya is a Buddhist shrine including a stupa The earliest rock-cut chaityas, similar to free- standing ones, consisted of an inner circular chamber with pillars to create a circular path around the stupa and an outer rectangular hall for the congregation of the devotees. Over the course of time, the wall separating the stupa from the hall was removed to create an apsidal hall with a colonnade around the nave and the stupa The chaitya at Bhaja Caves was constructed in the 1st century BCE. It consisted of an apsidal hall with stupa. The columns sloped inwards in the imitation of wooden columns that would have been structurally necessary to keep a roof up. The ceiling was barrel-vaulted with wooden ribs set into them. The walls were polished in the Mauryan style Viharas or monasteries constructed with brick or excavated from rocks are found in different parts of India. Associated with stupas and chaityas
  31. 31. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine Chaitya hall at karle maharashtra
  32. 32. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine Chaitya hall at karle maharashtra

×