Introduction to Bioinformatics Slides

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This HIBB presentation provides background information on bases, amino acids, proteins, nucleotides and DNA. The presentation then explains what bioinformatics is, lists some examples, and demonstrates some tools. It demonstrates tools which compare parts of human and chimp genes, and illustrate drug resistance analysis and HIV subtype analysis. It then discusses some ethical and clinical aspects to bioinformatics.

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Introduction to Bioinformatics Slides

  1. 1. A brief Introduction to Bioinformatics Y. SINGH NELSON R. MANDELA SCHOOL OF MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF TELEHEALTH SINGHY@UKZN.AC.ZAContent licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0Unported
  2. 2. Learning Objectives What is Bioinformatics Why is it important Examples of Bioinformatics application What is Sequencing Uses of Sequencing
  3. 3. Building Blocks of DNA Bases are the building blocks of DNA DNA uses four different bases: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine & Thymine Connected by 2’-deoxy-ribose- phosphate backbone
  4. 4. DNA Please watch Video One
  5. 5. Information in DNA is Transferred to RNA & into Proteins DNA (ACGT on deoxyribose backbone)  RNA (ACGU on ribose backbone)  Proteins (amino acids on peptide backbone)
  6. 6. Information in RNA Encodes Proteins Triplets of RNA nucleotides encode 20 amino acids 8 essential amino acids
  7. 7. DNA MutatesMutations in DNA (changes in bases) can changes in amino acids can  changes inproteinsMutations can be:Inherited: sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis,susceptibility to some cancers (BRCA: breastcancer)Acquired: some birth defects, leukemia, HIVresistance
  8. 8. Definition Bioinformatics :  applied mathematics,  informatics,  statistics,  computer science,  artificial intelligence,  chemistry, biochemistry etc to solve biological problems usually on the molecular level
  9. 9. What can Bioinformatics do sequence alignment, gene finding, genome assembly, protein structure alignment, protein structure prediction, predict products of gene expression protein-protein interactions, the modeling of evolution.
  10. 10. What can Bioinformatics do sequence alignment, gene finding, genome assembly, protein structure alignment, protein structure prediction, predict products of gene expression protein-protein interactions, the modeling of evolution.
  11. 11. Sequence Alignment Compare genes within a species Search genes BLAST
  12. 12. Demonstration: Video TwoBIOAFICA:http://www.bioafrica.net/rega-genotype/html/subtypinghiv.htSTANFORD HIV-DB: http://hivdb.stanford.edu/
  13. 13. FINDING SIMILARITIESHTTP://WWW.EBI.AC.UK/TOOLS/CLUSTALW2/INDEX.HTHTTP://WWW.NCBI.NLM.NIH.GOV/SITES/EN TREZ?DB=PROTEIN&CMD=SEARCH
  14. 14. Implications for clinical informatics Sequence information in medical records New diagnostic and prognostic information sources Ethical considerations
  15. 15. Thank YouThe work is provided under the terms of this Creative Commons Public License (“CCPL" or "license"). The work is protected by copyright and/or other applicable law. Any use of the work other than as authorized under this license or copyright law is prohibited.

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