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TCP/IP Geeks Stockholm :: Introduction to IPv6

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An introduction to IPv6 - both from a general view and from a technical view. We all need to learn, use and migrate to IPv6 now.

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TCP/IP Geeks Stockholm :: Introduction to IPv6

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION
 TO IPV6 Examples from various operating systems oej@edvina.netTwitter: oejTwitter: ipv6friday TCP/IP Geeks Stockholm 2015-03-17
  2. 2. Why IPv6 is important • The Internet grows... a lot more than during the dot.com days • IPv6 is the only solution for growth • Continued IPv4 use will lead to walled gardens, separate Internet islands with little or no connectivity • IPv6 enables global realtime communication between all connected devices
  3. 3. The Internet grows... more than during the dot.com days • Internet growth is bigger now than during the worst growth during the dot.com explosion • We have more Internet-enabled smart phones than IPv4 addresses • An explosion of Internet-connected things is already happening.
  4. 4. We are global • The Internet is growing personal and global. • The only solution for global realtime communication is IPv6 • The current solution costs too much and is not global any more
  5. 5. No D-Day • The change will go gradually • IPv4 NAT will keep us alive • Don’t count with more public IP addresses for servers and services. • Don’t panic, but start acting.
  6. 6. First notice • Your contacts/customers in Asia will complain that they can’t e- mail you, or reach your web • You buy a cool gadget in the Duty-Free electronic store, and it just won’t connect • Your ISP or hosting center says they will have to charge 1.000 Euro for the new IP address - per year.
  7. 7. IPv6 is the only solution • There is no other magic solution to Internet growth and scalability with IPv4
  8. 8. 10 STEPS FORWARD
  9. 9. 1. Learn IPv6 • You need to upgrade your network engineers • It’s not hard, but remember, it’s a new protocol • A new protocol means new security issues
  10. 10. 2. Get addresses • Your ISP (or your next ISP) will give you a /48 network • You will have more addresses than the current Internet and all of IPv4 - yourself!
  11. 11. 3. Require IPv6 • Don’t buy any network services, equipment or computers that does not support IPv6 • Wake up, it’s 2015 • If no IPv6 support, take the cost this year, because you will soon have to replace it.
  12. 12. 4. Convert public services • Convert e-mail, DNS,VoIP and web to IPv6 • Make sure the world can reach you
  13. 13. 5. Check vendors • Does your bank, consultants, outsourcing partners, vendors support IPv6? • API Services you use? • What’s the status of your business neighbourhood?
  14. 14. 6. Dual stack on PCs • When buying new PCs or upgrading, implement dual stack • Supported by Linux, Mac,Windows • Very simple to enable
  15. 15. 7. Use IPv6 - only • If all clients have dual stack, don’t be afraid to use ONLY ipv6 on new servers • Old servers are harder to move away from IPv4 • Use NAT64 for IPv4 reachability
  16. 16. 8. Move the IT department • Let the IT department PCs be IPv6 only
  17. 17. 9. Benefit from IPv6 • VPNs are much easier • You have a large address space - use it • Mobility is built in • IPv6 over IPv6, IPv6 over IPv4 • No more NAT traversal issues
  18. 18. 10. Don’t panic. • There is urgency, but your business won’t collapse if this doesn’t work today • Make IPv6 part of every IT project • Don’t make it a special project • Start now.
  19. 19. Stay connected! • The beauty of the Internet is global reachability, global connectivity • Without IPv6, the Internet will be fragmented into separate islands and walled gardens • We don’t want that. No one wants that. Stay connected.
 Go IPv6 today!
  20. 20. Help your customers • Wake them up • Train them on all levels • Introduce IPv6 in all current projects • Help them test • Get their public services connected to IPv6 • Require IPv6 from all your vendors
  21. 21. This is the new Internet.
 Do not stay behind!
  22. 22. INTRODUCTIONTO IPV6
  23. 23. IPv6 basics • Larger IP packet headers - IP address 128 bits instead of 32 • AllTCP/UDP protocols behave like before • Protocols that embedd IP address will have to support the new formats • Subnetting like before with CIDR prefixes 128 bit address 128 bit address
  24. 24. A common enterprise model 48 bit
 prefix 64 bit
 device 16 bit
 subnet 65536 networks! ISP get /32
 Enterprise /48 or /56
  25. 25. Dual stack IPv4 IPv6 The IPv4
 Internet The IPv6
 Internet
  26. 26. TWO highways to the same destination IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6
  27. 27. Happy eyeballs IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6
  28. 28. Migration IPv4 IPv6 IPv6IPv4 1 2 3
  29. 29. Testing IPv6 IPv6 3
  30. 30. Multiple addresses per interface Link local address based on MAC (FE80::) Site local address - ULA FDxx Global address based on network prefix and MAC Global address based on network prefix and random data Link local multicast addresses Service specific multicast address Loopback address (only for loopback interface) The app selects source address
  31. 31. Different views in OS/X Network configuration shows only IPv4 Advanced shows
 ONE IPv6 address ifconfig
  32. 32. Distributing IPv6 addresses Local Link (FE80::) - automatically Global based on RA prefix - automatic (SLAAC) Global based on DHCP - automatic (SLAAC) Static - manual configuration Based on MAC address Based on random data for privacy (temporary address)
  33. 33. DHCPv6 INFORMATION
 OBJECTS DYNAMIC
 IP ADDRESS STATIC
 IP ADDRESS DNS, SIP gateway, NTP server etc Random address from a range PRIVACY ENHANCED
 IP ADDRESS Managed temporary privacy-enhanced
 Address Static address based on device identifier
  34. 34. DHCPv6 for ISP’s NETWORK
 PROVISIONING Network prefix, subnet mask
 router Home gateway Gets a network (not an address)
 from the service provider. Distributes real Internet addresses to
 network hosts. No NAT.
  35. 35. DUID = Device Identifier SYSTEM IF IF IF DUID - Device Unique Identifier IAID - Interface Adapter Identifier In IPv4 DHCP the MAC
 is the system!
  36. 36. Where are they? DUID IAID IAID ETH0 WLAN0 Only shown in Microsoft
 Windows 7. I can’t find it
 easily in any other system. ! Required to set up static
 DHCPv6 address
 management.
  37. 37. Various options RA +
 SLAAC SLAAC + DHCPv6 RA + DHCPv6 • Announce a prefix and a router with
 RADVD or RTSOL support • MAC or temporary • Simple, but not much control • RA tells device to use SLAAC and fetch more options in DHCPv6 • DNS address, NTP server • Better management, but still not much control • RA tells device to get IP and more options in DHCPv6 • Device sends DUID+IAID • Better management - log in DHCP server • Where is the DUID?
  38. 38. Privacy enhanced • ”Welcome back.You’re using a MacBook Pro 10th generation from Sollentuna, Sweden.” • Why should I let everyone see my MAC address? And that I use multiple devices? • All systems support this.Windows enable it by default. No other system has it in the UI.
  39. 39. The end ...or is it the beginning? We need to make IPv6 a normal 
 part of all network projects. Now.

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