Vetruvius and Evaluating Design

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Vetruvius and Evaluating Design

  1. 1. Principles of Design Instructor: Deborah Ogden
  2. 2. Vitruvius (1 st century B.C.E.) <ul><li>Utilitas Firmitas Venustas </li></ul><ul><li>Utilitas = usefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Firmitas = sturdiness </li></ul><ul><li>Venustas = beauty or aesthetics </li></ul>
  3. 3. Function (Utilitas) <ul><li>A chair isn’t functional unless it can be sat upon </li></ul><ul><li>A chair’s function also includes comfort, shape and size </li></ul><ul><li>A space designed as a store or a boutique should be well suited for that use </li></ul><ul><li>An object or space should meet minimum requirement, or exceed the minimum </li></ul>
  4. 4. Function <ul><li>Excellent Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and shape of space well suited to purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement and choice of furniture support use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation well planned and convenient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfactory acoustical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unsatisfactory Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and shape awkward and inconvenient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement and choice of furniture inappropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awkward circulation patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsatisfactory lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive noise and distraction </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Structure and Durability (Firmitas) <ul><li>A chair may function as a chair but not last for six months (not durable) </li></ul><ul><li>A paper cup can be well designed but only last for one use (suitable for its purpose) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider maintenance costs, cleaning, reupholstery </li></ul><ul><li>Life time cost of use is a factor </li></ul>
  6. 6. Structure and Materials <ul><li>Excellent Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choice of materials supports functional performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate durability and ease of maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction of good quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of construction appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration of safety and environmental conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unsatisfactory Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials unsuitable to intended uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials subject to rapid wear and hard to maintain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction obviously shoddy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction excessive in cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dangerous and hazardous conditions possible </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Aesthetics (Venustas) <ul><li>Hard to measure or quantify </li></ul><ul><li>Our standards of beauty change </li></ul><ul><li>Consider appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>Possible to evaluate in terms of design principles </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes easier to evaluate in a photograph </li></ul>
  8. 8. Aesthetics <ul><li>Excellent Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Character and atmosphere appropriate to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time and place of design expressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Character and quality of materials and construction honestly expressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design intentions clear and strongly developed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unsatisfactory Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsuitable atmosphere and visual character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>False or obscure expression of time and place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials and structure falsified or obscured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design intention vague or confused </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Natural Design <ul><li>Design made by plants, animals, geology, weather, etc. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Vernacular Design <ul><li>Design developed collectively and over time </li></ul><ul><li>Igloo, yurt, teepee, totem poles, Stonehenge </li></ul>
  11. 11. Technological Design <ul><li>Designed for function rather than aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Also called “machine art” </li></ul><ul><li>Gears, fire hydrants, motors </li></ul><ul><li>Does not include technology with product designers involved (i.e.: modern automobiles or computers) </li></ul>

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