Common ailments of the respiratory system


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Common ailments of the respiratory system

  1. 1. COMMON AILMENTS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 1.1. Common Cold, Influenza or FluCommon Cold, Influenza or Flu –– This is characterized byThis is characterized by sneezing, runny nose, sore throat.sneezing, runny nose, sore throat. Sometimes fever, headache andSometimes fever, headache and body pains may be felt by personbody pains may be felt by person sick influenza.sick influenza.
  2. 2. 2.2. AsthmaAsthma These diseases are suffered byThese diseases are suffered by people who are over sensitivepeople who are over sensitive pollen, dust particles and otherpollen, dust particles and other pollutants. A person with asthmapollutants. A person with asthma has difficulty in breathing.has difficulty in breathing. Sometimes, he coughs and wheezesSometimes, he coughs and wheezes when he breaths out.when he breaths out.
  3. 3. 3. Sinusitis is inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may be due to infection, allergy, or autoimmune issues. Most cases are due to a viral infection and resolve over the course of 10 days. 4. Whooping cough (pertussis) is an infection of the respiratory system caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis (or B. pertussis). It's characterized by severe coughing spells, which can sometimes end in a "whooping" sound when the person breathes in.
  4. 4. It mainly affects infants younger than 6 months old before they're adequately protected by immunizations, and kids 11 to 18 years old whose immunity has started to fade. 5. Rhinitis ( /ra na t sɪˈ ɪ ɪ /) is a medical term for irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose. Common symptoms of rhinitis are a stuffy nose, runny nose, and post-nasal drip.
  5. 5. The most common kind of rhinitis is allergic rhinitis, which is usually triggered by airborne allergens such as pollen and dander . The most common kind of rhinitis is allergic rhinitis, which is usually triggered by airborne allergens such as pollen and dander . Allergic rhinitis may cause additional symptoms, such as sneezing and nasal itching, coughing, headache, fatigue,malaise, and cognitive impairment. The allergens may also affect the eyes, causing watery, reddened or itchy eyes and puffiness around the eyes.
  6. 6. 6. Bronchitis is inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi, the airways that carry airflow from the trachea into the lungs. Bronchitis can be divided into two categories, acute and chronic, each of which has distinct etiologies, pathologies, and therapies. a. Acute bronchitis is characterized by the development of a cough, with or without the production of sputum, mucus that is expectorated (coughed up) from the respiratory tract.
  7. 7. Acute bronchitis often occurs during the course of an acute viral illness such as the common cold or influenza. Virusescause about 90% of cases of acute bronchitis, whereas bacteria account for fewer than 10%. b. Chronic bronchitis, a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is characterized by the presence of a productive cough that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years. Chronic bronchitis most often develops due to recurrent injury to the airways caused by inhaled irritants. Cigarette smoking is the most common cause, followed by air pollution and occupational exposure to irritants.
  8. 8. 7. Pharyngitis ( /fær n d a t sɨ ˈ ʒ ɪ ɨ /) comes from the Greekword pharynx meaning throat and the suffix -itis meaning inflammation. It is an inflammation of the throat. In most cases it is quite painful, and is the most common cause of a sore throat.
  9. 9. Like many types of inflammation, pharyngitis can be acute – characterized by a rapid onset and typically a relatively short course – or chronic. Pharyngitis can result in very large tonsils which cause trouble swallowing and breathing. Pharyngitis can be accompanied by a cough or fever, for example, if caused by a systemic infection.
  10. 10. 8. Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. It affects the lower respiratory tract. This includes small bronchi (airways) and air sacs in the lungs. Causes of Pneumonia There are three main causes: Bacterial pneumonia caused by bacteria, most commonly Streptococcus pneumoniae Viral pneumonia caused by a virus (responsible for half of all pneumonias) Atypical bacterial pneumonia often called "walking pneumonia but can cause a more serious or potentially fatal pneumonia; caused by: – Mycoplasmahis – Chlamydias – Other tiny infectious agents that have traits of both bacteria and viruses
  11. 11. Development of Pneumonia in the Air Sacs of the Lungs