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Making MOOCs and changing open educational practices

Laura Czerniewicz, Andrew Deacon, Sukaina Walji, Glover Michael University of Cape Town

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Making MOOCs and changing open educational practices
Laura Czerniewicz, Andrew Deacon, Sukaina Walji, Michael Glover
9 March 2017
Czerniewicz, L., Deacon, A., Walji, S. & Glover, M. (in press). OER in and as MOOCs.
In C. A. Hodgkinson-Williams & P. B. Arinto (Eds) Adoption and Impact of OER in the Global South
This study
This study investigates whether and how the integration of OER in the design of
MOOCs impacts upon educators’ OEP
The particular rationale for this study concerns how and in what ways adopting
OER in and for MOOCs has an impact on educators’ practices as regards
openness
The underlying assumption of the study is that the adoption of OER for integration
in an open course will lead to a transformation of educator practices
This study
Overarching question: How does MOOC making with OER adoption influence
educators’ OEP?
1. Why do educators create MOOCs?
2. How do educators understand openness in education?
3. What are the contextual dimensions which shape open educational practices?
4. How does MOOC design help, or not help, educators achieve their objects?
5. How do educators understand and express copyright, licences, and the legal dimensions of
openness?
6. How do educators use and re-use OER beyond the MOOC?
7. How is pedagogical openness experienced and expressed as an OEP in MOOCs (in terms of) the
educators’ objectives?
8. How is financial openness expressed?
About the MOOC Project
The project: 12 MOOCs, 2 platforms, funded by the VC Strategic Fund, bidding
process
Goals
To give exposure to African content and knowledge
To profile key postgraduate programmes and research areas aligned with the
university’s strategic goals
To support students in academic transitions
To make UCT’s knowledge resources globally accessible
To develop models and expertise in online learning that could be deployed in
mainstream degree programmes.
UCT MOOCs to date
MOOCs in this study
The Literature: OER
Despite shared interest in open education, generally the literature on MOOCs and
OER is distinct
Meanings of “open” often differ
OER infrequently mentioned in MOOC literature
MOOCs more likely to be mentioned in OER literature
The Literature: OEP
An evolving concept, 1st mentioned 10 years ago, more formally 2011
Developing an OEP conceptual framework involves disparate sources for OEP as
there is a lack of a holistic repertoire of practices currently observable in the field
(Masterman 2016)
Differentiation between (a) OER and legality-focused definitions of open practices,
and (b) broader conceptions of open practices which incorporate these OER
aspects but include open pedagogies, open learning and sharing (Cronin 2016)
The Literature: OEP
Features of open practices (Hodgkinson Williams 2014)
1. Technical openness – e.g., interoperability and open formats, technical skill and resources, availability and discoverability.
2. Legal openness – e.g., open licensing knowledge and advice.
3. Cultural openness – e.g., knowledge and curriculum
4. Pedagogical openness – e.g., student demographics and types of engagement
5. Financial - should OER be free or come with a modest financial price tag
Beetham et al (2012)
1. Opening up content to students not on campus/formally enrolled
2. Sharing and collaborating on content with other practitioners
3. Re-using content in teaching contexts.
4. Using or encouraging others to use open content
5. Making knowledge publicly accessible
6. Teaching learning in open contexts.
Understanding open practices in context and over time
Activity Theory
Developed activity systems and identified contradictions
Methodology
Data
semi-structured interviews with MOOC educators
interviews with lead educator’s assistant
focus group discussions with MOOC educators and MOOC learning designers
observations of the MOOC-making process
proposals submitted to the MOOC Advisory Committee
monitoring and evaluation reports
promotional videos created by the educators
institutional policies and strategic plans
permission forms for MOOC content rights
artefacts of course content
Methodology
Each of the four MOOCs lead educators interviewed at three time intervals: just before the MOOC was
launched (T1), after the first run of the MOOC (T2), and ten months after the launch (T3).
Three activity systems developed and articulated against the three interview phases (T1, T2, and T3).
Interviews:
19 interviews were conducted with MOOC lead educators
two focus groups with the MOOC implementation team
three post-course reflection sessions
Analytical framework
Context of the MOOC educators’ practices, particularly those which might shape and influence those practices becoming open. -
Activity system -
Rules - the contract between the university and the MOOC platform, MOOC platform rules, the university MOOC project strategy.
Division of labour refers to lead educators, lead educators’ assistants, the MOOC design and implementation team, the MOOC
project manager, and the intellectual property lawyer.
Community the MOOC design and implementation team, the lead educators’ assistant, and the community of MOOC learners.
The Object in an Activity system aligns with why educators make MOOCs.
The Tools in an Activity system which mediate the educators’ achieving their object is our concept of MOOC design - defined
to encapsulate the tools involved in making a MOOC and relevant to OEP -
Licensing tools relate to the Creative Commons licenses for educational resources that were suggested to lead educators by the
learning designers. Open licensing recommendations relate to the policy environment at the university, where open licensing is
encouraged.
Conceptual tools relate to different pedagogies that inform ways of structuring the course, presenting materials and assessment
methods available in the MOOC platform to the course development team.
Analytical framework
OEP: drew on Hodgkinson-Williams’ dimensions as the overarching frame. Those we use are legal openness, pedagogical
openness, and financial openness noting that practices exist in relation to the educators’ objectives and the study focuses on
MOOCs, not all online teaching or even teaching per se.
Legal openness draws on understanding and engaging with copyright; using legally open content; making content legally open in
different ways; open licensing expertise and advice (Hodgkinson-Williams, 2014).
For pedagogical openness integrated Beetham’s Hodgkinson-Williams’ definition and the data: communicative aspect — i.e. the
communicative strategies with which educators ; structuring and assessment of course content. The MOOC mode requires a careful
structuring of course content and compels educators to consider the importance of selecting and arranging their learning materials in
ways that facilitate learning for open audiences.
Financial openness - narrower view. focus is on specifically to the view and actions of the educator regarding costs and affordability
for course participants, esp on low cost funding arrangements.
Research matrix
Research questions
Conceptual resources
Analytical categories
Data sources
Findings
Why educators make MOOCs
Two cases - growing respective disciplinary fields
Two cases - professional development and capacity building
Educators felt their goals had been achieved on the whole
through the MOOCs
Also felt that they had developed more critical perspectives
Later - integration of the MOOC and classroom teaching,
educating themselves, partnership and community building
aspects
Note - OER/open courses not an ultimate object
Why educators make MOOCs
Two cases - growing respective disciplinary fields
Two cases - professional development and capacity building
Educators felt their goals had been achieved on the whole
through the MOOCs
Also felt that they had developed more critical perspectives
Later - integration of the MOOC and classroom teaching,
educating themselves, partnership and community building
aspects
Note - OER/open courses not an ultimate object
“..furthering the
field…
not necessarily
trying to mimic so
much the medical
humanities as it’s
emerged in other
parts of the world”
How educators understand openness in education
With one exception educators’ understandings of openness in education was
nascent
One educator a long standing open education advocate
Generally understood as access and reach
They were not averse to openness “..knowledge should be shared as
far as and widely as possible, and
not kept to a few elite…”
Contextual dimensions shaping educators’ practices
An enabling institutional environment regarding openness in education
While the MOOC Project not conceived of as an OER project, the MOOC design
team made the decision that the default would be OER
Platform terms allowed/did not restrict OER release
Legal openness
One MOOC with 17 presenters, 2 academics withdrew because of copyright
concerns regarding their materials when they went beyond the traditional
classroom, 2 decided against CC licences for their videos
Academics shocked that they could not use their own academic texts in their
MOOCs as they had signed away their copyright
One wondered if not being able to
include copyrighted texts had an
effect on the quality of the MOOC
“It was just a bit of a shock realisation that so
many of our intellectual resources are locked up
in, by the journals, by the editors, into exclusive,
you know, subscription-paying agreements. And
that, that is a huge problem!”
Legal openness
MOOC making raised awareness about open access and Creative Commons
Became aware of university repository
Design team had to be risk averse regarding copyright
Legal issues also raised ethical and privacy issues
Educators generally disinterested in the “technicalities” of open licensing
It is clear that educators need to be aware of the “value proposition” of OER, after
which the technicalities follow. Educators often in favour of re-use and of the
opportunities that open licensing therefore make possible
“….the beauty of it is the
expert team who made
the licensing possible.”
Re-use beyond the MOOC
Open licensing means permissions upfront so re-use hard to
track
However, a few cases known:
Re-use of videos in formal classroom settings at own
institution (by educator and by others)
Re-use of resources for different projects, formal and
informal
Re-use of videos in formal classroom settings by other
academics at other institutions
“...a benefit of making
MOOC materials is that
they can be redeployed
for another purpose…”
Pedagogical openness
Strategies of pedagogical openness for large and diverse
groups of MOOC participants, an issue for all educators
All became aware of the need for structuring content and
assessment
Steep learning curve regarding video making and peer review
Awareness of the role of mediation, and of learning designers
Led to reassessment of teaching practices in general, including
community formation online and face-to-face teaching
New levels of clarity required
“I am keen to try
and see if what
I’ve learnt from
the MOOC can
somehow be
built back into
our
undergraduate
teaching.”
Teaching and learning in open contexts
Shifts in the role of the learner
Concomitant shifts in the role of the educator
Relations become flatter and more egalitarian
Open and online affords “real engagement”
Diversity as enriching
“There are misconceptions
that you just put it up online
and people can use it [but] it
has to be clearly structured
and it has to be done properly.
So I think there are a lot of
skills involved in getting it right
and doing it right.”
Financial openness
Our study revealed one case where an educator redefined his sense of openness
to pragmatically understand open access as resources accessible to those who
cannot afford them but involving a monetary cost to those who are able to afford
access in the interests of longer term sustainability.
Educator engaged with the issue of MOOC business models and sustainability
Openness-as-affordable
Pay for certificate or get assured financial aid
In conclusion
MOOC making as a stimulant for OER adoption. For many new practices came
first, leading to an appreciation of the power of OER (rather than the other way
round)
Although educators were at very different starting points, they all came to
appreciate and exploit forms of pedagogical openness in the form of a range of
new pedagogical strategies which were also used beyond the MOOC
Technical expertise regarding copyright and OER must exist somewhere in the
team; generally not an interest of educators
Relationship between OER and OEP
Find out more
Czerniewicz, L., Deacon, A., Glover, M., Walji, S. (2016). MOOC – making and Open Educational
Practices. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, Special Issue on Open Education. Postprint at
https://goo.gl/r84zsm , view Version of Record at http://rdcu.be/nzlw
Project web page: http://roer4d.org/sp10-3-impact-of-oer-in-and-as-moocs-in-south-africa

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Making MOOCs and changing open educational practices

  • 1. Making MOOCs and changing open educational practices Laura Czerniewicz, Andrew Deacon, Sukaina Walji, Michael Glover 9 March 2017 Czerniewicz, L., Deacon, A., Walji, S. & Glover, M. (in press). OER in and as MOOCs. In C. A. Hodgkinson-Williams & P. B. Arinto (Eds) Adoption and Impact of OER in the Global South
  • 2. This study This study investigates whether and how the integration of OER in the design of MOOCs impacts upon educators’ OEP The particular rationale for this study concerns how and in what ways adopting OER in and for MOOCs has an impact on educators’ practices as regards openness The underlying assumption of the study is that the adoption of OER for integration in an open course will lead to a transformation of educator practices
  • 3. This study Overarching question: How does MOOC making with OER adoption influence educators’ OEP? 1. Why do educators create MOOCs? 2. How do educators understand openness in education? 3. What are the contextual dimensions which shape open educational practices? 4. How does MOOC design help, or not help, educators achieve their objects? 5. How do educators understand and express copyright, licences, and the legal dimensions of openness? 6. How do educators use and re-use OER beyond the MOOC? 7. How is pedagogical openness experienced and expressed as an OEP in MOOCs (in terms of) the educators’ objectives? 8. How is financial openness expressed?
  • 4. About the MOOC Project The project: 12 MOOCs, 2 platforms, funded by the VC Strategic Fund, bidding process Goals To give exposure to African content and knowledge To profile key postgraduate programmes and research areas aligned with the university’s strategic goals To support students in academic transitions To make UCT’s knowledge resources globally accessible To develop models and expertise in online learning that could be deployed in mainstream degree programmes.
  • 7. The Literature: OER Despite shared interest in open education, generally the literature on MOOCs and OER is distinct Meanings of “open” often differ OER infrequently mentioned in MOOC literature MOOCs more likely to be mentioned in OER literature
  • 8. The Literature: OEP An evolving concept, 1st mentioned 10 years ago, more formally 2011 Developing an OEP conceptual framework involves disparate sources for OEP as there is a lack of a holistic repertoire of practices currently observable in the field (Masterman 2016) Differentiation between (a) OER and legality-focused definitions of open practices, and (b) broader conceptions of open practices which incorporate these OER aspects but include open pedagogies, open learning and sharing (Cronin 2016)
  • 9. The Literature: OEP Features of open practices (Hodgkinson Williams 2014) 1. Technical openness – e.g., interoperability and open formats, technical skill and resources, availability and discoverability. 2. Legal openness – e.g., open licensing knowledge and advice. 3. Cultural openness – e.g., knowledge and curriculum 4. Pedagogical openness – e.g., student demographics and types of engagement 5. Financial - should OER be free or come with a modest financial price tag Beetham et al (2012) 1. Opening up content to students not on campus/formally enrolled 2. Sharing and collaborating on content with other practitioners 3. Re-using content in teaching contexts. 4. Using or encouraging others to use open content 5. Making knowledge publicly accessible 6. Teaching learning in open contexts.
  • 10. Understanding open practices in context and over time Activity Theory Developed activity systems and identified contradictions
  • 11. Methodology Data semi-structured interviews with MOOC educators interviews with lead educator’s assistant focus group discussions with MOOC educators and MOOC learning designers observations of the MOOC-making process proposals submitted to the MOOC Advisory Committee monitoring and evaluation reports promotional videos created by the educators institutional policies and strategic plans permission forms for MOOC content rights artefacts of course content
  • 12. Methodology Each of the four MOOCs lead educators interviewed at three time intervals: just before the MOOC was launched (T1), after the first run of the MOOC (T2), and ten months after the launch (T3). Three activity systems developed and articulated against the three interview phases (T1, T2, and T3). Interviews: 19 interviews were conducted with MOOC lead educators two focus groups with the MOOC implementation team three post-course reflection sessions
  • 13. Analytical framework Context of the MOOC educators’ practices, particularly those which might shape and influence those practices becoming open. - Activity system - Rules - the contract between the university and the MOOC platform, MOOC platform rules, the university MOOC project strategy. Division of labour refers to lead educators, lead educators’ assistants, the MOOC design and implementation team, the MOOC project manager, and the intellectual property lawyer. Community the MOOC design and implementation team, the lead educators’ assistant, and the community of MOOC learners. The Object in an Activity system aligns with why educators make MOOCs. The Tools in an Activity system which mediate the educators’ achieving their object is our concept of MOOC design - defined to encapsulate the tools involved in making a MOOC and relevant to OEP - Licensing tools relate to the Creative Commons licenses for educational resources that were suggested to lead educators by the learning designers. Open licensing recommendations relate to the policy environment at the university, where open licensing is encouraged. Conceptual tools relate to different pedagogies that inform ways of structuring the course, presenting materials and assessment methods available in the MOOC platform to the course development team.
  • 14. Analytical framework OEP: drew on Hodgkinson-Williams’ dimensions as the overarching frame. Those we use are legal openness, pedagogical openness, and financial openness noting that practices exist in relation to the educators’ objectives and the study focuses on MOOCs, not all online teaching or even teaching per se. Legal openness draws on understanding and engaging with copyright; using legally open content; making content legally open in different ways; open licensing expertise and advice (Hodgkinson-Williams, 2014). For pedagogical openness integrated Beetham’s Hodgkinson-Williams’ definition and the data: communicative aspect — i.e. the communicative strategies with which educators ; structuring and assessment of course content. The MOOC mode requires a careful structuring of course content and compels educators to consider the importance of selecting and arranging their learning materials in ways that facilitate learning for open audiences. Financial openness - narrower view. focus is on specifically to the view and actions of the educator regarding costs and affordability for course participants, esp on low cost funding arrangements.
  • 15. Research matrix Research questions Conceptual resources Analytical categories Data sources
  • 17. Why educators make MOOCs Two cases - growing respective disciplinary fields Two cases - professional development and capacity building Educators felt their goals had been achieved on the whole through the MOOCs Also felt that they had developed more critical perspectives Later - integration of the MOOC and classroom teaching, educating themselves, partnership and community building aspects Note - OER/open courses not an ultimate object
  • 18. Why educators make MOOCs Two cases - growing respective disciplinary fields Two cases - professional development and capacity building Educators felt their goals had been achieved on the whole through the MOOCs Also felt that they had developed more critical perspectives Later - integration of the MOOC and classroom teaching, educating themselves, partnership and community building aspects Note - OER/open courses not an ultimate object “..furthering the field… not necessarily trying to mimic so much the medical humanities as it’s emerged in other parts of the world”
  • 19. How educators understand openness in education With one exception educators’ understandings of openness in education was nascent One educator a long standing open education advocate Generally understood as access and reach They were not averse to openness “..knowledge should be shared as far as and widely as possible, and not kept to a few elite…”
  • 20. Contextual dimensions shaping educators’ practices An enabling institutional environment regarding openness in education While the MOOC Project not conceived of as an OER project, the MOOC design team made the decision that the default would be OER Platform terms allowed/did not restrict OER release
  • 21. Legal openness One MOOC with 17 presenters, 2 academics withdrew because of copyright concerns regarding their materials when they went beyond the traditional classroom, 2 decided against CC licences for their videos Academics shocked that they could not use their own academic texts in their MOOCs as they had signed away their copyright One wondered if not being able to include copyrighted texts had an effect on the quality of the MOOC “It was just a bit of a shock realisation that so many of our intellectual resources are locked up in, by the journals, by the editors, into exclusive, you know, subscription-paying agreements. And that, that is a huge problem!”
  • 22. Legal openness MOOC making raised awareness about open access and Creative Commons Became aware of university repository Design team had to be risk averse regarding copyright Legal issues also raised ethical and privacy issues Educators generally disinterested in the “technicalities” of open licensing It is clear that educators need to be aware of the “value proposition” of OER, after which the technicalities follow. Educators often in favour of re-use and of the opportunities that open licensing therefore make possible “….the beauty of it is the expert team who made the licensing possible.”
  • 23. Re-use beyond the MOOC Open licensing means permissions upfront so re-use hard to track However, a few cases known: Re-use of videos in formal classroom settings at own institution (by educator and by others) Re-use of resources for different projects, formal and informal Re-use of videos in formal classroom settings by other academics at other institutions “...a benefit of making MOOC materials is that they can be redeployed for another purpose…”
  • 24. Pedagogical openness Strategies of pedagogical openness for large and diverse groups of MOOC participants, an issue for all educators All became aware of the need for structuring content and assessment Steep learning curve regarding video making and peer review Awareness of the role of mediation, and of learning designers Led to reassessment of teaching practices in general, including community formation online and face-to-face teaching New levels of clarity required “I am keen to try and see if what I’ve learnt from the MOOC can somehow be built back into our undergraduate teaching.”
  • 25. Teaching and learning in open contexts Shifts in the role of the learner Concomitant shifts in the role of the educator Relations become flatter and more egalitarian Open and online affords “real engagement” Diversity as enriching “There are misconceptions that you just put it up online and people can use it [but] it has to be clearly structured and it has to be done properly. So I think there are a lot of skills involved in getting it right and doing it right.”
  • 26. Financial openness Our study revealed one case where an educator redefined his sense of openness to pragmatically understand open access as resources accessible to those who cannot afford them but involving a monetary cost to those who are able to afford access in the interests of longer term sustainability. Educator engaged with the issue of MOOC business models and sustainability Openness-as-affordable Pay for certificate or get assured financial aid
  • 27. In conclusion MOOC making as a stimulant for OER adoption. For many new practices came first, leading to an appreciation of the power of OER (rather than the other way round) Although educators were at very different starting points, they all came to appreciate and exploit forms of pedagogical openness in the form of a range of new pedagogical strategies which were also used beyond the MOOC Technical expertise regarding copyright and OER must exist somewhere in the team; generally not an interest of educators
  • 29. Find out more Czerniewicz, L., Deacon, A., Glover, M., Walji, S. (2016). MOOC – making and Open Educational Practices. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, Special Issue on Open Education. Postprint at https://goo.gl/r84zsm , view Version of Record at http://rdcu.be/nzlw Project web page: http://roer4d.org/sp10-3-impact-of-oer-in-and-as-moocs-in-south-africa

Editor's Notes

  1. Citation for chapter in press…. Adoption and Impact of OER in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2013–2017 collection.
  2. The courses studied ran across two platforms and had enrolments ranging from just over 9000 participants to near 35000 participants.
  3. 1.
  4. Interview and focus group data were coded using NVivo10. The initial codes were shaped by the conceptual framework through an iterative process of engaging with the data, which led to a consolidated analytical framework. Several dimensions of open practices were identified, allowing for an accurate and more differentiated picture of how educators’ open practices shift in the MOOC environment. The key nodes of the activity system were identified through analysis of the interview and focus group data.
  5. For Med Arts and Mind educators, the object concerns growing their respective disciplinary fields, while the object for the UCR and Ed4All educators is concerned with supporting flexible professional development and capacity building with a subdivision being that the UCR MOOC is more about individual professional development and capacity building of research skills while the Education for All MOOC educators goal is to support individual teachers and build a community of stakeholders around the topic of disability and inclusion in classrooms.
  6. For Med Arts and Mind educators, the object concerns growing their respective disciplinary fields, while the object for the UCR and Ed4All educators is concerned with supporting flexible professional development and capacity building with a subdivision being that the UCR MOOC is more about individual professional development and capacity building of research skills while the Education for All MOOC educators goal is to support individual teachers and build a community of stakeholders around the topic of disability and inclusion in classrooms.
  7. Medicine and the Arts
  8. The MOOC was incorporated (reused) as a compulsory component of the mainstream otherwise-face-to-face master’s course (MedArt) MS was of the view that he would reuse his MOOC videos on his Neuropsychoanalysis website so that he could reach wider audiences without having to travel to them in person. Part of MS’s MOOC was incorporated into a formal psychiatry registrar course by a professor in the United States. UCR MOOC was incorporated into a formal package offered by the Centre for Clinical Research at UCT, CO was happy that the materials and resources in the MOOC had been used in a number of countries
  9. Essentially a case of subsidisation, the view of the educator was that an economically secure learner could pay for access to the resources, and in doing so enables the continued production of learning resources. A key caveat is that learners unable to afford access to the resources must be able to secure financial aid and therefore free access to the resources. The openness of the resource is here contingent upon the financial standing of the learner, rather than whether it is free-to-all-without-qualification. The educator’s view, sketched below, is pragmatic and utilitarian. He considers two options: 1) Financially secure learners pay for access while impecunious learners receive aid and thus free access, and 2) open access to all learners irrespective of their economic standing.