Copyright and Plagiarism


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  • The DMCA was enacted in October 1998 primarily to bring U.S. copyright law into conformity with provisions of two World Intellectual Property Organization treaties to which the U.S. is a signatory. --- prohibits devices designed to circumvent digital anti-copying protections.
  • "scholarly or educational materials, art works, musical compositions and dramatic and non-dramatic literary works related to the author's academic or professional field regardless of the medium of expression...." Telecourse materials created by faculty under the same or similar circumstances as would ordinarily lead faculty to produce typical or more traditional works will be treated as scholarly works and will belong to the author. Faculty members should note that undergraduate students own copyright in their works and faculty members must obtain their permission to incorporate student work in a faculty-authored created under contracts between the U.T. System or a component and a faculty author, or by employees, other than faculty, within the scope of their employment, will belong to the Board.
  • Kinko's' practice of unauthorized photocopying of multiple-page excerpts from copyrighted works (including chapters of books and articles from periodicals) to create anthologies (coursepacks) for sale to students for a profit violated the publishers' copyrights. The copyrighted works infringed by Kinko's included hardback and paperback editions of in-print and out-of-print trade and professional works as well as text- books. The copied materials ranged in length from 14 to 110 pages and from 5% to 24% of the works.
  • Oxford University Press, Cambridge University Press and SAGE Publications and supported by the Association of American Publishers (AAP), charges that GSU officials are violating the law by systematically enabling professors to provide students with digital copies of copyrighted course readings published by the plaintiffs and numerous other publishers without those publishers’ authorization. The lawsuit seeks injunctive relief to bring an end to such practices, but does not seek monetary damages.
  • Kinko's' practice of unauthorized photocopying of multiple-page excerpts from copyrighted works (including chapters of books and articles from periodicals) to create anthologies (coursepacks) for sale to students for a profit violated the publishers' copyrights. The copyrighted works infringed by Kinko's included hardback and paperback editions of in-print and out-of-print trade and professional works as well as text- books. The copied materials ranged in length from 14 to 110 pages and from 5% to 24% of the works.
  • Amount is measured both quantitatively and qualitatively. No exact measures of allowable quantity exist in the law.Guidelines exist – from Congress.
  • This factor means fundamentally that if you make a use for which a purchase of an original theoretically should have occurred—regardless of your personal willingness or ability to pay for such purchase—then this factor may weigh against fair use. "Effect" is closely linked to "purpose." If your purpose is research or scholarship, market effect may be difficult to prove. If your purpose is commercial, then adverse market effect is often presumed. Occasional quotations or photocopies may have no adverse market effects, but reproductions of software and videotapes can make direct inroads on the potential markets for those works.
  • Skeptical, arrive at college with established methods of sorting, doubting or ignoring information.We must respect them as thinkers, even though their thinking skills are underdeveloped and base knowledge shallow.
  • Knowledge-able students find, sort, analyze, share, discuss, critique and create information. They CREATE knowledge.
  • In fact, McCabe says, a survey of more than 4,000 U.S. and Canadian schools revealed half of all faculty members admitted ignoring cheating at least once.
  • Copyright and Plagiarism

    1. 1. Copyright and Plagiarism<br />Christine Salmon, PhD<br />Office of Educational Enhancement<br />© Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License -<br />
    2. 2. Copyright!<br /> arghhhh!!! <br />Source:<br />
    3. 3. Objectives<br />Define copyright<br />Identify copyright infringement<br />Evaluate materials for Fair Use<br />Define academic integrity<br />Recognize characteristics of plagiarism<br />Design appropriate assessment methods<br />Identify UT-Dallas policies<br />
    4. 4. Copyright and Fair Use<br />Write down everything you know about copyright and fair use.<br />In small groups, compare notes.<br />Come up with a definition of “copyright”.<br />
    5. 5. Copyright?<br />
    6. 6. Copyright – What is it?<br />Intellectual property protection for “…original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device.”<br />Copyright Law of the United States (Ch 1, p8)<br /><br />
    7. 7. Copyright – the Law<br />U.S. Code (17 USC, section 106 - 1976)<br />Digital Millennium Copyright Act (1998)<br />Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act (2002)<br />Comparison of above -<br />Federal Educational Rights & Privacy Act (FERPA) <br />
    8. 8. Copyright, Patent, Trademark<br />Copyright – original works of authorship<br />Patent – inventions or discoveries<br />(not systems or processes)<br />Trademarks - words, phrases, symbols, or designs <br />(identifying the source of the goods or services of one party and distinguishing them from those of others)<br />
    9. 9. Copyright – What do you know?<br />Is it infringement?<br /> One of your students creates a video play for your class. In the play, a character sings Happy Birthday. <br />
    10. 10. Copyright?<br />
    11. 11. Copyright holders – exclusive rights to:<br />Reproduction<br />Adaptation<br />Publication<br />Performance<br />Display <br />Copyright – What is it?<br />
    12. 12. Copyright – When does it start?<br />Does not require publication<br />Does not require © *<br />Does not require registration<br />As soon as work is fixed <br />* optional on works after March 1, 1989<br /> (see Circular 03 Copyright Notice – LOC<br />
    13. 13. Copyright – How long is it?<br />Created before January 1, 1978<br /> Term 1 = 28 years Term 2 = 28 years (1909 law)<br />Renewal required year 28 of Term 1<br />Copyright expired if not renewed<br />Public Law 102-307 (June 26, 1992)<br />Renewal automatic<br />Renewal optional <br />
    14. 14. Copyright – How long is it?<br />Created before January 1, 1978<br />1976 Copyright Act – extended Term 2 to 67 yrs<br /> Term 1 = 28 years <br /> Term 2 = 67 years<br />95 years<br />
    15. 15. Copyright – How long is it?<br />Life of author<br />plus 70 years<br />Created on /after January 1, 1978<br />Made for hire, anonymous<br />Public domain – no copyright <br />Published before 1923<br />95 years from date of publication or 120 years from date of creation, whichever is shorter<br />
    16. 16. Copyright – What is protected?<br />Literary works<br />Pictorial, graphic and sculptural works<br />Motion pictures<br />Audiovisual works<br />Sound recordings<br />
    17. 17. Copyright – What is not protected?<br />Facts<br />Ideas not in fixed form<br />Works produced by federal government employees<br />
    18. 18. Copyright – What is it?<br />Non-dramatic literary or musical work<br /> (excludes audiovisual works)<br />Uses dialogue and action to tell a connected story<br />Work is “related” not performed.<br />Non-dramatic (full)<br /><ul><li> novel
    19. 19. essay
    20. 20. poetry / poem
    21. 21. short story
    22. 22. symphony</li></ul>Dramatic (portions)<br /><ul><li> stage play
    23. 23. theatre piece
    24. 24. music video
    25. 25. opera
    26. 26. musical</li></li></ul><li>Copyright – A different view<br />Copyright, What's Copyright? (video)<br />Media Education Lab<br /><br />
    27. 27. Copyright<br />Test your knowledge! <br />1-5 on the worksheet<br />
    28. 28. Copyright & IP – UT System<br />Faculty<br /><ul><li>Scholarly works related to field
    29. 29. TeleCourse materials
    30. 30. Joint ownership
    31. 31. Works for hire
    32. 32. Grant-related**</li></ul>Students<br /><ul><li>Subject to same rules for use
    33. 33. Students own copyright in their works
    34. 34. Graduate students & dissertation
    35. 35. Graduate students and joint authorship</li></li></ul><li>Federal Grants - Copyright<br />NIH - publications<br />between researcher / institution<br />NIH – requires submission to Pub-Med Central<br />NSF – patents/inventions<br />Grantee gets patent (if desired)<br />NSF gets license<br />Grantee shares royalties w/ inventor<br /><br /><br />
    36. 36. Copyright - Lawsuits<br />“Kinko’s case” Basic Books, Inc. v. Kinko's Graphics Corporation, 758 F. Supp. 1522 (SDNY 1991)<br />Kinko’s had copied materials representing 5 – 24% of works<br />Did not prohibit coursepacks<br />Did prohibit unlawful reproduction and sale of coursepacks – without copyright permissions<br />
    37. 37. Copyright - Lawsuits<br />“Georgia State University case” – several publishers (2008)<br />GSU “pervasive, flagrant and ongoing” distribution of copyrighted materials in digital form<br />Electronic reserves, Blackboard/WebCT, online syllabi, servers<br />Seeking injunction to stop, but no money<br />
    38. 38. Copyright – Lawsuits almost<br />AAP (American Association of Publishers) – Cornell, Hofstra, Syracuse, Marquette Universities<br />Concern with manner of providing copyrighted materials in digital format (e-reserves, faculty webpages, CMS) <br />Resolved with jointly-drafted guidelines<br />Cornell’s Guidelines<br />
    39. 39. Current Cases<br />AIME v. UCLA (2010)<br />Threat to sue over posting entire videos online<br />“Turnitin case” (2008)<br />Use by faculty is fair use – “transformativeness”<br />Google Books (2005)<br />Class action on behalf of authors<br />Publishers and AAUP<br />Online reading only<br />
    40. 40. Copyright<br />Test your knowledge! <br />6-10 on the worksheet<br />
    41. 41. Fair Use<br />User Rights, Section 107 Music Video<br />Media Education Lab<br /><br />
    42. 42. Fair Use – Four Factors<br />Purpose<br />Nature<br />Amount<br />Effect<br />Why are you using this work?<br />What is the nature of the work?<br />How much are you using?<br />What is the effect on the market?<br />
    43. 43. Fair Use - Purpose<br />Seek Permission<br />Commercial<br />Education<br />Non-profit<br />Personal<br />Criticism<br />Commentary<br />News reporting<br />Parody / satire<br />CopyrightInfringement<br />Fair Use<br />
    44. 44. Fair Use - Nature<br />Seek Permission<br />Creative<br />Unpublished<br />Consumable<br />Factual<br />Published<br />Mix of fact <br />and imaginative<br />CopyrightInfringement<br />Fair Use<br />
    45. 45. Fair Use - Amount<br />Seek Permission<br />Significant<br />Entire work<br />Small amount<br />Non-essential<br />CopyrightInfringement<br />Fair Use<br />
    46. 46. Fair Use - Effect<br />Seek Permission<br />Harms the sale<br />Are reasonably priced<br />No effect on market<br />CopyrightInfringement<br />Fair Use<br />
    47. 47. Copyright – Fair Use<br />Mediated instructional activities:<br />Integral part of class<br />Under supervision/control of instructor<br />In a manner analagous to performance/display in live, F2F classroom<br />
    48. 48. Classroom Copying - Guidelines<br />Multiple copies allowed (no more than one per student) provided that copying:<br />Meets test of brevity and spontaneity<br />Meets test of cumulative effect<br />Contains copyright notice<br />Limits on amount copiable<br />Time requirements<br />Limits on instances of copying<br />
    49. 49. Copyright – Printed Materials<br />Reproducing printed materials for use inclass:<br />A book chapter <br />An article from periodical or newspaper<br />A short story, short essay, short poem<br />A graph, diagram, chart, cartoon, drawing, picture from a book, newspaper, periodical<br />Mediated instructional activities:<br /><ul><li> Integral part of class
    50. 50. Under supervision/control of instructor
    51. 51. In a manner analagous to performance/ display in live, F2F classroom</li></ul>Next 14 slides drawn from: Stanford University Copyright and Fair Use Overview<br />
    52. 52. BUT<br />Copyright notice must be attached (each item)<br />Copying must NOT replace textbook, workbook<br />Must not charge more than actual cost of copying<br />Must not exceed one copy per student<br />Cannot copy texts, workbooks, standardized tests, etc created for educational use (consumables)<br />1<br />
    53. 53. AND (Brevity test)<br />Restrictions:<br />Complete poem IF < 250 words<br />Excerpt of no more than 250 (if longer poem)<br />Complete article, essay, story IF < 2500 words<br />Excerpt from prose of no more than 1000 words or 10% of entire work, whichever is less<br />One (1) graph, diagram, chart, cartoon, drawing, picture per book, newspaper, periodical<br />
    54. 54. AND (Spontaneity test)<br />Idea for copying derives from teacher, not administration<br />Idea and copying must occur close in time – so close that no time for permission request and granting<br />
    55. 55. Per class term restrictions – all of above, plus<br />Per author<br />One story, short poem, article, essay<br />Two excepts<br />Per collective work, periodical volume<br />No more than three stories, short poems, articles, essays (or combination)<br />Only nine instances per course<br />AND (Cumulative Effect test)<br />9<br />
    56. 56. Copyright<br />Test your knowledge! <br />11-15 on the worksheet<br />
    57. 57. Copyright – Music<br />Reproducing musicfor use inclass:<br />Excerpts of sheet music, printed works IF<br />Do NOT make a “performable unit” (entire song, section, movement, aria)<br />Do NOT exceed 10% of entire work<br />Do NOT exceed one copy per student<br />Purchased copies can be edited IF fundamental character of work NOT distorted or lyrics altered<br />Image from<br />
    58. 58. AND<br />Recording of a performance<br />Single (1) recording for purposes of evaluation or rehearsal<br />Institution or teacher can retain a (1) copy<br />Sound recording owned by institution or teacher (tape, CD, cassette) <br />Single copy IF for aural exercises, exams<br />Institution or teacher can retain a (1) copy<br />Must include copyright notice<br />♫♫<br />
    59. 59. BUT<br />Instructor CANNOT copy:<br />Sheet music, recordings to make compilation<br />Sheet music, recordings for performances<br />From “consumables” (texts, workbooks, etc.)<br />
    60. 60. Copyright - Television<br />Recording network shows:<br />Keep copy for 45 days BUT use for instruction only first 10 days<br />Played once by individual teacher for instruction<br />After 10 days, use only for teacher evaluation (should we use it in curriculum? Yes – MUST obtain permission)<br />After 45 days, recording MUST be erased<br />
    61. 61. AND<br />Recorded only at request of instructor<br />Used only by instructor<br />No standing requests; no anticipated requests<br />Copies only for individual instructor<br />NO compilation<br />Must include copyright notice<br />
    62. 62. Copyright – Digital Images <br />Can digitize an analog image IF digital image not available at fair price<br />Can display for lectures, scholarly presentations<br />Institution can compile digitized images on secure network for students enrolled in class for review or directed study.<br />Must include statement prohibiting: downloading, copying, retention, printing, sharing, modification<br />
    63. 63. Copyright – Digital <br />CANNOT reproduce or publish images in publications (incl. scholarly publications)<br />
    64. 64. Copyright – Multimedia<br />Students, instructors preparing MM works:<br />MM = combination of music, text, graphics, illustrations, photographs, images, video<br />For F2F instruction, directed self-study, remote instruction<br />Only systematic learning activities at no-profit educational institutions<br />Can use MM presentation up to 2 yrs after 1st use<br />♪<br />
    65. 65. Copyright – Multimedia<br />Portion restrictions:<br />10% or 1000 words (whichever is less)<br />No more than 3 poems by single author<br />No more than 5 poems by different poets in an anthology<br />Up to 10% or 3 minutes of motion media<br />One (1) photo/illustration by single artist<br />No more than 10% or 15 images (whichever is less) from collective work<br />
    66. 66. Copyright – Multimedia<br />Portion restrictions:<br />10% or 2,500 cell entries from database or data table<br />Other restrictions:<br />Only 2 copies of MM project, one of which can be on reserve<br />Additional 1 copy for preservation (used only to replace stolen, lost, damaged original)<br />
    67. 67. Copyright – Multimedia<br />Remixes, mashups, tributes, etc.?<br />Fair Use and Online Video (Center for Social Media)<br /><br />Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Online Video <br />Fair Use Frequently Asked Questions<br />The Good, The Bad and the Confusing: User-Generated Video Creators on Copyright<br />
    68. 68. Copyright – Video <br />Digitizing VHS tapes - Library exemption<br />Lost, damaged, deteriorating, obsolete format IF<br />Unable to get unused copy<br />Unable to buy @ reasonable cost<br />Reasonable search conducted<br />
    69. 69. Copyright – Video <br />Digitizing VHS tapes - Library exemption<br />Lost, damaged, deteriorating, obsolete format <br />3 digital copies<br />Copies cannot leave library<br />Note: VHS is not obsolete<br />
    70. 70. Test Yourself<br />See handout.<br />Work in pairs to determine if the scenarios constitute copyright infringement.<br />
    71. 71. Copyright<br />Test your knowledge! <br />16-20 on the worksheet<br />
    72. 72. Creative Commons<br />Four Licenses<br />Attribution<br />Share Alike<br />Non-commercial<br />No Derivative Works<br /><br />
    73. 73. Your Turn<br />In small groups, create at least 2 scenarios that you can use with your students to teach them about copyright and fair use.<br />
    74. 74. Copyright Resources<br />TEACH Act Toolkit(North Carolina State University)<br />UT System Crash Course in Copyright<br />UT System Intellectual Property Policy<br />AAP (Association of American Publishers) Copyright - Rights and Permissions<br />Reproduction of Copyrighted Works by Educators and Librarians<br />
    75. 75. Copyright!<br /> arghhhh!!! <br />Source:<br />
    76. 76. Plagiarism<br />
    77. 77. Source:<br />
    78. 78. Let’s Talk …<br />What is academic integrity?<br />How you would react to an instance of academic dishonesty?<br />
    79. 79. One Definition<br />Academic integrity is a commitment, even in the face of adversity, to five fundamental values: honesty, trust, fairness, respect, and responsibility. From these values flow principles of behavior that enable academic communities to translate ideals to action. <br />Center for Academic Integrity<br />
    80. 80. Some quotes<br />Integrity is telling myself the truth. And honesty is telling the truth to other people.<br />-- Spencer Johnson<br />Those who think it is permissible to tell white lies soon grow color--blind.<br />-- Austin O'Malley<br />Integrity -- When you do the right thing even though no one is watching.<br />-- Anon<br />
    81. 81. What is Considered Academic Dishonesty?<br />Brainstorm as may specific examples or types of academic dishonesty as you can.<br />5 minutes!<br /><br />
    82. 82. What is Considered Academic Dishonesty?<br />Cheating<br />Fabrication<br />Plagiarism<br />Facilitating academic dishonesty<br />Misrepresentation<br />Failure to contribute to a collaborative project<br />Sabotage<br /><br />
    83. 83. What Does Academic Dishonesty Look Like?<br />UTD – Examples <br /><br /><br />
    84. 84. UTD Definition<br />Plagiarism – deliberate adoption or reproduction of ideas or words or statements of another person as one’s own without acknowledgement<br />(examples: turning in a paper written by another person or buying a paper from a commercial source and failing to properly attribute quotations within a paper)<br /><br />
    85. 85. Approaches to Plagiarism<br />Morality issue<br />Crime<br />Skills<br />Honor codes<br />peer pressure<br />Penalties<br />inconsistency in application<br />disregard<br />Education<br />set/model expectations<br />Blum, S. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism: a Question of Education, not Ethics.<br /><br />
    86. 86. Source:<br />
    87. 87. New Students<br />“…[w]e have the world at our fingertips – and the world has been at our fingertips for our entire lives….[T]his access to information seriously undermines [your] generation’s view of authority, especially traditional scholastic authority.”<br />Wake Up and Smell the New Epistemology, Tim Clydesdale, Chronicle of Higher Education <br />
    88. 88. New Students<br />knowledge-able<br />prosumers<br />producers<br />consumers<br />From Knowledgeable to Knowledge-able: Experiments in New Media Literacy<br />Michael Wesch, Kansas State University<br />
    89. 89. New Students<br />Remix Generation<br />Net Generation<br />Generation Y<br />Sampling<br />YouTube<br />Google Docs<br />Wikis<br />
    90. 90. The Numbers<br />2008 Report Card on the Ethics of American Youth – Josephson Institute<br />64% HS students cheated on exams<br />35% HS students plagiarized<br />2006 survey of academic honesty in graduate business schools The Chronicle: Daily news: 09/19/2006<br />56% business students cheated<br />47% non-business students cheated<br />McCabe 2005 <br />40% students plagiarized (cut ‘n paste)<br />77% didn’t believe plagiarism was serious offenses<br />
    91. 91. Why do students cheat?<br />"The real world is terrible…People will take other people's materials and pass it on as theirs. I'm numb to it already. I'll cheat to get by." <br />"A lot of people think it's like you're not really there to learn anything. You're just learning to learn the system." <br />A Cheating Crisis in America’s Schools<br /><br />
    92. 92. Source:<br />
    93. 93. Why do students cheat?<br />"There's other people getting better grades than me and they're cheating. Why am I not going to cheat? It's kind of almost stupid if you don’t…”<br />"Everything is about the grade that you got in the class. Nobody looks at how you got it.”<br />"You don't want to be a dork and study for eight hours a day. You want to go out and have fun." <br />A Cheating Crisis in America’s Schools<br /><br />
    94. 94. Why do students commit academic plagiarism?<br />Intentionally:<br />Unintentionally:<br />Cultural understanding:<br /><ul><li> Searching v. Researching
    95. 95. “But their words are better”
    96. 96. Making the grade
    97. 97. “But everyone else is doing it”
    98. 98. Poor planning
    99. 99. Citation confusion
    100. 100. “I was just copying my notes”
    101. 101. “I couldn’t find the source”
    102. 102. I thought we didn’t have to quote facts”
    103. 103. Confusion about expectations</li></ul><br />
    104. 104. Plagiarism as Crime<br />Intention doesn’t matter<br />Academic consequences<br />Legal consequences<br />Economic consequences<br />
    105. 105. Consequences<br />Can affect your grade<br />“Cheats” you of important skills<br />Destroys equal playing field<br />Affects reputation of school and institution<br />
    106. 106. Source:<br />
    107. 107. Penalties<br />UT-Pan American president accused, resigned<br />, January 29, 2009<br />Ohio University profs removed for failing to monitor students in plagiarism scandal<br />, January 9, 2009<br />Aide to Canadian PM, White House aide admits plagiarizing speech, resigns <br />CNN Wed, October 1, 2008<br />White House aide admits plagiarism, resigns<br />CNN Fri, February 29, 2008<br />
    108. 108. Criminal attitudes<br />Faculty distrust students<br />Students are lazy<br />Students are deceitful<br />Guilty!! <br />before proven innocent!<br />
    109. 109. Source:<br />
    110. 110. Plagiarism Prevention as a Skill<br />Our Response - Helping Students Learn<br />Understand why students commit academic dishonesty<br />Discussion and education<br />Design assessments to reduce opportunity<br />Use tools for education<br />
    111. 111. Discuss and Educate<br />Discuss what "plagiarism" means<br />Discuss why plagiarism is wrong <br />Make the consequences clear<br />Start off with clear expectations<br />Assign specific questions or topics<br />Require students to submit thesis statements, introductions, outlines, or drafts<br /><br />
    112. 112. Educate Students<br />You Quote It! You Note It! – Acadia University<br />Plagiarism Tutorial – University of South Florida<br /><br />Plagiarism Court – You Be the Judge<br /><br /> – see especially the section on Humor<br /><br />
    113. 113. Identifying Plagiarism<br />Types of plagiarism – sources not cited<br />The Ghost Writer<br />The Photocopy<br />The Potluck Paper<br />The Poor Disguise<br />The Labor of Laziness<br />The Self Stealer<br /><br />
    114. 114. Identifying Plagiarism<br />Types of plagiarism –cited but plagiarized<br />The Forgotten Footnote<br />The Misinformer<br />The Too Perfect Paraphrase<br />The Resourceful Citer<br />The Perfect Crime<br /><br />
    115. 115. Assessment/Activity Design <br />Source:<br />
    116. 116. Assessment/Activity Design <br />Use low stakes assessments (quizzes in place of or in addition to exams)<br />Use iterative process (do drafts of papers, etc.)<br />Use active learning assessments (problem-based learning; group activities)<br />Use inventive assessment (not just what can be found in a book – apply this concept to a movie, eg.)<br />
    117. 117. Designing Assignments<br />Assign specific questions or topics<br />Submit thesis statements, introductions, outlines, or drafts<br />Annotate bibliography<br />Assign oral presentations<br />Require recent and printed sources<br />Reflect on the composition process<br />Encourage concision <br />
    118. 118. Electronic Tools<br /> (UTD license)<br />WriteCheck (Turnitin for Students)<br /> (for students -free)<br />List of plagiarism detection services (incl. for software plagiarism)<br />Instruction not punishment<br />
    119. 119. Your Turn<br />Create at least 2 scenarios that you can use with your students to teach them about cheating and plagiarism.<br />
    120. 120. Consider….<br />Would you get on a plane if the pilot could work only half the controls?<br />Would you buy a computer if it only had ¼ of the keys?<br />Would you buy a textbook if it ended half-way through – in the middle of a sentence?<br />
    121. 121. Resources<br />UTD - Academic Dishonesty<br />Plagiarism.org<br />Plagiarism Tutorial (cool) <br />