More Related Content


Recently uploaded(20)

Report about Health Stress and Coping

  1. R E P O R T E R S : E L M A R L O U I S S E S . T A N A K A R E D H E D G A R C H R I S T I A N H O N O R I D E Z C Z A R I N A G I C A L E S H A I N A E M P I N A D O K I M B E R L Y L O U I S E N E G R O
  2.  Health and Psychology  Health Psychology  Biopsychosocial model of health  Focus: AIDS in the Philippines  Stress and stressors.  General Adaptation Syndrome  Coping with Stress
  3. Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans, it is the general condition of a person's mind and body, usually meaning to be free from illness, injury or pain (as in "good health" or "healthy").[1] The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1946 as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."
  4. Health Psychology  The branch of psychology concerned with individual’s behaviors and lifestyles affecting a person’s health and illness.  Uses psychological processes to help improve the physical outcomes of individuals.  In general, health psychology is concerned with the role of cognitive, affective, behavior, and social factors affecting health illness.
  5. The shift to Biopsychosocial model of Health Central to linking the mind (realm of psychology) and the body (realm of biology) in understanding illness.
  6. As of December 2012: Source: Philippine National AIDS Council blications/NEC_HIV_Dec-AIDSreg2012.pdf Focus: AIDS in the Philippines
  7. Focus: AIDS in the Philippines  Social factors:  Thriving commercial sex industry  Failure to use condoms especially in paid sex.  Sexual cultural norms  “Embarrassment, from a social psychological perspective (e.g., Dahl, Gorn& Weinberg, 1998), can occur when a situation poses a dilemma between a publicly observable behavior (e.g., buying condoms at a drugstore) and apprehension about negative social evaluation by others (e.g., disapproving judgments by others, like people in line at the counte r or even imaginedothers not physically present like one’s parents). ”(Manalastas, 2009)
  8. Focus: AIDS in the Philippines  Increase in casual sex among the youth.  Methamphetamine use was strongly associated with behavioral risk factors for HIV infection. (US Center for Disease Control)
  9.  Term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging.
  10.  Stress-causing events  May come from within a person or from an external source, and ranges from mild to severe.
  11.  Distress  Eustress
  12.  Catastrophes ◦ Acute Stress Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  Major Life Changes  Hassles
  13.  Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
  14.  College Undergraduate Stress Scale
  15.  Pressure  Uncontrollability  Frustration  Conflict
  16.  Happens when… ◦ There are urgent demands for a person’s behavior coming from an outside source.
  17.  Depends on the degree pf control a person has over a situation ◦ The lesser the control, the greater the stress.
  18.  Occurs when people are blocked or prevented from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a perceived need. ◦ External Frustration ◦ Internal/Personal Frustration
  19.  Responses to frustration ◦ Persistence  Continuation of efforts to get around whatever is causing the frustration. ◦ Aggression  Actions meant to harm or destroy  Displaced aggression
  20.  Occurs when people are blocked or prevented from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a perceived need. ◦ External Frustration ◦ Internal/Personal Frustration
  21.  Approach-Approach Conflict ◦ Involves choosing between two desirable goals. Also a “win-win” situation.  Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict ◦ Involves choosing between two or more unpleasant goals.
  22.  Approach-Avoidance Conflict ◦ Involves only one goal or event, which may have both positive and negative aspects  Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflict ◦ Involves multiple goals that have both positive and negative elements.
  23. General Adaptation Syndrome
  24. What is the General Adaptation Syndrome?  The General Adaptation Syndrome (or GAS) describes the body's short and long-term emotional and physical effects of stress.
  25. GAS: A Brief History  Introduced by Hans Selye in 1936. Hans Selye is considered as the founding father of stress research.  He conducted a research involving rats in which he injected various extracts from the glands of the body.  The rats exhibited the same symptoms.  He believed at first that he discovered a new hormone.
  26. GAS: A Brief History  However, after further tests using other substances and methods such as injecting formaldehyde, cutting the rats’ spinal cord, exposure to cold and forced exercise, the results were still the same.  The predictable sequence he observed on the rats is now what we call the General Adaptation Syndrome.
  27. Three Stage Reaction • Alarm phase • Stage of resistance • Exhaustion stage.
  28. The alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome  In the alarm phase you enter a heightened psychological and physiological arousal, known as the fight or flight response.  Stress hormones are released into the bloodstream.  Adrenaline increases muscle tension, heart rate, and causes a number of other physical effects of stress.  You are now immediately equipped with enough energy to handle it.  You are more focused and alert!
  29. The resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome  The mind and the body attempt to adapt to the cause of stress.  Also known as the adaptation phase.  Homeostasis begins restoring balance and a period of recovery for repair and renewal takes place.  Body remains alert (at a lower level) but continues the normal functions.  Stress hormone levels may return to normal but you may have reduced defenses and adaptive energy left.
  30. The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome  Exhaustion sets in.  Stress has generally occurred for some time and at this point, resistance can drop off and the activity returns to the point before the emergency.  Characterized by issues such as burnout and exhaustion.  Body’s immune system that fights off disease and infection is weakened.
  31. The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome  Chronic stress can damage nerve cells in tissues and organs. Particularly vulnerable is the hippocampus section of the brain. Thinking and memory are likely to become impaired, with tendency toward anxiety and depression.
  32. Coping
  33. Coping “The process of managing external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person.” By Lazarus and Folkman (1984)
  34. Basically… Coping is anything we do to deal with stress!
  35. Coping is divided into two basic types: • Problem-focused Coping • Emotion-focused Coping
  36. Problem-Focused Coping Problem-Focused strategies includes: Defining the problem. Generating the alternative solutions. Weighing those solutions. Implementing the selected alternative.
  37. Emotion-Focused Coping - Means concentrating on alleviating the emotions associated with the stressful situatione. - Especially when the situation is beyond one’s control.
  38. This involves cognitive strategies, some behavioral strategies to cope with negative feelings are exercise, use of alcohol, drugs, releasing anger and seeking emotional support from friends.(Atkinson et al., 1996)
  39. Defense Mechanism 1. Repression 2. Rationalization 3. Projection 4. Intelectualization 5. Denial 6. Displacement
  40. Positive Thinking
  41. Religion
  42. Stress Management Programs
  43. Culture related to Stress and coping What people find stressful and how they respond to stress is partly patterned by culture (Western,1996) 1. Cultural context shapes the types of stressors we experience. 2. Culture may affect how we appraise the stressfulness of a given event. 3. Culture affects our individual choice of coping strategy. 4. Culture provide different institutional mechanisms for coping with stress.

Editor's Notes

  1. Ages ranged from 2 to 81 years old (median 28 years). The 20-29 year old age group had the most (58%) number of cases for 2012.
  3. HIV/AIDS among Asians and Pacific Islanders use was strongly associated with behavioral risk factors for HIV infection, including infrequent condom use, commercial sex activity, and low rates of HIV testing