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Memory and forgetting


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Memory and forgetting

  1. 1. Types of Memory There are 3 types of memory: Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory
  2. 2. Sensory Memory - The shortest-term memory. - Has the ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimuli have ended. - Acts as a kind of “buffer” for stimuli received through the five senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch which are retained accurately but very briefly.
  3. 3. Short-Term Memory - Acts as a kind of “scratch-pad” for temporary recall of the information which is being processed at any point in time, and has been referred to as "the brain’s Post-it note”. - Can be thought of as the ability to remember and process information at the same time. - It holds a small amount of information (typically around 7 items or even less) in mind in an active, readily-available state for a short period of time (typically from 10 to 15 seconds, or sometimes up to a minute).
  4. 4. Long-Term Memory - Intended for storage of information over a long period of time. - Actually decays very little over time, and can store a seemingly unlimited amount of information almost indefinitely. - Encode to some extent by sound.
  5. 5. Different types of Long-Term Memory 2 main types of long-term memory: Explicit (Declarative) Memory Episodic Memory Semantic Memory Implicit (Procedural) Memory
  6. 6. Explicit Memory (Declarative Memory) (“knowing what”) is memory of facts and events, and refers to those memories that can be consciously recalled. it consists of information that is explicitly stored and retrieved, although it is more properly a subset of explicit memory. can be further sub-divided into episodic memory and semantic memory.
  7. 7. Episodic memory Represents our memory of experiences and specific events in time in a serial form, from which we can reconstruct the actual events that took place at any given point in our lives. It is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions and other contextual knowledge) that can be explicitly stated.
  8. 8. Semantic Memory is a more structured record of facts, meanings, concepts and knowledge about the external world that we have acquired. refers to general factual knowledge, shared with others and independent of personal experience and of the spatial/temporal context in which it was acquired.
  9. 9. Implicit Memory (Procedural Memory) (“knowing how”) is the unconscious memory of skills and how to do things, particularly the use of objects or movements of the body. It is composed of automatic sensorimotor behaviors that are so deeply embedded that we are no longer aware of them and once learned, these "body memories" allow us to carry out ordinary motor actions automatically. Previous experiences aid in the performance of a task without explicit and conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
  10. 10. Encoding and Retrieval Encoding and retrieval are intricately linked to memory. They refer to the processes of moving information to and from short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM), respectively.
  11. 11. INPUT Sensory Memory Short – Term Memory Long – Term Memory OUTPUT rehearsal retrievalencoding attention
  12. 12. Encoding involves linking new information to existing knowledge in order to make the new information more meaningful. The quality of this process is related to the degree with which new information can be integrated or assimilated with existing knowledge. Much encoding involves labeling thoughts with words, but pictorial or other forms may be used as well. Students should be directed during the encoding process to insure that accurate information is moved to LTM. A different view of encoding is espoused by some researchers. According to Herrmann, Raybeck and Gutman, "registration in an incidental memory task is called encoding." In other words, encoding involves the unintentional storage of information in long-term memory. They label intentional registration "learning".
  13. 13. Retrieval involves drawing on existing knowledge. It forms the basis for all new knowledge. Retrieval of prior knowledge during learning directly affects the amount of new information that can be processed. At-risk students often have low funds of previous knowledge, hampering retrieval and, therefore, the learning process. A distinction between retrieval and realizing, again based on the issue of intentionality, is made by some authors. "In an intentional memory task, remembering is deliberately influenced by directing attention to certain contents in the working memory. This type of remembering is called retrieval. Retrieval may be conceived as realizing plus emergence produced by intentional manipulations” Herrmann, Raybeck and Gutman. Unintentional remembering is referred to as realizing. "Retrieval is more likely to result in [remembering] useful information than realizing since retrieval deliberately goes after certain memories whereas realizing occurs without a purpose” Herrmann, Raybeck and Gutman.
  14. 14. Purposes of Encoding and Retrieval Strategies The purpose of encoding strategies is to improve one's ability to transfer information from short-term memory (STM) to long-term memory (LTM). These strategies involve the development of schemes or networks in order to move information into LTM. The purpose of retrieval strategies is to improve one's ability to transfer information from long-term memory back to short-term memory.
  15. 15. Advantages of Encoding and Retrieval Strategies Academically, encoding and retrieval strategies influence one's ability to perform well when evaluated by instructors. Though testing is the most common form of evaluation, and encoding and retrieval strategies have the greatest impact on a student's performance on examinations, evaluation may take the form of class participation and group activities as well. In addition, encoding and retrieval strategies may improve one's ability to remember information from reading assignments. Effective comprehension and retention of reading materials is vital for class participation, taking exams, and other tasks.
  16. 16. Theories of forgetting : ☺Trace Decay - -The longer the time, the more the memory trace decays and as a consequence more information is forgotten. ☺Displacement -when STM is 'full', new information displaces or 'pushes out’ old information and takes its place ☺Interference -It was assumed that memory can be disrupted or interfered with by what we have previously learned or by what we will learn in the future.
  17. 17. Two ways in which interference can cause forgetting: ♦Retroactive interference occurs when new information interferes with the retrieval process of information in LTM. ♦Proactive interference occurs when information in LTM interferes with the ability to recall newly learned information. ☺Retrieval failure - information may be available but temporarily inaccessible. Retrieval cues can be: External / Context - in the environment, e.g. smell, place etc. Internal / State - inside of us, e.g. physical, emotional, mood, drunk etc.