8D Problem Solving by Operational Excellence Consulting

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In this training presentation, you will be able to teach employees on the structured 8D (8 Disciplines) approach to problem solving. Developed by Ford Motor Company, the 8D problem solving process has been adopted by many companies for the relentless pursuit of continuous improvement. When combined with the basic quality tools, this approach identifies problems, analyzes root causes and generates solutions. Teach your staff to put effective solutions in place to prevent similar problems from recurring in the future.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Understand the 8D problem solving process
2. Describe the objective of each step of the 8D process
3. Understand how to use the problem solving tools in the 8D process
4. Define the roles of the 8D problem solving team
5. Define the critical success factors for effective 8D problem solving

CONTENTS

1. Introduction to 8D Problem Solving
- Why problem solving...?
- What is 8D problem solving
- Benefits of 8D problem solving
- Overview of 8D problem solving process

2. Roles of 8D Problem Solving Team
- What is a problem solving team?
- Role of the champion
- Role of the team leader
- Role of the team member
- Role of the facilitator

3. 8D Problem Solving Process – The Step by Step Approach
- Problem solving techniques
- 8D problem solving is based on the PDCA approach
- The 8D problem solving process
- Importance of an 8D report
- The Ford 8D report template
- Example of an 8D report template
- D0: Plan
- D1: Establish the team
- D2: Describe the problem
- D3: Develop an interim containment action
- D4: Define and verify root cause
- D5: Choose and verify permanent corrective action
- D6: Implement and validate permanent corrective action
- D7: Prevent recurrence
- D8: Recognize the team

4. 8D Problem Solving Tools
- Gantt chart
- Flowchart
- Check sheet
- Control chart
- Run chart
- Pareto chart
- Cause and effect diagram
- 5 whys
- Histogram
- Scatter diagram
- Brainstorming
- Affinity Diagram

5. Critical Success Factors

TO DOWNLOAD THIS COMPLETE PRESENTATION, PLEASE VISIT: http://www.oeconsulting.com.sg

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8D Problem Solving by Operational Excellence Consulting

  1. 1. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 8D: Eight Disciplines PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS
  2. 2. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 2 Learning Objectives 1. Understand the 8D problem solving process 2. Describe the objective of each step of the 8D process 3. Understand how to use the problem solving tools in the 8D process 4. Define the roles of the 8D problem solving team 5. Define the critical success factors for effective 8D problem solving Copyrights of all the pictures used in this presentation are held by their respective owners. NOTE: This is a PARTIAL PREVIEW. To download the complete presentation, please visit: http://www.oeconsulting.com.sg
  3. 3. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 3 Contents 1. Introduction to 8D Problem Solving 2. Roles of 8D Problem Solving Team 3. 8D Problem Solving Process – The Step by Step Approach 4. 8D Problem Solving Tools 5. Critical Success Factors
  4. 4. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 4 The Blind Men and an Elephant Problems are often perceived differently by different people. It is a snake! It is a wall! It is a branch!
  5. 5. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 5 What is 8D Problem Solving? • 8D (8 Disciplines) is a systematic approach for solving problems. • It was developed by the US Department of Defense and popularized by Ford Motor Company. Ford later renamed the process as Global 8D or G8D. • 8D is now a standard in the auto industry. • Ford uses the 8D Process to help teams deal with quality control and safety issues systematically.
  6. 6. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 6 Benefits of 8D Problem Solving • Increased customer satisfaction • Increased market share • Lower costs • Faster delivery time • Increased profitability • Increased efficiency • Improved morale
  7. 7. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 7 Overview of the 8D Problem Solving Process Plan Establish the Team Describe the Problem Develop an Interim Containment Action Define & Verify Root Cause Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action Implement & Validate Permanent Corrective Action Prevent Recurrence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recognize the Team 0
  8. 8. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 8 What is a Problem Solving Team? • A problem solving team is a group of employees performing similar or related tasks, who get together on a regular basis, to discuss a topic or theme affecting their work or workplace. • A problem solving team may be set up by management to look into an issue faced by the customer with the aim to resolve it and prevent similar problems from happening in the future.
  9. 9. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 9 Role of the Champion • Is the project owner or sponsor • Selects the team leader • Has authority to make changes • Makes resources available to the team • Removes barriers faced by the team • Challenges and/or supports team decisions • Creates an environment for empowerment of the team
  10. 10. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 10 8D Problem Solving Team’s Maxims • Don’t blame others • Describe not judge • Speak with facts and data • Concentrate on the vital few and not the trivial many • Build on proposals or ideas • Recognize that feelings affect team meetings • Treat the next process as your customer
  11. 11. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 11 Importance of an 8D Report • The 8D report or storyboard serves as a checklist as well as a means of tracking improvement measures decided upon by the team. • It also ensures that all steps are followed and completed. • The 8D report is a fundamental part of the 8D problem solving methodology and must be updated at the end of each step.
  12. 12. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Discipline 0: Plan Plan Establish the Team Describe the Problem Develop an Interim Containment Action Define & Verify Root Cause Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action Implement & Validate Permanent Corrective Action Prevent Recurrence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recognize the Team 0
  13. 13. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. “If you fail to plan, you are planning to fail.” Benjamin Franklin
  14. 14. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 14 D0: Plan • Before you start to assemble a team to solve the problem, it is important to plan your approach. • Your 8D project plan is vital to a successful start to the whole process. • You will need to consider:  who will be on the team  what your time frame is  what resources you will require
  15. 15. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 15 7 Aug 14 Aug 21 Aug 28 Aug 4 Sep 11 Sep 18 Sep 25 Sep 1 Oct 8 Oct 15 Oct 22 Oct 29 Oct D0: Plan D1: Establish the team D2: Describe the problem D3: Develop interim containment action D4: Define & verify root cause D5: Choose & verify permanent corrective action D6: Implement & validate permanent corrective action D7: Prevent recurrence D8: Recognize the team D0: Example of Project Plan 8D Project Schedule
  16. 16. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Discipline 1: Establish the Team Plan Establish the Team Describe the Problem Develop an Interim Containment Action Define & Verify Root Cause Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action Implement & Validate Permanent Corrective Action Prevent Recurrence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recognize the Team 0
  17. 17. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 17 D1: Establish the Team • In step 1, the aim is to form a team with the right people: those with knowledge of the area or process in question, those willing, capable and competent to do the task.
  18. 18. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 18 D1: Establish the Team • Address the problem with the team. • Ensure that the team comprise the right people with the proper know-how of the processes, technical areas and techniques used. • You can also nominate extended team members who could join in the meeting whenever their inputs are required.
  19. 19. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Discipline 2: Describe the Problem Plan Establish the Team Describe the Problem Develop an Interim Containment Action Define & Verify Root Cause Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action Implement & Validate Permanent Corrective Action Prevent Recurrence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recognize the Team 0
  20. 20. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 20 SIPOC diagram for a ‘Display Definition to Deployment’ process Inputs Outputs Design & prototyping Development Production Set-up for deployment Needs definition Suppliers Customers Country Sales reps Dealers Product Engineering Demonstration & Engineering Group Process Installers in storesSales Manager /Merchandiser Product specifications Demonstration technology Message to be communicated Preferred environment in which product should be Key dealer specs and business case End-user Display at POS Business rationale for investment/use Installation manual Corp Product Management Process Problems Can Be Highlighted by a SIPOC Diagram D2: Describe the Problem Problems include missing components, long waiting time of spare parts, displays that are faulty and don’t work, etc.
  21. 21. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 21 Problem Description • Defines the boundaries of the problems in terms of IS /IS NOT. • Focuses on “what the problem IS and what the problem IS NOT but logically could have been” and looks to provide information on:  what the defect is/is not but could be  where it does/does not occur but could  when it does/does not occur but could  how big it is/is not but could be • The IS / IS NOT process also identifies data that needs to be gathered where necessary to better understand the problem. D2: Describe the Problem
  22. 22. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 22 Examples of Problem Description 1. 20% of the blue finished lampshades are consistently rejected for paint runs on the top flat. Defects are not seen before the finish coat is applied. 2. Customers in the Northern region are dissatisfied with the ordering service. During the past three months, errors have increased by 23% while complaints from the other regions have remained stable in the same period. 3. Since the rationalization of the patient registration services at the St. Andrew’s Hospital, complaints of long waiting times have increased by 35% when the patient traffic has increased by only 7%. D2: Describe the Problem
  23. 23. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 23 D2: Summary of Key Steps 1. Collect and visualize available data. 2. Define the process. Allocate the data or information to the various steps of the process. 3. Assess if the problem needs to be re-scoped or broken into smaller components. 4. Define the boundaries of the problem. 5. Carry out a problem analysis. 6. Get confirmation by the customer. 7. Update the 8D report.
  24. 24. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Discipline 4: Define & Verify Root Cause Plan Establish the Team Describe the Problem Develop an Interim Containment Action Define & Verify Root Cause Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action Implement & Validate Permanent Corrective Action Prevent Recurrence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recognize the Team 0
  25. 25. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. “When we fail to grasp the systemic source of problems, we are left to ‘push on’ symptoms rather than eliminate underlying causes.” Peter Senge The Fifth Discipline
  26. 26. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 26 D4: Define & Verify Root Cause • Start out by collecting as much data/information as possible and making it visual in any way possible. • Some useful tools for analyzing the problem are:  Process mapping or flow charting  Graphs  Control charts  Trend or Run charts  Pareto diagrams
  27. 27. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 27 D4: Define & Verify Root Cause Symptoms  Result or outcome of the problem  What you see as a problem (Obvious) Causes  “The Roots” – system below the surface, bringing about the problem (Not Obvious) Symptoms Causes The Problem  Gap from goal or standard Problem Infection Fever Achy, weak, tired
  28. 28. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 28 D4: Summary of Key Steps 1. Collect and visualize available data. 2. Check the team suitability for the purpose. 3. If further data/information is needed, go back to D2. 4. Identify possible causes. 5. Identify the most probable cause(s). 6. Verify the root cause(s). 7. Identify possible measures and alternatives. 8. Update the 8D report.
  29. 29. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Discipline 7: Prevent Recurrence Plan Establish the Team Describe the Problem Develop an Interim Containment Action Define & Verify Root Cause Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action Implement & Validate Permanent Corrective Action Prevent Recurrence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recognize the Team 0
  30. 30. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 30 D7: Prevent Recurrence • It is often said that prevention is better than cure. • The aim of step 7 is to prevent the original problem from occurring again.
  31. 31. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 31 Examples of Visual Management (2) Hazardous areas or equipment Use a black and yellow striped marking as a border around any area or piece of equipment where employees may be inadvertently exposed to a special hazard. The black and yellow border indicates that special caution should be exercised when entering and working in the area. Source: Brady 50 Lean Visuals Pocketbook Point-of-need safe work instructions Hazard warnings and safe work instructions should be posted at the point of need - right where the hazard exists for your employees. Safety and fire protection equipment floor markings Use red and white striped floor tape to mark off the areas in front of safety equipment and firefighting equipment that must be kept clear, per OSHA requirements.
  32. 32. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 32 Examples of Mistake-Proofing (1) Positive stop An example of a positive stop is on machinery that requires operators to perform a safety task before starting the machinery. To activate the power to the machine, the operator must first close the hood. Other examples include blenders, washers and microwaves that stop when their door is opened to prevent operator injury or damage to the equipment. Go/No-go Turnstiles are commonly used in subways to regulate the flow of human traffic, especially during peak hours. As a “go/no go” or “pass/fail” device, it prevents defects by determining if a feature is present or not. At airports, go/no-go luggage gauges ensure that carry-on luggage can fit into the overhead compartments or under the seat. Tool boards Missing tools and tools lying around the workplace are challenges faced by maintenance and engineering staff. With a tool board, available tools can be easily accessed and tools after being used can be returned to their designated locations. As a visual display, any tool which is missing, in the wrong slot or being used can be easily noticed.
  33. 33. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Cause & Effect Diagram
  34. 34. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 34 Cause & Effect Diagram (a.k.a. Ishikawa Diagram, Fish-bone Diagram) • Purpose  To identify and structure the causes of a given effect • When to use  When investigating a problem, to identify and select key problem causes to address  When effect of a problem is known, but possible causes are unclear  To find other causal relationships, such as potential risks or causes of desired effects
  35. 35. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 35 Cause & Effect Diagram (Manufacturing) EffectCauses cause Machines Measurements Materials Methods Mother Nature Manpower (Environment) Problem Statement
  36. 36. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 36 How to Construct a Cause & Effect Diagram 1. Develop and agree on a problem statement (effect) 2. Brainstorm a list of possible causes; remove symptoms and solutions related to the stated effect 3. Identify major categories of causes (e.g. Man, Machines, Material, Method, Measurement, Environment) 4. Place each cause in a category (same cause can occur in several category) 5. Ask “Why does this happen?” for each cause 6. Design data collection strategy to verify and prioritize main causes
  37. 37. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 37 Critical Success Factors 1. Choose the right team 2. Accurate description of the problem 3. Avoid skipping through steps 4. Ensure cooperation within the team 5. Maintain momentum 6. Ensure management support 7. Understand the difference between possible causes and the real cause
  38. 38. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. About Operational Excellence Consulting
  39. 39. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 39 About Operational Excellence Consulting • Operational Excellence Consulting is a management training and consulting firm that assists organizations in improving business performance and effectiveness. • The firm’s mission is to create business value for organizations through innovative operational excellence management training and consulting solutions. • OEC takes a unique “beyond the tools” approach to enable clients develop internal capabilities and cultural transformation to achieve sustainable world-class excellence and competitive advantage. For more information, please visit www.oeconsulting.com.sg
  40. 40. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. To download this presentation, please visit us at: www.oeconsulting.com.sg END OF PARTIAL PREVIEW

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