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© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
Seven ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 2
Learning Objectives
• To understand the seven basic tools for ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 3
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Stratification
3. Check Sheet
4. C...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
Introduction to the Seven
Basic Tools of Quality
1
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 5
Introduction
• One of the many methods to improve quality and
...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 6
Introduction
• Galileo was able to see
the planet Saturn’s rin...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
“As much as 95% of
quality related
problems in the
factory can b...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 8
The PDCA Approach to Problem Solving
• Also known as the
Demin...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 9
The 8 Steps of PDCA Problem Solving
Select the Theme
Plan the ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 10
The Seven Basic Tools of Quality
1. Stratification
2. Check S...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 11
Where Are the Tools Used?
Phase Problem Solving Steps Applica...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
Check Sheet
3
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 13
Check Sheet (a.k.a. Tally Sheet)
• Purpose
 To manually coll...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 14
Check Sheet – Example
Defective
Item
Mon
9/3
Tue
10/3
Wed
11/...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 15
Check Sheet
• Procedure
1. Decide what event or problem will ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
Pareto Chart
5
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 17
Pareto Chart
• Purpose
 To show relative importance of a set...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 18
Pareto Chart Example
Wrong
Toppings
Pizza
Cold
Pizza
Late
Wro...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 19
Pareto Chart
• Procedure
1. Set the method and time period fo...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 20
Pareto Chart
• Procedure (con’t)
4. In the order of the most ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 21
Pareto Chart – Key points to note
• Get as much information a...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
Cause & Effect Diagram
6
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
“When we fail to grasp
the systemic source of
problems, we are l...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 24
Cause & Effect Diagram
(a.k.a. Ishikawa Diagram, Fish-bone Di...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 25
Cause & Effect Diagram (Manufacturing)
EffectCauses
cause
Mac...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 26
HIGH
SCRAP OF
BARCODE
LABELS
MAN MACHINE
MATERIAL METHOD
Hand...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 27
Cause & Effect Diagram
• Procedure
1. Develop and agree on a ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 28
Cause & Effect Diagram Considerations
• Differentiate between...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
About
Operational Excellence
Consulting
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 30
About Operational Excellence
Consulting
• Operational Excelle...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
END OF PREVIEW
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The Seven Basic Tools of Quality by Operational Excellence Consulting

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The seven basic tools of quality or seven QC tools as they are commonly called, are tools which arrange problem areas, put data into diagrams, surface problem areas and clearly bring up any hidden truth. These tools are not for experts alone but for the use of everyone in their daily work.  A problem solving team's successes are dependent on the familiarity and ease with which these tools are used. 

In this training presentation, you will be able to teach employees how to use the tools in their daily work or as part of the  structured Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) approach to problem solving.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. To understand the seven basic tools for quality and process improvement
2. To learn how to apply the seven basic tools of quality to problem solving or daily work

CONTENTS

Introduction
Stratification
Check Sheet
Control Chart
Pareto Chart
Cause & Effect Diagram
Histogram
Scatter Diagram

To download this complete presentation, visit: http://www.oeconsulting.com.sg

Published in: Business

The Seven Basic Tools of Quality by Operational Excellence Consulting

  1. 1. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Seven BASIC Tools of Quality
  2. 2. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 2 Learning Objectives • To understand the seven basic tools for quality and process improvement • To learn how to apply the seven basic tools of quality to problem solving or daily work
  3. 3. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 3 Contents 1. Introduction 2. Stratification 3. Check Sheet 4. Control Chart 5. Pareto Chart 6. Cause & Effect Diagram 7. Histogram 8. Scatter Diagram NOTE: This is a PARTIAL PREVIEW. To download the complete presentation, please visit: http://www.oeconsulting.com.sg
  4. 4. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Seven Basic Tools of Quality 1
  5. 5. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 5 Introduction • One of the many methods to improve quality and processes was introduced by Kaoru Ishikawa • It was called the “Seven Tools of Quality” or “Seven QC Tools” • The tools are designed to be simple so that an average person can apply them in any process or industry • The tools are extensively used in Lean, Six Sigma and continuous improvement processes using the PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle
  6. 6. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 6 Introduction • Galileo was able to see the planet Saturn’s ring when he had a telescope in his hands • Likewise QC circles became a success in Japan when the seven tools were placed in everyone’s hands
  7. 7. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. “As much as 95% of quality related problems in the factory can be solved with seven fundamental quantitative tools.” Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa
  8. 8. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 8 The PDCA Approach to Problem Solving • Also known as the Deming Cycle • PDCA is a systematic approach to problem solving • It provides the framework for a team to carry out improvement • It is used together with the basic quality tools Plan DoCheck Act
  9. 9. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 9 The 8 Steps of PDCA Problem Solving Select the Theme Plan the Schedule Grasp the Present Situation Establish the Target Analyze the Cause & Identify Corrective Action Implement Corrective Action Evaluate the Result Standardize & Follow-up PLAN ACT CHECK DO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  10. 10. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 10 The Seven Basic Tools of Quality 1. Stratification 2. Check Sheet 3. Control Chart 4. Pareto Chart 5. Cause & Effect Diagram 6. Histogram 7. Scatter Diagram
  11. 11. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 11 Where Are the Tools Used? Phase Problem Solving Steps Applicable Tools Plan 1. Select the Theme Brainstorming / Matrix Diagram / Selection Criteria / Team Consensus 2. Plan the Schedule Gantt Chart 3. Grasp the Present Situation Data Collection / Flowcharting / Pie Chart / Check Sheet / Pareto Diagram / Bar Chart / Histogram 4. Set the Target Pareto Analysis / Conduct Experiments / Check Past Trends 5. Analyze the Cause & Identify Corrective Action Brainstorming / Cause & Effect Diagram / 5 Whys / Tree Diagram / Control Chart / Scatter Diagram / Alternative Solutions Do 6. Implement Corrective Action Arrow Diagram / Process Flowchart / Pictures / Diagrams Check 7. Evaluate the Result Collect New Data / Check Sheet / Pareto Comparison / Bar Chart Comparison / Radar Chart / Target Variance Act 8. Standardize & Follow Up In the standardization plan, document the new procedures. Display in notice board or website or conduct briefings. Show the follow-up actions to be taken.
  12. 12. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Check Sheet 3
  13. 13. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 13 Check Sheet (a.k.a. Tally Sheet) • Purpose  To manually collect data in real time easily and concisely.  These data are then used as input data for other tools such as histograms and Pareto charts. • When to use  For manual recording of data.  To ensure that data is recorded accurately and is easy to use later.  When recording involves counting, classifying, checking or locating.  To check each measurement as it is recorded.
  14. 14. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 14 Check Sheet – Example Defective Item Mon 9/3 Tue 10/3 Wed 11/3 Thu 12/3 Fri 13/3 Total Mold Cracked 5 3 6 3 4 21 Fibers 2 0 5 1 0 8 Grit 4 2 3 5 0 14 Pinholes 1 5 0 2 1 9 Cracks 0 1 1 0 0 2 Other 1 3 0 0 3 7 Total 13 14 15 11 8 61
  15. 15. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 15 Check Sheet • Procedure 1. Decide what event or problem will be observed. Develop operational definitions. 2. Decide when data will be collected and for how long. 3. Design the form. Set it up so that data can be recorded simply by making check marks or X’s or similar symbols and so that data do not have to be recopied for analysis. 4. Label all spaces on the form. 5. Test the check sheet for a short trial period to be sure it collects the appropriate data and is easy to use. 6. Each time the targeted event or problem occurs, record data on the check sheet.
  16. 16. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Pareto Chart 5
  17. 17. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 17 Pareto Chart • Purpose  To show relative importance of a set of measurements.  Also called the “80/20” rule. • When to use  To identify and prioritize problems to be solved.  To differentiate the ‘vital few’ from the ‘trivial many’.  After improving a process, to show relative change in a measured item.  Sorting a set of measurements to emphasize their relative sizes.
  18. 18. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 18 Pareto Chart Example Wrong Toppings Pizza Cold Pizza Late Wrong Crust Tastes Bad Forgot Breadstic ks Driver Had No Change Smashed in Box Wrong Price Driver Rude All other Quantity 29 25 22 13 10 7 4 3 2 1 2 Cum % 25% 46% 64% 75% 84% 90% 93% 96% 97% 98% 100% % of Total 25% 21% 19% 11% 8% 6% 3% 3% 2% 1% 2% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% - 5 10 15 20 25 30 CumulativePercent Occurences Pizza Defects Pareto Chart January-02Time Period:
  19. 19. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 19 Pareto Chart • Procedure 1. Set the method and time period for the data collection. Collect the data and classify them according to problems, causes or subject matter.  Where possible, classify the data according to the ease in taking the necessary action.  Establish a convenient time period for data collecting, such as a week or month, for data collection. 2. Arrange the data of the items in the order of the most data, and enter each item’s data respectively. At the same time, add up the cumulative figure. 3. On the graph, draw the vertical axis (y) and horizontal axis (x). Put the scale unit on the vertical axis.
  20. 20. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 20 Pareto Chart • Procedure (con’t) 4. In the order of the most data, from the left, draw in the bar graphs. Keep all the bars in the same width. (Note: You may use Excel to generate the bar graphs.) 5. Using the cumulative figure, draw the cumulative curve.  From the bar graph column’s right corner, extend the line to the end, joining with a broken line graph. 6. Draw a line from the end of the bar graph to the vertical axis. Where it intersects the cumulative curve, it is taken as 100%. Put in the scales for the cumulative percentage. 7. Lastly, write in the title for the Pareto Chart, the period the data was collected, the total number of data, the authors, etc.
  21. 21. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 21 Pareto Chart – Key points to note • Get as much information as possible from Pareto chart. Collect various viewpoints and classification. • Draw a Pareto chart based on cause, not symptoms. • If possible, use the vertical axis to represent monetary units. • Do not have too many or too few items on the horizontal axis. Recommended items = 6 to 10. • Shade the items (e.g. oblique lines) that are taken up. • Write the legend for the Pareto chart clearly. • Item under “others” should not be too many.
  22. 22. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Cause & Effect Diagram 6
  23. 23. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. “When we fail to grasp the systemic source of problems, we are left to ‘push on’ symptoms rather than eliminate underlying causes.” Peter Senge
  24. 24. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 24 Cause & Effect Diagram (a.k.a. Ishikawa Diagram, Fish-bone Diagram) • Purpose  To identify and structure the causes of a given effect.  It can be used to structure a brainstorming session. It immediately sorts ideas into useful categories. • When to use  When investigating a problem, to identify and select key problem causes to address.  When effect of a problem is known, but possible causes are unclear.  To find other causal relationships, such as potential risks or causes of desired effects.
  25. 25. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 25 Cause & Effect Diagram (Manufacturing) EffectCauses cause Machines Measurements Materials Methods Mother Nature Manpower (Environment) Problem Statement
  26. 26. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 26 HIGH SCRAP OF BARCODE LABELS MAN MACHINE MATERIAL METHOD Handling Wrinkled Torn Improper training Machine Breakdown Ineffective adhesive Illegible Smear Printwheel Dirty Worn Ribbon Design of label Damage Poor printing Improper storage Wrong orientation Process changes Improper storage Size of label Process changes Example 1: Cause and effect diagram used in solving the problem of “High Scrap of Barcode Labels”
  27. 27. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 27 Cause & Effect Diagram • Procedure 1. Develop and agree on a problem statement (effect). 2. Brainstorm a list of possible causes; remove symptoms and solutions related to the stated effect. 3. Identify major categories of causes (e.g. Man, Machines, Material, Method, Measurement, Environment). 4. Place each cause in a category (same cause can occur in several category). 5. Ask “Why does this happen?” for each cause. 6. Design data collection strategy to verify and prioritize main causes.
  28. 28. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 28 Cause & Effect Diagram Considerations • Differentiate between symptom, cause and solution; only cause should be used to develop diagram. • Think in negative terms when brainstorming. • Best used with team that has expertise to represent entire problem.
  29. 29. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. About Operational Excellence Consulting
  30. 30. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 30 About Operational Excellence Consulting • Operational Excellence Consulting is a management training and consulting firm that assists organizations in improving business performance and effectiveness. • The firm’s mission is to create business value for organizations through innovative operational excellence management training and consulting solutions. • OEC takes a unique “beyond the tools” approach to enable clients develop internal capabilities and cultural transformation to achieve sustainable world-class excellence and competitive advantage. For more information, please visit www.oeconsulting.com.sg
  31. 31. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. END OF PREVIEW To download this presentation, please visit: www.oeconsulting.com.sg

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