Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Five Steps of Problem Solving by Operational Excellence Consulting

7,157 views

Published on

Although the DMAIC and 8D problem solving methodologies are highly rigorous and require quite a fair bit of tools for data and statistical analysis, these techniques are tailored more for engineers and other professional/technical staff.

However, for shopfloor supervisors, technicians and operators as well as office/administrative support staff, a lighter and simpler problem solving approach is more suitable. The Five Steps of Problem Solving process was developed specifically for this purpose.

Based on the Plan-Do-Check-Act approach, the Five Steps of Problem Solving consist of:

(1) Define the Problem
(2) Analyze Root Cause
(3) Develop Countermeasures
(4) Implement Solutions
(5) Evaluate & Follow Up.

The tools covered in this presentation are the more commonly used ones in problem solving, process improvement and kaizen activities. They include Brainstorming, Flowchart, Pareto Chart, Cause & Effect Diagram and last but not least the Five Whys.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Understand the principles and key concepts of problem solving
2. Learn how to apply the five simple steps of problem solving and the common tools
3. Understand the pitfalls to avoid and the critical success factors for successful problem solving

CONTENTS

1. Introduction to Problem Solving
2. Five Steps of Problem Solving
3. Common Problem Solving Tools
4. Pitfalls to Avoid
5. Critical Success Factors

To download this complete presentation, visit: http://www.oeconsulting.com.sg

Published in: Business

Five Steps of Problem Solving by Operational Excellence Consulting

  1. 1. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 5 Steps of Proble m© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 2 Learning Objectives 1. Understand the principles and key concepts of problem solving 2. Learn how to apply the five simple steps of problem solving and the common tools 3. Understand the pitfalls to avoid and the critical success factors for successful problem solving Copyrights of all the pictures used in this presentation are held by their respective owners.
  3. 3. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 3 Outline 1. Introduction to Problem Solving 2. Five Steps of Problem Solving 3. Common Problem Solving Tools 4. Pitfalls to Avoid 5. Critical Success Factors NOTE: This is a PARTIAL PREVIEW. To download the complete presentation, please visit: http://www.oeconsulting.com.sg
  4. 4. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 4 Methods to Increase Productivity How to Increase Productivity? Quantitative Approach More People More Machines Work Longer Qualitative Approach Work Harder Eliminate Waste & Simplify Focus of Problem Solving
  5. 5. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 5 The Blind Men and an Elephant Problems are often perceived differently by different people. It is a snake! It is a wall! It is a branch!
  6. 6. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 6 What Is a Problem? Standard – what should be happening Current situation – what is actually happening Gap = Problem A problem exists when the work assigned fails to produce the expected results.
  7. 7. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 7 Kaizen versus Problem Solving • Problem solving  Centers on the fundamental notion of “gap” or “deviation” from standard (e.g. cost, quality, delivery) • Kaizen  Focuses on achieving a new standard or level of performance
  8. 8. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 8 What Problem Solving IS NOT • A kaizen event where people are taken away from their “real jobs” for 3-5 days at a time • An exercise to place blame on a person or department • A project only for the Subject Matter Experts or “high- fliers” • Another one of those “extra curricula activities”
  9. 9. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. “Insanity is doing the same thing, over and over again, but expecting different results.” Albert Einstein
  10. 10. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 10 Impact of Problem Solving ProblemSolving (ProcessImprovement) Time Original Zone of Control New Zone of Control Performance Sporadic Departure from Standard Holding the Gain - Control
  11. 11. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 11 Benefits of Problem Solving • Increased customer satisfaction • Increased market share • Lower costs • Faster delivery time • Increased profitability • Increased efficiency • Improved morale
  12. 12. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 12 The PDCA Approach to Problem Solving • A systematic approach to problem solving • Provides the framework for a team to carry out improvement • Used together with the common problem solving tools Plan DoCheck Act
  13. 13. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 13 The Five Steps of Problem Solving Five Steps of Problem Solving 4. Implement Solutions 2. Analyze Root Cause 3. Develop Countermeasures 1. Define the Problem 5. Evaluate & Follow Up
  14. 14. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 14 Step 1: Define the Problem Example 1: • Customers in the Northern region are dissatisfied with the ordering service. • Errors have increased by 23% during the last 3 months. Example 2: • Since the rationalization of the patient registration services, complaints of long waiting times have increased by 35%. Examples of Problem Statement ILLUSTRATIVE
  15. 15. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 15 Step 1: Define the Problem Visual Representation of a Problem ILLUSTRATIVE 3.2 2.62.73 2 1 2.3% Goal Not meeting goal for 2016! 2014 2015 2016 (YTD) Overall Scrap %
  16. 16. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. “When we fail to grasp the systemic source of problems, we are left to ‘push on’ symptoms rather than eliminate underlying causes.” Peter Senge The Fifth Discipline
  17. 17. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 17 Step 2: Analyze Root Cause Symptoms  Result or outcome of the problem  What you see as a problem (Obvious) Causes  “The Roots” – system below the surface, bringing about the problem (Not Obvious) Symptoms Causes The Problem  Gap from goal or standard Problem Infection Fever Achy, weak, tired
  18. 18. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 18 Step 2: Analyze Root Cause • The team should investigate the problem until the root cause of the problem symptoms is uncovered. • Failing to address the deeply rooted seed of the problem means it will likely recur. • There are two common methods for root cause analysis:  Cause and effect diagram (a.k.a. fishbone diagram)  5 Whys
  19. 19. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 19 Step 3: Develop Countermeasures Suspected Cause Action Item Responsible Due Finding 1. Dirt and contamination Daily 5S & PM tasks Tony (T/L) 11/2 Conducting daily. No issues. 2. Grinding wheel setup check Grinding wheel setup check Tony (T/L) 11/4 Checked out okay. 3. Manual offset function Check offset function Tony (T/L) 11/4 Checked out okay. 4. Spindle bearing loose Spindle bearing check Ed (Maint) 11/5 Loose bearing cap. Tightened. 5. Clamp & locator damage Clamp & locator check Ed (Maint) 11/5 Nothing abnormal. 6. Grinding wheel balance Grinding wheel check Tony (T/L) 11/5 Nothing abnormal. 7. Incoming part dimensions Measure part dimensions Janet (QC) 11/9 Within spec. 8. Poor material hardness Measure hardness Janet (QC) 11/9 Within spec. 9. Abnormal surface finish check Surface finish check Janet (QC) 11/9 Within spec. 10. Abnormal grinding conditions Grinding conditions check Mary (Eng) 11/13 Nothing abnormal. 11. Coolant concentration Measure concentration John (Maint) 11/13 Contaminated tanks. Replaced. 12. Wheel dressing check Check conditions Mar (Eng) 11/13 Nothing abnormal. ILLUSTRATIVE Countermeasures
  20. 20. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 20 Step 4: Implement Solutions • Implement the countermeasures in the determined order after getting management approval. Minimize disruptions whenever possible. • Train people on the changes made.
  21. 21. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 21 Step 5: Evaluate & Follow Up ILLUSTRATIVE Evaluate the Results 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2-Nov 3-Nov 4-Nov 5-Nov 6-Nov 7-Nov 8-Nov 9-Nov 10-Nov 11-Nov 12-Nov 13-Nov Finish grinder Rough grinder Target Coolant replaced! Target level Spindle bearing tightened! Defect % Dates of action items and results confirmation
  22. 22. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 22 Problem Solving Tools • For this training program, we will focus on the following selected tools:  Brainstorming  Flowchart  Check Sheet  Run Chart  Pareto Chart  Cause & Effect Diagram  Five Whys
  23. 23. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 23 Flowcharts • Purpose  To show the sequential steps in a process • When to use  Defining or analyzing a process  Looking for potential problem points  Investigating the performance of a process  Communication or training aid
  24. 24. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 24 Check Sheet – Example 2 Defective Item Mon 9/3 Tue 10/3 Wed 11/3 Thu 12/3 Fri 13/3 Total Mold Cracked 5 3 6 3 4 21 Fibers 2 0 5 1 0 8 Grit 4 2 3 5 0 14 Pinholes 1 5 0 2 1 9 Cracks 0 1 1 0 0 2 Other 1 3 0 0 3 7 Total 13 14 15 11 8 61
  25. 25. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 25 Run Chart – Example 1 Run chart for good installations 98.60% 98.70% 98.80% 98.90% 99.00% 99.10% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Period %goodinstallations
  26. 26. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 26 Example: Pareto Chart Wrong Toppings Pizza Cold Pizza Late Wrong Crust Tastes Bad Forgot Breadstic ks Driver Had No Change Smashed in Box Wrong Price Driver Rude All other Quantity 29 25 22 13 10 7 4 3 2 1 2 Cum % 25% 46% 64% 75% 84% 90% 93% 96% 97% 98% 100% % of Total 25% 21% 19% 11% 8% 6% 3% 3% 2% 1% 2% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% - 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 CumulativePercent Occurences Pizza Defects Pareto Chart January-02Time Period:
  27. 27. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 27 Cause & Effect Diagram (Manufacturing) EffectCauses cause Machines Measurements Materials Methods Mother Nature Manpower (Environment) Problem Statement
  28. 28. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 28 Common Pitfalls in Problem Solving • Problem statement is too vague • Trying to “boil the ocean” – Scope is too large (for first time efforts in particular) • Not measuring the performance metric • Problem analysis is not sufficiently drilled down • Countermeasures do not address root causes
  29. 29. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 29 Critical Success Factors 1. Ensure buy-in by project champion and team members 2. Select a project that is not too difficult to execute and can be completed in less than a year 3. Keep stakeholders informed of the project status 4. Manage stakeholders’ expectations 5. Use the Pareto chart to ensure that you get the most bang for the buck
  30. 30. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. "Continuous effort - not strength or intelligence - is the key to unlocking our potential.” Sir Winston Churchill
  31. 31. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. About Operational Excellence Consulting
  32. 32. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 32 About Operational Excellence Consulting • Operational Excellence Consulting is a management training and consulting firm that assists organizations in improving business performance and effectiveness. • One of our unique strengths is going beyond a tools-focused approach to seamlessly integrate people, processes, technology and continuous improvement initiatives to suit the specific needs and situations of our clients. • We provide corporate learning programs and management advisory services to assist our clients to achieve breakthrough in business performance and effectiveness. Our aim is to support our clients in designing, managing and executing lasting beneficial change.
  33. 33. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. END OF PREVIEW To download this presentation, please visit: www.oeconsulting.com.sg

×