LISA Qooxdoo Tutorial Handouts

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LISA Qooxdoo Tutorial Handouts

  1. 1. The Joy of writing JavaScript Applications How Qooxdoo puts the fun back into programming for the web Tobias Oetiker 22nd Large Installation System Administration Conference
  2. 2. 1 Introduction The Browser: my application platform • Applications in the Browser: Netscapes original Plan. • Performance: SquirelFish, V8, Tracemonkey engines. • JavaScript graduated with Web 2.0 • Widget libraries for breakfast, lunch and dinner. • A separte hack for every browser. It is said that people at Netscape back in the nineties had the vision of escaping the Microsoft dominance by enhancing their browser so that it could become a platform of its own for running client side applications. It is also said that MS was not thrilled by this thought. Netscape is no more but the vision has become a reality. The Web 2.0 hype sparked a slew of highly interactive web applications that used JavaScript snipets on the browser to enhance the user experience. Qooxdoo: application in the browser • Web 2.0 is all about the look and feel. • Web pages with eye candy. • Applications running in the browser. • Back to client/server computing. • Qooxdoo is a complete environment.
  3. 3. Qooxdoo features • Turns JS into a grown up OO language. • No HTML or CSS knowledge required. • Cross Browser: >= FF 1.5, Safari 3, Chrome, IE6, Opera8. • Multilingual. • Full API Documentation. • Users works ’inside the box’. • LGPL, EPL • Fun. Qooxdoo is way more than yet another JavaScript widget collection. Apart from a cool collection of widgets, it introduces fully object oriented programming to the JavaScript world. Similar to the way OO got introduced in the Perl world, the Qooxdoo folks designed a framework that provides all of the OO bits that were left out of JavaScript’s initial design. 2
  4. 4. 2 Hello World Jump right in • Install Python. http://www.python.org/download/ • Unpack Qooxdoo. http://qooxdoo.org/download/ • Get Js2-mode for emacs http://code.google.com/p/js2-mode/ • Do this NOW! Some claim Qooxdoo has a steep learning curve since it does just publish some JavaScript files you can link into your web page. While there are ways todo this all the same, I think it is actually a good thing since Qooxdoo’s main objective is to provide an environment for writing standalone, browser based applications. With such a scope in mind, the developer should treat herself to a decent programming environment. Generating the first application • Point your path to qooxdoo-0.8-sdk/tools/bin • Change directory to your development space. • Run create-application.py -name hello • CD into the hello directory. • Run generate.py source • Point your browser to hello/source/index.html Qooxdoo comes with many sensible defaults. One could argue, that a lot of Qoox- doo’s appeal comes from the many defaults. Normally when I start to write a pro- gram from scratch I am faced with way too many decisions at once. I often spend considerable time mulling about seemingly trivial decisions instead of just start- ing to program. Qooxdoo takes a lot of this “freedom” away by setting a standard on how to write your application. Many of these defaults can be changed, but I found that they are actually quite a good aproximation to my optimal program- ming environment, so there is no immediate need to change them. 3
  5. 5. generated files hello/generate.py hello/config.json hello/source/resource/hello/test.png hello/source/translation/readme.txt hello/source/class/hello/test/DemoTest.js hello/source/class/hello/Application.js hello/source/index.html hello/Manifest.json hello/readme.txt source code: hello/source/class/hello/Application.js 1 /* Tell qooxdoo that we need the resources in hello/* 2 #asset(hello/*) 3 */ 4 qx.Class.define(quot;hello.Applicationquot;, 5 { 6 extend : qx.application.Standalone, 7 members : 8 { 9 main : function() 10 { 11 // Call super class 12 this.base(arguments); 13 // Enable logging in debug variant 14 if (qx.core.Variant.isSet(quot;qx.debugquot;, quot;onquot;)) 15 { // native logging capabilities 16 qx.log.appender.Native; 17 // additional cross-browser console. 18 // Press F7 to toggle visibility 19 qx.log.appender.Console; 20 } 21 // Create a button 22 var button1 = new qx.ui.form.Button( 23 quot;First Buttonquot;, quot;hello/test.pngquot;); 24 // Document is the application root 25 var doc = this.getRoot(); 26 // Add button to document at fixed coordinates 27 doc.add(button1, {left: 100, top: 50}); 28 // Add an event listener 29 button1.addListener(quot;executequot;, function(e) { 30 alert(quot;Hello World!quot;); 31 }); 32 } 33 } 34 }); The original Qooxdoo hello world application, modified to fit the slide. 4
  6. 6. 3 The finer Points of JavaScript Qooxdoo and JavaScript • It’s just like Perl and OO • It’s all about anonymous functions • and closures . . . and scoping. A function pointer example 1 var add_alert=function(a,b){ 2 alert(’The Result is: ’+(a+b)); 3 } 4 add_alert(1,2); Calling function creates a function object which I can use exactly like a normal function. Scoping for the naïve You know scoping from other languages 1 var j = 100; 2 var z = 22; 3 for (var z = 1;z<10;z++){ 4 var j = z; 5 } 6 alert(’And the Winner is j:’+j+’ z:’+z); Or so you thought 5
  7. 7. Scoping for the disillusioned JavaScript scoping works only within function blocks. 1 var j = 100; 2 var z = 22; 3 for (var z = 1;z<10;z++){(function(){ 4 var j = z; 5 })()} 6 alert(’And the Winner is j:’+j+’ z:’+z); Note that z is outside the function block! While many languages provide scope for every block, this is not the case for JavaScript. Here the only scoping block is the function block. So if we need scope inside a looping block for example, we just add an anonymous function and execute it in place. I am not sure how efficient this is, so do not use it in tight loops. A simple closures example 1 var set; 2 var get; 3 var j=2; 4 (function(){ // the magic javascript scope trick 5 var j; 6 set = function(x){j=x}; 7 get = function(){alert(’Hidden j is ’+j)}; 8 })(); // end of scope 9 set(33); 10 get(); 11 alert(’Outside j is still ’+j); Everything as expected. 6
  8. 8. With closures, several functions can share a common variable defined outside the function. Lisp/Scheme has been the first language to implement this concept. To- day many object oriented languages can do closures: There are subtle differences though, as I had to discover the hard way, working with JavaScript coming from a Perl/C background. A broken function factory 1 var j = []; 2 for (var z = 1;z<10;z++){ 3 var g = z; 4 j[g] = function(a){ 5 alert(’The value for j[’ + a + ’] is ’+g); 6 }; 7 } 8 j[2](2); JavaScript! Has! No! Scope! For! Loop! Blocks! A working function factory 1 var j = []; 2 for (var z = 1;z<10;z++){(function(){ // for a block 3 var g = z; 4 j[g] = function(a){ 5 alert(’The value for j[’ + a + ’] is ’+g); 6 }; 7 })()} // end of block 8 j[2](2); Again the anonymous function trick comes to the rescue. 7
  9. 9. When programming with Qooxdoo its almost entirely about anonymous functions and closures. It took me almost a year to finally figure out about JavaScript scop- ing, before it was just the odd problem which I could not really fix and spent hours working finding a work-a-round, cursing mysterious JavaScript bugs in the process. fun with this 1 var hello = { 2 world: ’You’, 3 show: function(){ 4 alert(’Hello ’+this.world+’ this: ’+this); } 5 }; 6 hello.show(); // method call 7 var plain = hello.show; // function pointer 8 var world = ’Me’; // change this.world 9 plain(); // method call this refers to this refers to the browsers the hello object. base Window object. Be careful when using this in an anonymous function since it always points to the current parent. Call-back functions are especially ’vulnerable’ to this problem. 8
  10. 10. 4 The Qooxdoo OO Features Class definition In its most basic form, a Qooxdoo class is very simple. 1 qx.Class.define(’my.first.Class’); In reality you would use something like this 1 qx.Class.define(quot;my.cool.Classquot;, { 2 // declare constructor, members, ... 3 }); A regular class can then be instantiated 1 var myClass = new my.cool.Class; Class inheritance The map contains the meat of the class. 1 qx.Class.define(quot;my.cool.Classquot;, 2 { 3 extend : my.great.SuperClass, 4 construct : function() { ... }, 5 destruct : function() { ... } 6 }); Embrace and extend. Static members Static member names are in the statics key. They use UPPERCASE names by convention. 1 qx.Class.define(quot;my.cool.Classquot;, { 2 statics : { 3 FOO : VALUE, 4 BAR : function() { ... } 5 } 6 }); Static members are accessed with their full name: 1 my.cool.Class.FOO = 3.141; 2 my.cool.Class.BAR(); 9
  11. 11. Instance Members Instance members reside in the members map. 1 qx.Class.define(quot;my.cool.Classquot;, { 2 members: { 3 foo : VALUE, 4 bar : function() { ... } 5 } 6 }); Use new to create an instance. 1 var myClass1 = new my.cool.Class; 2 myClass1.foo = 3.141; 3 myClass1.bar(); Calling the Superclass 1 qx.Class.define(quot;my.cool.Classquot;, 2 { 3 extend : my.great.SuperClass, 4 construct : function(x) { 5 this.base(arguments, x); // superclass constructor 6 } 7 members : { 8 foo : function(x) { 9 this.base(arguments, x); 10 } 11 } 12 }); The this.base construct works for both constructor and member functions. The arguments object/map used in this example is a native JavaScript feature. Inside a function call it contains all the information about how the function was called: a list of the arguments passed to the function as well as pointers to the function itself. 10
  12. 12. Generic access to static members 1 qx.Class.define(quot;my.cool.Classquot;, 2 { 3 extend : qx.core.Object, 4 construct : function(x){this.base(arguments,x)}, 5 statics : { 6 PI : 3.141 7 } 8 members : { 9 circumference : function(radius) { 10 return 2 * this.self(arguments).PI * radius; 11 } 12 } 13 }); this.self only works for subclasses of qx.core.Object mixins 1 qx.Mixin.define(’my.cool.MMixin’,{ 2 // code and variables like in a class 3 }); Like classes, but without inheritance. By convention Mixin names start with ’M’. 1 qx.Class.define(’my.cool.Class’, { 2 include : [my.cool.MMixin, my.other.cool.MMixin] 3 ... 4 }); Include mixins when creating new classes. 1 qx.Class.include(qx.ui.core.Widget, qx.MWidgetFeatures); Or even inject them into an existing class. A mixin may contain anything a normal class can contain, but it does not get instantiated or inherited from directly. Is included into new and existing classes to provide additional features through its methods and properties. class access control There is the following naming convention for class members. 1 publicMember 2 _protectedMember 3 __privateMember In the Qooxdoo build process it is optionally possible to randomize the names of private members to protect access. 11
  13. 13. static, abstract and singleton classes 1 qx.Class.define(’my.static.Class’, { 2 type : ’static’ 3 statics: { ... }; 4 }); Neither members nor constructors are allowed in static classes. 1 qx.Class.define(’my.abstract.Class’, { 2 type : ’abstract’ 3 }); Abstract classes must be sub-classed for use. 1 qx.Class.define(’my.singleton.Class’, { 2 type : ’singleton’ 3 }); 4 var instance = my.singleton.Class.getIntance() There is only one instance which gets created on the first call. Browser specific code Normally Qooxdoo takes care of all browser differences, but if you must intervene ... 1 members: { 2 foo: qx.core.Variant.select( 3 ’qx.bom.client.Engine.NAME’, { 4 ’mshtml|opera’: function() { 5 // Internet Explorer or Opera 6 }, 7 ’default’: function() { 8 // All other browsers 9 } 10 } 11 ) 12 } 12
  14. 14. 5 Working with Qooxdoo The demo Browser 1 $ cd $QX/frontend/application/demobrowser/ 2 $ ./generate.py build 3 $ gnome-open build/index.html Or surf to http://demo.qooxdoo.org/current/demobrowser For me the demobrowser is the quickest way of seeing how to write Qooxdoo. Select a widget on the tree at the left and activate the JS Code toggle. Now you can see both the running program as well as the JavaScript code. The rest is mostly cut and paste. 13
  15. 15. The API Documentation 1 $ cd $QX/frontend/framework 2 $ ./generate.py api 3 $ gnome-open api/index.html Or surf to http://demo.qooxdoo.org/current/apiviewer The Qooxdoo API documentation is generated directly from embedded javadoc in the Qooxdoo JS source files. You can apply the same process to your own Qooxdoo application to get a api viewer for your own code. The Qooxdoo generator Python is the sole dependency • generator.py is the tool • it gets called by generate.py The generator has many functions • source - prep development code • build - prep code for deployment • api - build api doc • lint - check your code for beauty • pretty - fix the code layout • ... 14
  16. 16. Running your Qooxdoo program in source Use source code during development 1 $ cd hello 2 $ ./generate.py source 3 $ gnome-open source/index.html As long as you do not use any new classes, press reload in the browser to see changes. To run a Qooxdoo application, the code for each class you used must be loaded. This can easily be 30 or more files. When calling the generator with the option source it will create an JavaScript file in source/script/hello.js which takes care of loading these class files. While developing you may want to try the lint option as well, to catch some frequent mistakes. Deploying your Qooxdoo program 1 $ cd hello 2 $ ./generate.py build 3 $ cp -rp build ~/public_html/hello • only two js files • code gets optimized and compressed • no external dependencies The Qooxdoo generator builds a fully custom js file containing all the Qooxdoo classes required to run your application. It also compresses and optimizes the code in this step. You will notice that the first source and build run will take quite some time. This is because Qooxdoo creates cache files of all classes involved. If you run the build for a second time things will run much quicker. 15
  17. 17. 6 Programming with Qooxdoo Button, TextField and some Action 1 // Create a textfield 2 var tf1 = new qx.ui.form.TextField(’Demo Text’); 3 // Add button to root 4 root.add(tf1, {column: 0, row: 0}); 5 // Create a button 6 var bt1 = new qx.ui.form.Button( 7 ’Open Alert’, ’lisa08/test.png’); 8 // Add button to root 9 root.add(bt1, {column: 1, row: 0}); 10 // Add an event listener 11 bt1.addListener(’execute’, function(e) { 12 // closure !! 13 this.info(’TextField: ’+tf1.getValue()); 14 alert(’TextField: ’ + tf1.getValue()); 15 }); Try F7 to see inline console! In this first example there is already a closure. The variable tf1 is used inside the event handler. The function is passed as a reference and takes the access to the TextField object with it. The Layout Manager • Qooxdoo Widgets can contain other widgets. • Layout manager positions child widgets. • qx.ui.container.Composite basic • qx.ui.container.Scroll draws scroll bars • qx.ui.window.Window directs children to an inner composite pane. • Layout manager set at construction time • Modified with setLayout method. 16
  18. 18. Container and Layout 1 // a container with horizontal layouyt manager 2 var hbox = new qx.ui.layout.HBox(); 3 hbox.setSpacing(4); // set property 4 5 // assign layout 6 var ctr1 = new qx.ui.container.Composite(hbox); 7 ctr1.setWidth(600); ctr1.setHeight(40); 8 // layout properties: position 9 root.add(ctr1,{column: 0, row: 1, colSpan: 2}); 10 11 var tf2 = new qx.ui.form.TextField(’Some More Text’); 12 var bt2 = new qx.ui.form.ToggleButton(’AllowGrowY’); 13 bt2.addListener(’changeChecked’, function(e) { 14 // modify widget property 15 tf2.setAllowGrowY(e.getData()); 16 this.info(’New Value for AllowGrowY: ’+e.getData()); 17 }); 18 ctr1.add(tf2);ctr1.add(bt2); The container widget together with an associated layout object can arrange wid- gets on screen giving the user high level control over the operation. Here the tog- gle button lets us choose if the text field should grow vertically to fill the available space or not. 17
  19. 19. Grid Layout • qx.ui.layout.Grid • fully dynamic • ideal for dialogs • one widget per cell • row and column spans • minimal and maximal column and row sizes • fixed row and column sizes The grid widget has all the flexibility of a html table plus a great deal more. It is the ideal basis for laying out dialog boxes or complex screen setups. About the Qooxdoo Layout Widgets • A container widget needs a layout manager to place its children. • The layout manager object has properties. • Every widget has basic properties like: alignment, growability, shrinkabil- ity, stretchability, margins, padding, width and height. • Each widget can have layout-specific properties. • Layout properties get checked as the widget is added to a layout. Lets play with the layout demos! For me the best way to understand how layouts work was to first try them out in the demo browser and then use them in a little program of my own. 18
  20. 20. Localized Applications 1 var lmgr = qx.locale.Manager.getInstance(); 2 var bt3 = new qx.ui.form.ToggleButton( 3 this.tr(’Translate!’) 4 ); 5 root.add(bt3, {column: 1, row: 3}); 6 bt3.addListener(’changeChecked’, function(e) { 7 var lang = e.getData() ? ’de’ : ’en’; 8 lmgr.setLocale( lang ); 9 this.info(’Language set to: ’+lang); 10 }); • add locale to config.json • ./generate.py translation • translate de.po • ./generate.py source Qooxdoo locale files are normal .po files. You can use any of the existing kde/g- nome tools for updating your translations. Qooxdoo will automatically pick the language that best matches the locale settings in your browser. calling code on the server • JSON RPC for transport • various language bindings • often minimal server code • async with callbacks • qx.io.Rpc 19
  21. 21. An RPC Example: Client 1 var rpc = new qx.io.remote.Rpc(’jsonrpc.cgi’,’myclass’); 2 var bt4 = new qx.ui.form.Button(this.tr(’Call RPC’)); 3 root.add(bt4, {column: 1, row: 4}); 4 var that = this; // we want this ’this’! 5 var callback = function(result, ex, id) { 6 that.RpcRunning = null; // free the reference 7 if (ex == null) { 8 alert(’The RPC call returned: ’+result); 9 that.info(’RPC call returned: ’+result); 10 } else { 11 alert(’Async(’ + id + ’) exception: ’ + ex); 12 that.error(’Async(’ + id + ’) exception: ’ + ex); 13 } 14 }; 15 bt4.addListener(’execute’, function(e) { 16 that.RpcRunning = rpc.callAsync( 17 callback,’mymethod’,’Hello’); 18 }); The example only works on a cgi enabled webserver. An RPC Example: Server CGI source/jsonrpc.cgi: 1 #!/usr/bin/perl -w 2 use strict; 3 use lib qw(perl); 4 5 use CGI; 6 # use CGI::Fast; 7 use CGI::Session; 8 use Qooxdoo::JSONRPC; 9 10 # $Qooxdoo::JSONRPC::debug=1; 11 my $cgi = new CGI; 12 # while (my $cgi = new CGI::Fast){ 13 my $session = new CGI::Session; 14 Qooxdoo::JSONRPC::handle_request ($cgi, $session); 15 # } For best performance use CGI::Fast and configure CGI::Session to keep the session data in a database. 20
  22. 22. An RPC Example: the myclass service source/perl/Qooxdoo/Services/myclass.pm: 1 package Qooxdoo::Services::myclass; 2 use strict; 3 4 # for now let everyone access the methods 5 sub GetAccessibility { ’public’ }; 6 7 sub method_mymethod { 8 my $error = shift; 9 my $arg = shift; 10 return ’The argument was: ’.$arg; 11 } 12 13 1; The myclass module gets loaded dynamically. An RPC Example: Getting it to work • Install language bindings from Qooxdoo website. • ln -s /var/www/lisa08 build • ./generate.py build • cp -rp source/jsonrpc.cgi source/perl build • Open the application in the browser. • Make sure the cgis are actually executed • Watch the Apache error log while testing. Debugging client/server AJAX applications can be pretty daunting. I find that I have the best success when I keep my eyes on the Apache error log and add debug- ging output liberally. For the Perl bindings, setting $Qooxdoo::JSONRPC::debug to 1 gives also valuable debugging output from the Qooxdoo Perl modules point of view. 21
  23. 23. Organizing the code into multiple classes • Object orientation “by the book”. • One file per class. • Java’s file name based approach. • Supported by the generator. • Ideal for code re-use. • Use Inline Docs! • ./generate.py api The textclick class 1 /** 2 * textclick combines a textfield and a button. 3 */ 4 qx.Class.define(quot;lisa08.ui.textclickquot;, 5 { 6 extend : qx.ui.container.Composite, 7 /** 8 * @param button_text {String} button text. 9 */ 10 construct : function(button_text) { 11 this.base( arguments, 12 new qx.ui.layout.HBox().set({spacing: 4}) 13 ); 14 this.__tf = new qx.ui.form.TextField(); 15 this.__bt = new qx.ui.form.Button(button_text); 16 this.add(this.__tf); 17 this.add(this.__bt); 18 }, 19 20 21 members : 22 { 23 /** 24 * Get a handle to the Button widget. 25 */ 26 getButton: function() { return this.__bt }, 27 /** 28 * Get a handle to the TextField widget. 29 */ 30 getTextField: function() { return this.__tf }, 31 __bt: null, 32 __tf: null 33 } 34 }); 22
  24. 24. Using the textclick class 1 var mywi =new lisa08.ui.textclick( 2 this.tr(’Copy Text from Example 1’)); 3 4 mywi.getButton().addListener(’execute’, function(e) { 5 mywi.getTextField().setValue(tf1.getValue()); 6 this.info(’Set textfield to ’+tf1.getValue()); 7 }); 8 9 root.add(mywi,{column: 0, row: 5, colSpan: 2}); By splitting your application into different classes, your code becomes simpler to understand and to test, you can even re-use it in other projects. The generator tool will merge your own classes with the relevant Qooxdoo Classes into optimized, monolithic JavaScript files, ready for deployment. The Message Bus • Communication in “large” applications. • Singleton message bus class. • Careful with references: memory leaks! 1 var mywi2 =new lisa08.ui.textclick( 2 this.tr(’Send Hello to Textfield’)); 3 var bus = qx.event.message.Bus.getInstance(); 4 mywi2.getButton().addListener(’execute’, function(e) { 5 bus.dispatch(’mybus.1’,’Hello World’); 6 this.info(’Sent Hello World on this bus’); 7 },this); // context provided for console 8 bus.subscribe(’mybus.1’,function(m){ 9 mywi2.getTextField().setValue(m.getData()); 10 this.info(’Got ’+m.getData()+’ from the bus’); 11 },this); 12 13 root.add(mywi2,{column: 0, row: 6, colSpan: 2}); While a message bus can provide a nice way to get inner-application communica- tion organized, you may soon end up in a maze of different messages being sent back and forth to no end. A better way to organize an applications logic may be provided by the qx.util.fsm class which lets you describe the logic in form of an finite state machine which then takes care of how your gui works. There is a nice example in the Qooxdoo api viewer. Tobias Oetiker <tobi@oetiker.ch> 23

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