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Leadership & Motivation Theories by Operational Excellence Consulting

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This presentation is a compilation of PowerPoint descriptions and diagrams used to convey 30+ different leadership and motivation theories and models.

INCLUDED LEADERSHIP MODELS/PHILOSOPHIES/STYLES:

1. Carlyle & Galton Trait Theory
2. Ralph Stogdill Trait Theory
3. Kouzes & Posner Trait Theory
4. Douglas McGregor's XY Theory
5. Blake-Mouton's Managerial Grid
6. Kurt-Lewin's Three Styles Model
7. Bolman & Deal's Four Frame Model
8. Fiedler's Contingency Model
9. Hersey-Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model
10. Robert House's Path-Goal Theory
11. Tannenbaum & Schmidt's Leadership Behavior Continuum Model
12. John Adair's Action-Centered Leadership Model
13. Kouzes & Posner Five Leadership Practices
14. James Scouller's Three Levels of Leadership Model
15. Servant Leadership
16. Authentic Leadership
17. Ethical Leadership
18. Values-based Leadership
19. French & Raven's Five Bases of Power
20. Bureaucratic Leadership
21. Charismatic Leadership
22. Narcissistic Leadership
23. Transformation Leadership & Transactional Leadership

INCLUDED MOTIVATION THEORIES/MODELS:

1. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
2. Alderfer's ERG Theory
3. Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
4. McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory
5. Adams' Equity Theory
6. Vroom's Expectancy Theory
7. Locke's Goal-Setting Theory
8. Skinner's Reinforcement Theory

To download this complete presentation, please visit: http://www.oeconsulting.com.sg

Published in: Business

Leadership & Motivation Theories by Operational Excellence Consulting

  1. 1. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. This presentation is a compilation of PowerPoint descriptions and diagrams used to convey 30+ different leadership and motivation theories and models. Leadership & Motivation Theories Descriptions and Diagrams of Leadership and Motivation Theories & Models
  2. 2. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. This presentation is a compilation of PowerPoint descriptions and diagrams used to convey 23 different leadership models, philosophies and styles. Leadership Theories Descriptions and Diagrams of Leadership Models, Philosophies and Styles NOTE: This is a PARTIAL PREVIEW. To download the complete presentation, please visit: http://www.oeconsulting.com.sg
  3. 3. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 3 Contents Leadership Models 1. Carlyle & Galton Trait Theory 2. Ralph Stogdill Trait Theory 3. Kouzes & Posner Trait Theory 4. Douglas McGregor’s XY Theory 5. Blake-Mouton’s Managerial Grid 6. Kurt-Lewin’s Three Styles Model 7. Bolman & Deal’s Four Frame Model 8. Fiedler’s Contingency Model 9. Hersey-Blanchard’s Situational Leadership® Model 10. Robert House’s Path-Goal Theory 11. Tannenbaum-Schmidt’s Leadership Behavior Continuum Model 12. John Adair’s Action-Centered Leadership Model 13. Kouzes & Posner Five Leadership Practices 14. James Scouller’s Three Levels of Leadership Model Leadership Philosophies 1. Servant Leadership 2. Authentic Leadership 3. Ethical Leadership 4. Values-based Leadership 5. French & Raven’s Five Bases of Power Leadership Styles 1. Bureaucratic Leadership 2. Charismatic Leadership 3. Narcissistic Leadership 4. Transformation Leadership & Transactional Leadership
  4. 4. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 4 Differences between leadership and management Management Leadership • Concerned with responsibility for things (e.g. budget, IT, advertising, equipment, etc.) • Does not necessarily include responsibility for people • Lots of the managing duties may be delegated through others • Management may be seen as a function or responsibility (a subset) within leadership, but not vice-versa • Involves (leading) a group of people • Definitely always includes responsibility for people • Good leadership always includes responsibility for managing • Leader is responsible for ensuring there is appropriate and effective management for the situation or group concerned
  5. 5. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 5 Leadership framework Leadership Styles Leadership Philosophies Leadership Models • Teach us how to be effective leaders • Contain/Enable processes and measureable standards • Supported by diagrams and graphs • Like a toolbox or a kit of parts • Focus on leadership behaviors • Influenced by leader’s personality • Real-life forms of leadership • Like a tool in the leadership models toolbox • Based on values or moral position • Expressed through ideas and words • May underpin a model or style • Like a compass or code
  6. 6. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 6 Carlyle and Galton Trait Theory Leader Followers Height Intelligence Extroversion Fluency Other traits Resides in people Trait Theory of Leadership Leadership = Source: Northouse, 2007
  7. 7. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 7 Douglas McGregor's XY Theory
  8. 8. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 8 Blake-Mouton’s Managerial Grid High HighLow Low Concern for Results ConcernforPeople Country Club Management Team Management Impoverished Management Middle-of-the-Road Management Authority- Compliance Management
  9. 9. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 9 Kurt Lewin’s Three Styles Model Participative Authoritarian Delegative The Perfect Leader
  10. 10. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 10 Tannenbaum-Schmidt’s Leadership Behavior Continuum Single Leader Shared Leadership Boss-Centered Leadership Subordinate-Centered Leadership Use of Authority by the Manager Area of Freedom for Subordinates 1 Leader makes decision and announces it. 2 Leader decides and ‘sells’ benefits of decision. 3 Leader decides but presents thinking, inviting exploration. 4 Leader presents tentative decision, prepared to change. 5 Leader presents problem, gets suggestions, makes decision. 6 Leader defines problem, asks group to make the decision. 7 Leader allows group to define problem and make decision.
  11. 11. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 11 Fiedler’s Contingency Model Fiedler’s Contingency Model Situation Favorableness Most Effective Style High = Task-oriented leader Intermediate = Relationship-oriented leader Low = Task-oriented leader
  12. 12. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 12 House’s Path-Goal Theory – Workplace/Follower characteristics and four leadership styles Leadership Style Workplace Characteristics Follower Characteristics Directive  Unstructured interesting tasks  Clear, formal authority  Good group cohesion  Inexperienced followers  They believe they lack power  They want leader to direct them Supportive  Simpler, more predictable tasks  Unclear or weak formal authority  Poor group cohesion  Experienced, confident followers  They believe they have power  They reject close control Participative  Unstructured, complex tasks  Formal authority could be either clear or unclear  Group cohesion could either be good or poor  Experienced, confident followers  They believe they have power  They reject close control, preferring to exercise power over their work Achievement- oriented  Unstructured, complex or unpredictable tasks  Clear, formal authority  Group cohesion could either be good or poor  Experienced, confident followers  They think they lack some power  They accept the idea of the leader setting their goals and have a lot of respect for the leader
  13. 13. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 13 Hersey-Blanchard’s Situational Leadership® Model High Relationship, Low Task High Task, High Relationship LOW HIGH LOWHIGH Ability Relationship Low Relationship, Low Task High Task, Low Relationship Delegating Telling Participating Selling Task Willingness S1 S2 S4 S3 Source: Hersey-Blanchard
  14. 14. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 14 The Hersey-Blanchard model maps each leadership style to each maturity level, as shown below: Follower ‘Situation’ Leadership Style Emphasis Most Appropriate Leadership Style Quick Description Maturity Level Unable and Unwilling High task – low relationship S1: Telling/directing Instruction, direction, autocratic M1: Low maturity Unable but Willing High task – high relationship S2: Selling/coaching Persuasion, encouragement, incentive M2: Medium maturity, limited skills Able but Unwilling Low task – high relationship S3: Participating/supp orting Involvement, consultation, teamwork M3: Medium maturity, higher skills but lacking confidence Able and Willing Low task – low relationship S4: Delegating Trust, empowerment, responsibility M4: High maturity Source: Hersey-Blanchard
  15. 15. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 15 Bolman & Deal’s Four Frames descriptions and differences DESCRIPTION Structural This Frame focuses on the obvious 'how' of change. It's mainly a task-orientated Frame. It concentrates on strategy; setting measurable goals; clarifying tasks, responsibilities and reporting lines; agreeing metrics and deadlines; and creating systems and procedures. Human Resource The HR Frame places more emphasis on people's needs. It chiefly focuses on giving employees the power and opportunity to perform their jobs well, while at the same time, addressing their needs for human contact, personal growth, and job satisfaction. Political The Political Frame addresses the problem of individuals and interest groups having sometimes conflicting (often hidden) agendas, especially at times when budgets are limited and the organization has to make difficult choices. In this Frame you will see coalition-building, conflict resolution work, and power-base building to support the leader's initiatives. Symbolic The Symbolic Frame addresses people's needs for a sense of purpose and meaning in their work. It focuses on inspiring people by making the organization's direction feel significant and distinctive. It includes creating a motivating vision, and recognizing superb performance through company celebrations. Bolman & Deal Four Frames Model
  16. 16. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 16 John Adair’s Action-Centered Leadership Model IndividualTeam Task Source: John Adair • Setting objectives • Planning tasks • Allocating of responsibilities • Setting performance standards • Coaching • Counseling • Developing • Motivating • Communication • Team building • Motivation • Discipline John Adair’s Action-Centered Leadership Model
  17. 17. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 17 Kouzes and Posner’s Five Leadership Practices Model Encourage the Heart Enabling Others to Act Challenge the Process Inspire a Shared Vision Model the Way Five Leadership Practices Source: Kouzes & Posner Five Leadership Practices Model
  18. 18. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 18 KEY BEHAVIORS  Set the example by behaving in ways that reflect the shared values  Achieve small wins that build confidence, commitment and consistent progress.  Envision an uplifting, exciting, meaningful future.  Enlist others in a common vision by appealing to their values, interests, hopes and dreams.  Search out challenging opportunities to change, grow, innovate and improve.  Experiment, take risks and learn from any mistakes.  Foster collaboration by promoting cooperative goals and building trust.  Strengthen people’s ability by delegating power, developing their competence and offering visible support.  Recognize individual contributions to the success of the project.  Celebrate team accomplishments regularly. Summary of Five Leadership Practices 1. Model the Way 2. Inspire a Shared Vision 3. Challenge the Process 4. Enable Others to Act 5. Encourage the Heart Five Leadership Practices Model Source: Kouzes & Posner
  19. 19. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 19 Scouller’s Three Levels of Leadership (3P) Model Source: James Scouller Three Levels of Leadership (3P) Model Public Private Personal Outer levels Inner level
  20. 20. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 20 Key Qualities for Values-Based Leaders Key Qualities for Values-Based Leaders Humility Self- confidence Balance Self-reflection Source: Adapted from Harry Jensen Kramer
  21. 21. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 21 French & Raven’s Five Forms of Power • One of the most notable studies on power was conducted by social psychologists John French and Bertram Raven, in 1959. They identified five bases of power, which they grouped under two headings: French and Raven's Five Sources of Power Positional Power • Legitimate Power – This comes from the belief that a person has the formal right to make demands, and to expect compliance and obedience from others. • Reward Power – This results from one person's ability to compensate another for compliance. • Coercive Power – This comes from the belief that a person can punish others for noncompliance. Personal Power • Expert Power – This is based on a person's superior skill and knowledge. • Referent Power – This is the result of a person's perceived attractiveness, worthiness, and right to respect from others.
  22. 22. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 22 Narcissistic Leadership Continuum Healthy/Positive Grey Area Unhealthy/Destructive/Negative  Visionary.  Fun.  Attracts followers.  Acts boldly.  Initiates.  Driven.  Energetic.  Vulnerable.  Positive and negative aspects merge here.  Positive aspects may be or occasionally become prominent and enabling towards aims, which helps to sustain the style and the leader, and the followers.  Leader does not have good self-image.  Gathers people who bolster leader's self-esteem.  Co-dependence between leader and followers if they also suffer hidden feelings of inadequacy.  Without realizing it, followers cluster around the narcissistic leader to feel better about themselves by association.  Followers work with the 'impressive, important leader so we too must share these qualities to some degree' - or so they believe.  There is emotional and potentially material and reputational benefit for leader and followers. Narcissistic Leadership Continuum
  23. 23. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 23 Differences between Transformational and Transactional leadership styles Transformational Transactional Purpose A shared higher, more stretching purpose is central to transformational leadership. No shared purpose binds follower and leader, other than perhaps maintaining the status quo. Morality Burns said there is always a moral aspect to transforming leadership. There is no explicit moral side to transactional leadership - the leader's aims may be moral or immoral. Timescale Transforming leadership centers on longer-term, more difficult (often more inspiring) aims. Transactional leadership usually focuses on leaders' and followers' shorter-term needs.
  24. 24. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. This presentation is a compilation of PowerPoint descriptions and diagrams used to convey 8 of the most popular motivation theories and models. Motivation Theories Descriptions and Diagrams of Motivation Theories & Models
  25. 25. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 25 Contents • Introduction to Motivation Theories • Content Theories  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Alderfer’s ERG Theory  Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory  McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory • Process Theories  Adams’ Equity Theory  Vroom’s Expectancy Theory  Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory • Reinforcement Theory  Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory • Challenges of Motivation in the New Workplace
  26. 26. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 26 Basic concepts of motivation • Motivation refers to forces within an individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work.  Direction — an individual’s choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives.  Level — the amount of effort a person puts forth.  Persistence — the length of time a person stays with a given action.
  27. 27. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 27 Why is motivation important? • Motivational strategies can help improve employee performance, reduce the chances of low employee morale, encourage teamwork and instill a positive attitude during challenging times. • Employees with a high level of motivation typically work harder and smarter and can overcome common workplace challenges with ease; this helps the organization reach its objectives and improve operations overall.
  28. 28. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 28 Major theories of motivation Content Theories Process Theories Reinforcement Theory  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Alderfer’s ERG Theory  Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory  McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory  Vroom’s Expectancy Theory  Adams’ Equity Theory  Locke’s Goal Setting Theory  Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory
  29. 29. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 29 Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs Self-actualization needs Esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological Needs
  30. 30. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 30 Opportunities for satisfaction in Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs Self-actualization needs What satisfies higher order needs? Esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological needs What satisfies lower order needs?  Creative and challenging work  Participation in decision making  Job flexibility and autonomy  Responsibility of an important job  Promotion to higher status job  Praise and recognition from boss  Friendly coworkers  Interaction with customers  Pleasant supervisor  Safe working conditions  Job security  Base compensation and benefits  Rest and refreshment breaks  Physical comfort on the job  Reasonable work hours
  31. 31. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 31 Alderfer’s ERG Theory Growth Needs Relatedness Needs Existence Needs NeedProgression NeedRegression
  32. 32. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 32 Herzberg’s two-factor theory Improving the motivator factors increases job satisfaction Improving the hygiene factors decreases job dissatisfaction Herzberg’s Two-Factor Principles Job Dissatisfaction Job Satisfaction Influenced by Hygiene Factors _________________  Working conditions  Coworker relations  Policies and rules  Supervisor quality  Base wage, salary Influenced by Motivator Factors _________________  Achievement  Recognition  Responsibility  Work itself  Advancement  Personal growth
  33. 33. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 33 Work preferences of persons high in need for Achievement, Affiliation and Power Individual Need Work Preferences Job Example High need for Achievement  Individual responsibility  Challenging but achievable goals  Feedback on performance  Field sales person with challenging quota and opportunity to earn individual bonus High need for Power  Control over other persons  Attention  Recognition  Formal position of supervisory responsibility  Appointment as head of special task force or committee High need for Affiliation  Interpersonal relationships  Opportunities to communicate  Customer service representative  Member of work unit subject to group wage bonus plan
  34. 34. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 34 Comparison of Maslow’s, Alderfer’s, Herzberg’s and McClelland’s motivation theories Self- actualization Esteem Achievement Power Social Safety Physiological AffiliationRelatedness Existence Growth Satisfier factors Hygiene factors Maslow Alderfer Herzberg McClelland Higher order needs Lower order needs
  35. 35. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 35 Equity theory and the role of social comparison Personal rewards vis-à-vis personal inputs Others’ rewards vis-à-vis others’ inputs are compared to with the result Perceived Equity _________________________ The individual is satisfied and does not change behavior Perceived Inequity _________________________ The individual is discomfort and acts to eliminate the inequity
  36. 36. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 36 Expectancy theory Person exerts work effort to achieve work-related outcomes task performance and realize Expectancy __________________ “Can I achieve the desired level of task performance?” Valence __________________ “How highly do I value work outcomes?” Instrumentality __________________ “What work outcomes will be received as a result of the performance?”
  37. 37. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 37 Managerial implications of expectancy theory  Select workers with ability  Train workers to use ability  Support work efforts  Clarify performance goals  Clarify physiological contracts  Communicate performance – outcome possibilities  Demonstrate what rewards are contingent on performance  Identify individual needs  Adjust rewards to match these needs Make the person feel competent and capable of achieving the desired performance level Make the person confident in understanding which rewards and outcomes will follow performance accomplishments Make the person understand the value of various possible rewards and work outcomes To maximize Expectancy To maximize Instrumentality To maximize Valence
  38. 38. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 38 Applying reinforcement strategies: case of total quality management High-quality production Manager’s Objective Praise employee; recommend pay increase Stop complaints Withhold praise and rewards Reprimand employee Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Extinction Punishment Type of Reinforcement Reinforcement Strategy Individual Behavior Meets production goals with zero defects Meets production goals but with high percentage defects
  39. 39. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 39 Challenges of motivation in the new workplace • Pay for performance  Paying people for performance is consistent with: − Equity theory. − Expectancy theory. − Reinforcement theory.  Merit pay − Awards a pay increase in proportion to individual performance contributions. − Provides performance contingent reinforcement. − May not succeed due to weakness in performance appraisal system or lack of consistency in application.
  40. 40. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 40 Job design for motivation • Job design  Application of motivational theories to the structure of work for improving productivity and satisfaction. • Job simplification  Job design whose purpose is to improve task efficiency by reducing the number of tasks a single person must do. • Job Rotation  Job design that systematically moves employees from one job to another to provide them with variety and stimulation. • Job Enlargement  Job design that combines a series of tasks into one new, broader job to give employees variety and challenge.
  41. 41. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. About Operational Excellence Consulting
  42. 42. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 42 About Operational Excellence Consulting • Operational Excellence Consulting is a management training and consulting firm that assists organizations in improving business performance and effectiveness. • The firm’s mission is to create business value for organizations through innovative operational excellence management training and consulting solutions. • OEC takes a unique “beyond the tools” approach to enable clients develop internal capabilities and cultural transformation to achieve sustainable world-class excellence and competitive advantage. For more information, please visit www.oeconsulting.com.sg
  43. 43. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. To download this presentation, please visit us at: www.oeconsulting.com.sg END OF PARTIAL PREVIEW

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