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© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
This presentation is a compilation of PowerPoint descriptions an...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 2
Contents
• Introduction to Motivation
Theories
• Content Theor...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 3
Basic concepts of motivation
• Motivation refers to forces wit...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 4
Why is motivation important?
• Motivational strategies can hel...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 5
Major theories of motivation
Content Theories Process Theories...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 6
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
• Developed by Abraham Masl...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 7
Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs
Self-actualization needs
Est...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 8
Opportunities for satisfaction in Maslow’s hierarchy of
human ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 9
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
• Developed by Clayton Alderfer
• Three ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 10
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Growth
Needs
Relatedness Needs
Existenc...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 11
Herzberg’s two-factor theory
• Developed by Frederick Herzber...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 12
Herzberg’s two-factor theory
Improving the
motivator factors
...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 13
McClelland’s acquired needs theory
• Developed by David McCle...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 14
Work preferences of persons high in need for Achievement,
Aff...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 15
Comparison of Maslow’s, Alderfer’s, Herzberg’s and
McClelland...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 16
Process theories and individual motivation
• Process theories...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 17
Equity theory
• Developed by J. Stacy Adams
• When people bel...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 18
Equity theory and the role of social comparison
Personal rewa...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 19
Expectancy theory
• Developed by Victor Vroom
• Key expectanc...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 20
Expectancy theory
Person
exerts work
effort
to achieve work-r...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 21
Managerial implications of expectancy theory
 Select workers...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 22
Goal-setting theory
• Developed by Edwin Locke
• Properly set...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 23
Fundamentals of reinforcement theory
• Reinforcement theory f...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 24
Reinforcement theory
• Operant conditioning strategies:
 Pos...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 25
Applying reinforcement strategies: case of total quality
mana...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 26
Challenges of motivation in the new workplace
• Pay for perfo...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 27
Job design for motivation
• Job design
 Application of motiv...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 28
Other Presentations You May Like…
Check out our presentations...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 29
About Operational Excellence
Consulting
• Operational Excelle...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
To download this presentation,
please visit us at:
www.oeconsult...
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Motivation Theories by Operational Excellence Consulting

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This presentation is a compilation of PowerPoint descriptions and diagrams used to convey eight of the most popular motivation theories and models.

Contents include the following:

1. Introduction to Motivation Theories
2. Content Theories of Motivation
- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
- Alderfer's ERG Theory
- Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
- McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory
3. Process Theories of Motivation
- Adams' Equity Theory
- Vroom's Expectancy Theory
- Locke's Goal-Setting Theory
4. Reinforcement Theory of Motivation
- Skinner's Reinforcement Theory
5. Challenges of Motivation in the New Workplace

To download this complete presentation, please visit: http://www.oeconsulting.com.sg

Published in: Business

Motivation Theories by Operational Excellence Consulting

  1. 1. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. This presentation is a compilation of PowerPoint descriptions and diagrams used to convey 8 of the most popular motivation theories and models. Motivation Theories Descriptions and Diagrams of Motivation Theories & Models
  2. 2. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 2 Contents • Introduction to Motivation Theories • Content Theories  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Alderfer’s ERG Theory  Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory  McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory • Process Theories  Adams’ Equity Theory  Vroom’s Expectancy Theory  Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory • Reinforcement Theory  Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory • Challenges of Motivation in the New Workplace NOTE: This is a PARTIAL PREVIEW. To download the complete presentation, please visit: http://www.oeconsulting.com.sg
  3. 3. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 3 Basic concepts of motivation • Motivation refers to forces within an individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work.  Direction — an individual’s choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives.  Level — the amount of effort a person puts forth.  Persistence — the length of time a person stays with a given action.
  4. 4. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 4 Why is motivation important? • Motivational strategies can help improve employee performance, reduce the chances of low employee morale, encourage teamwork and instill a positive attitude during challenging times. • Employees with a high level of motivation typically work harder and smarter and can overcome common workplace challenges with ease; this helps the organization reach its objectives and improve operations overall.
  5. 5. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 5 Major theories of motivation Content Theories Process Theories Reinforcement Theory  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Alderfer’s ERG Theory  Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory  McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory  Vroom’s Expectancy Theory  Adams’ Equity Theory  Locke’s Goal Setting Theory  Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory
  6. 6. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 6 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory • Developed by Abraham Maslow • Lower-order and higher-order needs affect workplace behavior and attitudes • Lower-order needs:  Physiological, safety, and social needs  Desires for physical and social well being • Higher-order needs:  Esteem and self-actualization needs  Desire for psychological growth and development
  7. 7. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 7 Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs Self-actualization needs Esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological Needs
  8. 8. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 8 Opportunities for satisfaction in Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs Self-actualization needs What satisfies higher order needs? Esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological needs What satisfies lower order needs?  Creative and challenging work  Participation in decision making  Job flexibility and autonomy  Responsibility of an important job  Promotion to higher status job  Praise and recognition from boss  Friendly coworkers  Interaction with customers  Pleasant supervisor  Safe working conditions  Job security  Base compensation and benefits  Rest and refreshment breaks  Physical comfort on the job  Reasonable work hours
  9. 9. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 9 Alderfer’s ERG Theory • Developed by Clayton Alderfer • Three need levels:  Existence needs — desires for physiological and material well- being.  Relatedness needs — desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships.  Growth needs — desires for continued psychological growth and development.
  10. 10. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 10 Alderfer’s ERG Theory Growth Needs Relatedness Needs Existence Needs NeedProgression NeedRegression
  11. 11. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 11 Herzberg’s two-factor theory • Developed by Frederick Herzberg. • Herzberg’s research led to the conclusion that employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction stem from different sources.  Dissatisfaction results from the absence of hygiene factors  In contrast, satisfaction results from the presence of motivating factors
  12. 12. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 12 Herzberg’s two-factor theory Improving the motivator factors increases job satisfaction Improving the hygiene factors decreases job dissatisfaction Herzberg’s Two-Factor Principles Job Dissatisfaction Job Satisfaction Influenced by Hygiene Factors _________________  Working conditions  Coworker relations  Policies and rules  Supervisor quality  Base wage, salary Influenced by Motivator Factors _________________  Achievement  Recognition  Responsibility  Work itself  Advancement  Personal growth
  13. 13. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 13 McClelland’s acquired needs theory • Developed by David McClelland • People acquire needs through their life experiences • Needs that are acquired:  Need for Achievement (nAch)  Need for Power (nPower)  Need for Affiliation (nAff)
  14. 14. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 14 Work preferences of persons high in need for Achievement, Affiliation and Power Individual Need Work Preferences Job Example High need for Achievement  Individual responsibility  Challenging but achievable goals  Feedback on performance  Field sales person with challenging quota and opportunity to earn individual bonus High need for Power  Control over other persons  Attention  Recognition  Formal position of supervisory responsibility  Appointment as head of special task force or committee High need for Affiliation  Interpersonal relationships  Opportunities to communicate  Customer service representative  Member of work unit subject to group wage bonus plan
  15. 15. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 15 Comparison of Maslow’s, Alderfer’s, Herzberg’s and McClelland’s motivation theories Self- actualization Esteem Achievement Power Social Safety Physiological AffiliationRelatedness Existence Growth Satisfier factors Hygiene factors Maslow Alderfer Herzberg McClelland Higher order needs Lower order needs
  16. 16. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 16 Process theories and individual motivation • Process theories  Focus on the thought processes through which people choose among alternative courses of action.  Individual preferences.  Available rewards.  Possible work outcomes. • Types of process theories  Equity theory.  Expectancy theory.  Goal-setting theory.
  17. 17. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 17 Equity theory • Developed by J. Stacy Adams • When people believe that they have been treated unfairly in comparison to others, they try to eliminate the discomfort and restore a perceived sense of equity to the situation  Perceived inequity  Perceived equity
  18. 18. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 18 Equity theory and the role of social comparison Personal rewards vis-à-vis personal inputs Others’ rewards vis-à-vis others’ inputs are compared to with the result Perceived Equity _________________________ The individual is satisfied and does not change behavior Perceived Inequity _________________________ The individual is discomfort and acts to eliminate the inequity
  19. 19. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 19 Expectancy theory • Developed by Victor Vroom • Key expectancy theory variables:  Expectancy — belief that working hard will result in desired level of performance.  Instrumentality — belief that successful performance will be followed by rewards.  Valence — value a person assigns to rewards and other work related outcomes.
  20. 20. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 20 Expectancy theory Person exerts work effort to achieve work-related outcomes task performance and realize Expectancy __________________ “Can I achieve the desired level of task performance?” Valence __________________ “How highly do I value work outcomes?” Instrumentality __________________ “What work outcomes will be received as a result of the performance?”
  21. 21. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 21 Managerial implications of expectancy theory  Select workers with ability  Train workers to use ability  Support work efforts  Clarify performance goals  Clarify physiological contracts  Communicate performance – outcome possibilities  Demonstrate what rewards are contingent on performance  Identify individual needs  Adjust rewards to match these needs Make the person feel competent and capable of achieving the desired performance level Make the person confident in understanding which rewards and outcomes will follow performance accomplishments Make the person understand the value of various possible rewards and work outcomes To maximize Expectancy To maximize Instrumentality To maximize Valence
  22. 22. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 22 Goal-setting theory • Developed by Edwin Locke • Properly set and well-managed task goals can be highly motivating • Motivational effects of task goals:  Provide direction to people in their work.  Clarify performance expectations.  Establish a frame of reference for feedback.  Provide a foundation for behavioral self-management.
  23. 23. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 23 Fundamentals of reinforcement theory • Reinforcement theory focuses on the impact of external environmental consequences on behavior • Law of effect — impact of type of consequence on future behavior • Operant conditioning:  Developed by B.F. Skinner.  Applies law of effect to control behavior by manipulating its consequences.
  24. 24. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 24 Reinforcement theory • Operant conditioning strategies:  Positive reinforcement − Increases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent presentation of a pleasant consequence.  Negative reinforcement − Increases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent removal of an unpleasant consequence.  Punishment − Decreases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent presentation of an unpleasant consequence.  Extinction − Decreases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent removal of an pleasant consequence.
  25. 25. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 25 Applying reinforcement strategies: case of total quality management High-quality production Manager’s Objective Praise employee; recommend pay increase Stop complaints Withhold praise and rewards Reprimand employee Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Extinction Punishment Type of Reinforcement Reinforcement Strategy Individual Behavior Meets production goals with zero defects Meets production goals but with high percentage defects
  26. 26. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 26 Challenges of motivation in the new workplace • Pay for performance  Paying people for performance is consistent with: − Equity theory. − Expectancy theory. − Reinforcement theory.  Merit pay − Awards a pay increase in proportion to individual performance contributions. − Provides performance contingent reinforcement. − May not succeed due to weakness in performance appraisal system or lack of consistency in application.
  27. 27. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 27 Job design for motivation • Job design  Application of motivational theories to the structure of work for improving productivity and satisfaction. • Job simplification  Job design whose purpose is to improve task efficiency by reducing the number of tasks a single person must do. • Job Rotation  Job design that systematically moves employees from one job to another to provide them with variety and stimulation. • Job Enlargement  Job design that combines a series of tasks into one new, broader job to give employees variety and challenge.
  28. 28. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 28 Other Presentations You May Like… Check out our presentations catalog at http://www.oeconsulting.com.sg/#!training-presentations/c1les
  29. 29. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 29 About Operational Excellence Consulting • Operational Excellence Consulting is a management training and consulting firm that assists organizations in improving business performance and effectiveness. • The firm’s mission is to create business value for organizations through innovative operational excellence management training and consulting solutions. • OEC takes a unique “beyond the tools” approach to enable clients develop internal capabilities and cultural transformation to achieve sustainable world-class excellence and competitive advantage. For more information, please visit www.oeconsulting.com.sg
  30. 30. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. To download this presentation, please visit us at: www.oeconsulting.com.sg END OF PARTIAL PREVIEW

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