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from local/regional OER Silos
towards an OER Global Dataspace
The Open Education Global Conference 2016
Kraków, Poland fro...
Summary: Connect Distributed and
Heterogeneous Open Educational Data
And Resources across the Web
• The problem: In recent...
to remember,
OPEN: "A piece of
knowledge is open if you
are free to use, reuse,
adapt and redistribute it"
http://www.open...
CHALLENGES	TO	ADOPTING	OER
• The	barriers	that	faculty	cite	impacting	the	adoption	of	
OER	are	related	to	the	ease	of	find...
Are OER Really Open?
No, there is still much to do.
OER are made available under a Open
License. However, legally free not...
Open license is not enough!
Current OER Ecosystem:
Distributed Silos
Limited discovering integration, single access,
Current OER Ecosystem: Distributed Silos
Limited discovering integration, single access
Business Architecture
Information ...
Current	SituaZon:	
OER	Silos	
• Heterogeneous	OER	structures/
technologies/semanZcs.	
• Large	amounts	of	unstructured,	
an...
The Tower of Babel by Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1563)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tower_of_Babel
OER	ecosystem?
Challenge: connect silos
of OER data distributed
across the Web
An opportunity for OER Community:
The presence of OER silos impedes
the interoperability, discovery,
synthesis, and flow o...
Goal:	
Exploitation	and	
integration	of		heterogeneous	
and	distributed	datasets.		
Tools:	Queries,	analysis,	and	
visuali...
(z)autonom
y
heterogeneity (x)
distribution(y)
subordinating
homogenizing
centralizing
Managers have been told to break do...
The Solution not is: subordinating, homogenizing,
or centralizing OER Information Systems.
An best approach is developing ...
Challenge: OER Interoperability and Global Integration
Approach: Linked data have the potential of create bridges
between ...
The Way: Semantic Web
approach and Linked
Data Technologies
The World Wide Web uses relatively simple technologies
with sufficient scalability, efficiency and utility that they have
re...
The 2001 Scientific American article by Berners-Lee, Hendler, and Lassie
described an expected evolution of the existing We...
The Semantic Web
A new form of Web content that is meaningful to computers will unleash a
revolution of new possibilities
...
Proposal
Use	of	Linked	Data	on	OER	Domain
• The	philosophy	of	Linked	Data	is	that	the	value	
and	usefulness	of	data	increase	in	pro...
<href> <href>
<href>
<href>
<href>
<href>
<href>
<href>
<href>
from Web of Documents
(unstructured information)
to Web of ...
Linked Data is Data Interoperability
The need for communication and interoperation between autonomous and distributed info...
Breaking down the walls.
Understanding an greater empathy.
(z)autonom
y
heterogeneity (x)
distribution(y)
W
orking
togethe...
• Because	LinkedData	holds	the	potential	to	move	our	
OER	collections	out	of	their	silos	
• Open	the	data	and	content	silo...
EXAMPLE: raw data within UPM
opencourseware web page
Title
OCW
University
Author(s)
year
description
knowledge area
biblio...
Linked	Data	for	OER	Principles
LOD4OER	approach	is	based	on	The	Linked	Data	Design	Issues,	in	OER	context,	are:	
1. Use	UR...
HTTP-URIs to denote/identifies anything at all through
the Web. URIs, in the web architecture, have been used
to"informatio...
RDF enables you to open your data to applications
through the Web. RDF is very flexible and extensible.
RDF is a way of re...
oerLOD4
powered by
linked open data for open educational resources
OER Community
OER Interoperability Framework
Goal: Define and promoting
semantic interoperability between
OER repositories
the	goal	is	enhance	the	discoverability,	
reuse	and	integration	of	OER	into	
classroom	instruction.	From	a	general	
perspe...
Synergy
Human Expert and Linked OER Data System
The	proposed	framework	combines	the	traditions	of	knowledge	
sharing	and	c...
OER Ecosystem
(Global OER Dataspace
Semantically Interoperable)
OER ecosystem composed of silos of information
— heterogen...
LOD4OER Framework
Open Educational Resources Ecosystem
Goal: Define and promoting semantic interoperability between OER
information systems ...
LOD4OER Life-Cycle
Data source analysis:
identify OER providers
& select content/
resources offered with a
free and open license.
i. Select s...
OER Interoperability Ecosystem
Efficient and effective cross-border and cross-knowledge interaction/integration between OE...
OER Interoperability Ecosystem
Efficient and effective cross-border and cross-knowledge interaction/integration between OE...
The notion of Class in RDFS
rdfs:Class
🏫 ⚙ ⛏ 📊
⚖ 💎 👪 🌎
🔬 🏖 🎻 🏢
🐞 🐄🐛 🎭
Una clase es un conjunto de
recursos que tienen cara...
The notion of instance
👪
:Persona rdf:type rdfs:Class .
A particular issue of class is
named an instance of class
rdf:type...
SPARQL can be used to express queries across
diverse data sources, whether the data is stored
natively as RDF or viewed as...
A SPARQL query example that models the question
"What are all the country capitals in Africa?":
PREFIX ex: <http://example...
Linking OER data to other linked open data.
The State of the LOD Cloud 2014 document provides statistics about the structure and content of the crawlable subset of th...
@nopiedra2015
Extracción Mapeo Transformación Publicación
Photo: iStock
Información no
estructurada
Datos
estructurados
fr...
Webpage: Cordillera de Los Andes
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cordillera_de_los_Andes
Resource: Cordillera de Los Andes
ht...
Case of Use 1.
Interoperability of Open
Access Repositories
Open Educational Resources Ecosystem
OER Repository
OER metadata/data as Linked Open Data
Extraction, Data
Preprocessing,
...
OAI-PMH vs Linked Data
Data
Provider
Data
Provider
Data
Provider
Harvester
Requests (OAI “verbs”): Identify,
ListMetadataF...
OER about a specific subject
SPARQL endpoint: http://data.utpl.edu.ec/serendipity/oar/sparql
Graph: http://data.utpl.edu.ec...
Case of Use 2.
Global Discovery and Reuse of
OER for MOOC/courseware
design
Prototype:
• The	framework	provides	an	approach	that	allows	to	
Courseware	Designers	to	discover	and	access	open	
educatio...
The	education	is	seen	as	an	essential,	shared,	re-
used,	adapted,	and	collaborative	social	good.	
OER	movement	envisions	a...
Technical View
Conclusions
• Linked	Data	technologies	can	also	help	to	integrate	
the	work	of	disperse	institutions	producing	diverse	
li...
gracias!
@nopiedra
nopiedra@utpl.edu.ec
The Open Education Global Conference 2016
Kraków, Poland from the 12th to 14th of ...
References
[1]	I.	E.	Allen,	&	J.	Seaman.	(2014).	Opening	the	curriculum:	Open	educational	resources	in	US	higher	education...
• Good practice: Identify with URIs. To benefit from and
increase the value of the World Wide Web, agents should
provide UR...
from local/regional OER Silos towards an OER Global Dataspace
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from local/regional OER Silos towards an OER Global Dataspace

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Nelson Piedra

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from local/regional OER Silos towards an OER Global Dataspace

  1. 1. from local/regional OER Silos towards an OER Global Dataspace The Open Education Global Conference 2016 Kraków, Poland from the 12th to 14th of April 2016, at the AGH University of Science and Technology. The theme of #oeglobal is Convergence Through Collaboration. Nelson Piedra | @nopiedra Nelson Piedra, Janneth Chicaiza, Jorge López Universidad Técnica particular de Loja, Ecuador Departamento de Ciencias de la Computación Loja, Ecuador nopiedra@utpl.edu.ec, {jachicaiza, jalopez2}@utpl.edu.ec Edmundo Tovar Caro Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Dpto. Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos e Ingeniería Software edmundo.tovar@upm.es
  2. 2. Summary: Connect Distributed and Heterogeneous Open Educational Data And Resources across the Web • The problem: In recent years, distributed and heterogeneous data stores has gaining attention of many researchers that attempts to logically interoperate and integrate several different independent distributed heterogeneous data stores while allowing the local systems to maintain complete control of their operations. In the OER context, the heterogeneous and distributed repositories/resources connection is only theoretically feasible, but unfeasible in practice because of the extremely heterogeneous and distributed environment. Sometimes the ability to access, re-use, and integrate data sources, providing a wide degree of flexibility and interoperability in a federated environment, even cannot be established. • Goal: Use Semantic Web approach and Linked data technologies to consolidate and integrate OER repositories and resources to ensure the best discovery, use, and reuse of OER. Linked data is essential to connect the semantic web. • Approach: Linked Data is about using the Web to connect related data that wasn't previously linked, or using the Web to lower the barriers to linking data currently linked using other methods. More specifically, Wikipedia defines Linked Data as "a term used to describe a recommended best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and RDF.” [Tim Berners-Lee, 2006]. Currently, Linked Data delivers the most scalable and best performing interoperability available for Web data sources.
  3. 3. to remember, OPEN: "A piece of knowledge is open if you are free to use, reuse, adapt and redistribute it" http://www.opendefinition.org/okd @nopiedra #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UPM #UTPL
  4. 4. CHALLENGES TO ADOPTING OER • The barriers that faculty cite impacting the adoption of OER are related to the ease of finding, selecting the appropriate resource and evaluation of OER [1]. • Difficults reported are: No comprehensive catalog; Too hard to find what I need; Not enough resources for my subject; Not knowing if I have permission to use or change; Not relevant to my local context; Not high- quality (e.g. see [23]); Not used by other faculty I know; Lack of support from my institution; Too difficult to integrate into technology I use; Not effective at improving student performance; Too difficult to change or edit; Too difficult to use; Not current, up-to-date.
  5. 5. Are OER Really Open? No, there is still much to do. OER are made available under a Open License. However, legally free not imply that the OER is easy to discover, use, reuse, adapt, remix, and share. An open license doesn’t OER make.
  6. 6. Open license is not enough!
  7. 7. Current OER Ecosystem: Distributed Silos Limited discovering integration, single access,
  8. 8. Current OER Ecosystem: Distributed Silos Limited discovering integration, single access Business Architecture Information Architecture Technological Layer Presentation Layer OER Information System A: (autonomous, heterogeneous and distributed) Repository Storage Layer (Deposits, collections, metadata catalogue) Silo WebServices/API Business Architecture Information Architecture Technological Layer Presentation Layer OER Information System B: (autonomous, heterogeneous and distributed) Repository Storage Layer (Deposits, collections, metadata catalogue) Silo WebServices/API Business Architecture Information Architecture Technological Layer Presentation Layer OER Information System C: (autonomous, heterogeneous and distributed) Repository Storage Layer (Deposits, collections, metadata catalogue) Silo WebServices/API The Web - HTTP @nopiedra2015
  9. 9. Current SituaZon: OER Silos • Heterogeneous OER structures/ technologies/semanZcs. • Large amounts of unstructured, and semi-structured data. • Although the collected data from open educaZonal repositories may have certain structure accepted by community, but not all OER data have an similar or compa;ble structure and meaning. • Open educaZon materiales are shared as InformaZon Silos or "Walled Gardens”.
  10. 10. The Tower of Babel by Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1563) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tower_of_Babel OER ecosystem?
  11. 11. Challenge: connect silos of OER data distributed across the Web
  12. 12. An opportunity for OER Community: The presence of OER silos impedes the interoperability, discovery, synthesis, and flow of knowledge. Additionally, It’s difficult to develop tools for consume global OER from multiple OER silos.
  13. 13. Goal: Exploitation and integration of heterogeneous and distributed datasets. Tools: Queries, analysis, and visualizations datastore Technologies and methodologies Models Layers, data, symbology Metadata Services OER Repository B Regional Initiative datastore Technologies and methodologies Models Metadata and standards Services OER Directory C OER Consorcia Layers, data, symbology Datastore Technologies and methodologies Models Layers, data, symbology Metadata Services OER Repository A Local/National Initiative Challenge: connect silos of OER data distributed across the Web Scenario: heterogeneous and distribute environment Problem: (a) lack of integration and interoperability facilities (b) overlap of information (c) ambiguity in identification of resources (d) heterogeneity Other Datasources OER Silo A OER Silo B OER Silo C OER Silo DData Requirement OER query, explore, re-use, re.mix
  14. 14. (z)autonom y heterogeneity (x) distribution(y) subordinating homogenizing centralizing Managers have been told to break down the walls between siloed information systems. A information silo is a system that operates in isolation or separately from others systems. P1 P2 Current OER Ecosystem: Distributed Silos
  15. 15. The Solution not is: subordinating, homogenizing, or centralizing OER Information Systems. An best approach is developing OER Semantically Interoperable Ecosystem.
  16. 16. Challenge: OER Interoperability and Global Integration Approach: Linked data have the potential of create bridges between OER data silos. Mo;va;on: Discovery and Re-use of Open Educa;onal Resources…
  17. 17. The Way: Semantic Web approach and Linked Data Technologies
  18. 18. The World Wide Web uses relatively simple technologies with sufficient scalability, efficiency and utility that they have resulted in a remarkable information space of interrelated resources, growing across languages, cultures, and media.
  19. 19. The 2001 Scientific American article by Berners-Lee, Hendler, and Lassie described an expected evolution of the existing Web to a Semantic Web. See: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/262614/1/Semantic_Web_Revisted.pdf
  20. 20. The Semantic Web A new form of Web content that is meaningful to computers will unleash a revolution of new possibilities By Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler and Ora Lassila on May 1, 2001 “The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation”. “Make the Web understandable for machines”. The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee for a web of data that can be processed by machines. See http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-semantic-web/ SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN May 2001 Volume 284, Issue 5
  21. 21. Proposal
  22. 22. Use of Linked Data on OER Domain • The philosophy of Linked Data is that the value and usefulness of data increase in proportion to their links with other data. • The goal of Linked Data is to enable human beings to easily share structured data via the Web just as they share documents now. • On this ground, Linked Data uses the Web to create different types of links among data from different sources.
  23. 23. <href> <href> <href> <href> <href> <href> <href> <href> <href> from Web of Documents (unstructured information) to Web of Linked Data (structured information) RDF Links <> HTML <> HTML <> HTML <> HTML <> HTML <> HTML <> HTML <> HTML <href> Towards single OER global dataspace Using RDF to publish structure data on the Web, ontologies as an explicit specification of a conceptualization, URI for every Web resource, and linking between data resources within different data sources. @nopiedra2016
  24. 24. Linked Data is Data Interoperability The need for communication and interoperation between autonomous and distributed information systems is increasing with the increasing usage of the Web. e.g. interoperability between heterogeneous and distributed environments TED2009 Tim Berners-Lee on the next Web
  25. 25. Breaking down the walls. Understanding an greater empathy. (z)autonom y heterogeneity (x) distribution(y) W orking togetherand connecting experiences Connectand informationexchange Autonomy, heterogeneity and distribution are not the bigger problem. The key problem is the presence of silos and poor collaboration to establish agreements towards global interoperability. The LOD4OER initiative is a effort fostering global collaboration to address interoperability and integration challenges in OER ecosystem and open education. Silos and isolation must stop. The way is breaking down the silos and facilitating collaboration. Grade of Interoperability P(x,y,z) @nopiedra2016 OER Interoperability, the ability of OER information systems to exchange and make use of information. OER Ecosystem Semantically Interoperable
  26. 26. • Because LinkedData holds the potential to move our OER collections out of their silos • Open the data and content silos, to leverage the knowledge capital represented by our OER repositories • To enrich our information landscape, to improve visibility • To improve ease of discovery open academic resources • To improve ease of consumption and reuse of OER • To reduce redundancy in searched of OER • Promoting innovation and Added Value to Open Educational Content Why publish Linked OER Data?
  27. 27. EXAMPLE: raw data within UPM opencourseware web page Title OCW University Author(s) year description knowledge area bibliography ects credits time autoself Department syllabus
  28. 28. Linked Data for OER Principles LOD4OER approach is based on The Linked Data Design Issues, in OER context, are: 1. Use URIs as names for things, which can be unambiguously identified (e.g. OERs, coursewares, OER creators, OER providers, knowledge areas,) 2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. With the aid of URIs, the corresponding OER data and relevant interlinked data can be dereferenced. 3. RDF to describe and SPARQL to queries. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL) to describe linked OER data, which are machine-readable and repurposed to serve the proposed architecture to enhance integration with reused and interoperated OER data. 4. Include links to other URIs, so that they can discover more entities. Linked Data—particularly data available using open licenses—has an important role to play on information systems and could be a key feature for Open Education based on OER data on the Web of Data. HTTP URI RDF SPARQL
  29. 29. HTTP-URIs to denote/identifies anything at all through the Web. URIs, in the web architecture, have been used to"information resources” or web-pages, leaving a consistent architecture.
  30. 30. RDF enables you to open your data to applications through the Web. RDF is very flexible and extensible. RDF is a way of recording and sharing semantic information about resources. RDF Triples Resource Description Framework" subject <uri> traits or aspects of the resource predicate typed-link traits or aspects of the resource object <uri> or “literal” traits or aspects of the resource
  31. 31. oerLOD4 powered by linked open data for open educational resources
  32. 32. OER Community OER Interoperability Framework Goal: Define and promoting semantic interoperability between OER repositories
  33. 33. the goal is enhance the discoverability, reuse and integration of OER into classroom instruction. From a general perspective, the framework is the synergy between Linked OER Data and human expertise. Proposed framework
  34. 34. Synergy Human Expert and Linked OER Data System The proposed framework combines the traditions of knowledge sharing and creation (human power) with emergent technology to create a vast ecosystem of openly shared educational resources, while harnessing today’s collaborative spirit to develop educational approaches that are more responsive to learner’s needs. @nopiedra 2016
  35. 35. OER Ecosystem (Global OER Dataspace Semantically Interoperable) OER ecosystem composed of silos of information — heterogeneous, autonomous and distributed. OER Silo B OER Silo A Models: OWL, RDFS, SKOS OER Silo C Information exchange and Queries: RDF and SPARQL Global names for OER entities: HTTP-URIs enables data from different sources to be connected and queried. The Web as Platform Federated Queries OER services/applications based on LOD4OER OER Ecosystem Semantically Interoperable Global OER Dataspace — Efficient and effective cross-border and cross- knowledge interaction/integration between information systems. Linked Data is used to publishing structured data so that it can be interlinked and become more useful.
  36. 36. LOD4OER Framework
  37. 37. Open Educational Resources Ecosystem Goal: Define and promoting semantic interoperability between OER information systems (autonomous, heterogeneous and distribute). OER Interoperability Considerations OER Interoperability Ecosystem Efficient and effective cross-border and cross-knowledge interaction/integration between OER information systems (autonomous, heterogeneous and distributed) Organizational Considerations Technological Considerations Legal Considerations (open licensing) Agreements Strategy vision & Support Setting strategic goals, requirements, priorities and support common agreements of collaboration (LOD4OER work force). Web of LD OER Data Provider SPARQL endpoint OER Data Provider SPARQL endpoint SPARQL endpoint OER Data integrator OER OER OER OER metadata/data as Linked Open Data Continuous improvement Context: Open Education, EFA and OER Declarations; International effort in production of OER, development of OER Practices, agreements about interoperability, sharing and reuse; LD best practices and tools. Actors: OER providers, OER consumers, OER consortia, researchers, and developers. OER Community OER4LOD Life-cycle Semantic Resources Best Practices User interface and OER Applications based on LOD4OER OER APPs and Mashups OER Search and Discovery Productivity and data integration Information and Semantics Considerations ⚙ OER Apps based on LOD4OER
  38. 38. LOD4OER Life-Cycle
  39. 39. Data source analysis: identify OER providers & select content/ resources offered with a free and open license. i. Select sources of data (information sources) • Specification: scope and explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by LOD4OER. • Describe the main technical features of the data selected. Concept mapping base URI: http://purl.org/locwd/ RDFS: http://purl.org/locwd/schema# Resources: http://purl.org/locwd/resources/ URI design Vocabulary development (search/reuse ontologies) ii. Ontology modelling LOD4OER Common and consensuated ontology 2 3 4 iii. Generation of RDF resources Define data patterns for RDF conversion Data cleansing (detecting and correcting corrupt or inaccurate data), disambiguation & data reconciliation Content extraction from selected datasources (APIs, sql, csv, JSON, WS, or scraping for non-structured content) iv. Data publication (storage level) Data enrichment Extractor of data patterns (entity recognition, classification & clustering) • Generation of URI Cools • Create RDF links to resources in the LOD- Cloud) Publish extracted data as LinkedData 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Sparql EndPoint Repositories of Open Educational Resources OER mobile data visualization recommender systems (for use, reuse and adaptation of OER) OER discovery tools Faceted semantic search OER Apps based on Linked Data Learning assistant based on OER LOD4OER Triple-store Linked OER Data • URIs for OER things • RDF for describe Entities • Links to other LOD-things v. Application Layer 11 12 raw content raw data Facilitate finding, retrieving, sharing and adaptation of OER linked data design issues and data quality assurance OCW-S Builder (MOOCs based on OER) OER-nuggets @nopiedra #OCW #OER #LOCWD #LinkedData #UPM #UTPL LOERD: Linked OpenEducationalResources Data Public DomainAPI Open Educational Resources Providers
  40. 40. OER Interoperability Ecosystem Efficient and effective cross-border and cross-knowledge interaction/integration between OER repositories @nopiedra LOD4OER OER APPs and Mashups OER Search and Discovery Productivity and data integration User interface and OER Applications Information interchange: RDF RDF (& RDF Schema relationships semantics are accessible and comprehensible to humans and machines= Linked OER Data storage and publishing Query: SPARQL Identifiers: URI/IRI UNICODE Representational Vocabularies: RDFS, SKOS Ontologies: OWL The Web as Platform: HTTP (as Transport layer) Semantic Web Infraestructure: LOD4OER OER’s Silos An information or data silo is an isolated management system incapable of reciprocal operation with other, related information systems. OER Information silo occurs whenever a OER system is incompatible or not interoperable with other OER systems. Hyperlinks (<href>) are not sufficient to achieve semantic interoperability between OER repositories. <> HTML <href> <href> <> HTML <> HTML Interoperability Framework Goal: Define and promoting semantic interoperability between OER repositories Methodology from OER Silos (Web of Documents - Unstructured information) to OER Interoperability (Web of Linked Data - structured information) OER Community EFA and OER Vision; agreements about interoperability; LD work force, promotes collaboration, sharing and reuse de best practices and tools (Current OER publication) Actions from/to Extraction, Transformation and Loading Continuous improvement Propose future actions. Analyze & Validate. Action Construction and Operation of Semantic Interoperability OER datastores. Guidelines to Implementation Semantic Interoperability Guidelines to contribute to the convergence of interoperable OER services. Design Interoperability approach based in SemWeb and LD technologies Openness: publication, discovery, use, reuse, adaption, add value, remix, and redistribute of OER repositories SemanticWebApproachandLinkedDataDesignIssues |OpenLicensingQualityAssurance|DataProvenance |ReuseResources,LDBestPracticesandTools Definitions and Initial Setting strategic priorities and objectives. Common agreements. OER Actors: providers, consumers, consortia, researchers, developers Strategy and Support
  41. 41. OER Interoperability Ecosystem Efficient and effective cross-border and cross-knowledge interaction/integration between OER repositories OER Community @nopiedra LOD4OER User interface and OER Applications Information interchange: RDF RDF (Resource Description Framework ) is a model for representing data as triples. Linked OER Data storage and publishing Query: SPARQL SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language provides a way to run Structured Queries over LD datasets Identifiers: URI/IRI UNICODE A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) provides a simple and extensible means for identifying a resource. Representational Vocabularies: RDFS, SKOS Vocabularies provide lists (and definitions) of common terms that can be used to describe the contents of a dataset - definitions of classes, properties, relations, and other objects. Ontologies: OWL “An explicit specification of a conceptualization” (Gruber ontology definition). The ontology defines (specifies) the concepts, relationships, constraints and other distinctions that are relevant for modeling a domain (i.e. OER). The Web as Platform: HTTP (as Transport layer) OER data is hosted on servers that can talk Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to each other and to browsers in order to exchange data across the Internet. Semantic Web Infraestructure: LOD4OER OER Users: teachers, students, self- learners, researchers OER Providers, Universities, OER Consortia, OA Initiatives/Repositories. International declarations and common agreements to support OER vision about OER and EFA (Education for ALL). Impulse, development and maintenance of Interoperable Open Educational Resources ecosystem. EFA and OER Vision; agreements about interoperability; LD work force, promotes collaboration, sharing and reuse de best practices and tools Elements of a Linked Open Data Stack. Adapted from Tim Berners-Lee LD Stack, and draft sketch by Tim Davis for IKM Working Paper on Linked Open Data for Development. OER APPs and Mashups Mashups combine multiple OER and OA datasets to create a new OER service, data visualization, recommender systems, mobile apps. Search/Discovery Linked Data search engines allow search across the Web of Data. Conventional search may present information derived from linked data (e.g. WS and JSON-LD). Productivity Linked data facilitates data integration for business intelligence or research. Strategy and Support Interoperability Framework Goal: Define and promoting semantic interoperability between OER repositories Methodology Continuous improvement Propose future actions. Analyze & Validate. Action Construction and Operation of Semantic Interoperability OER datastores. Guidelines to Implementation Semantic Interoperability Guidelines to contribute to the convergence of interoperable OER services. Design Interoperability approach based in SemWeb and LD technologies Openness: publication, discovery, use, reuse, adaption, add value, remix, and redistribute of OER repositories SemanticWebApproachandLinkedDataDesignIssues |OpenLicensingQualityAssurance|DataProvenance |ReuseResources,LDBestPracticesandTools Definitions and Initial Setting strategic priorities and objectives. Common agreements.
  42. 42. The notion of Class in RDFS rdfs:Class 🏫 ⚙ ⛏ 📊 ⚖ 💎 👪 🌎 🔬 🏖 🎻 🏢 🐞 🐄🐛 🎭 Una clase es un conjunto de recursos que tienen características y representaciones comunes en un universo de discurso. rdf:type
  43. 43. The notion of instance 👪 :Persona rdf:type rdfs:Class . A particular issue of class is named an instance of class rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type
  44. 44. SPARQL can be used to express queries across diverse data sources, whether the data is stored natively as RDF or viewed as RDF via middleware.
  45. 45. A SPARQL query example that models the question "What are all the country capitals in Africa?": PREFIX ex: <http://example.com/exampleOntology#> SELECT ?capital ?country WHERE { ?x ex:cityname ?capital ; ex:isCapitalOf ?y . ?y ex:countryname ?country ; ex:isInContinent ex:Africa . }
  46. 46. Linking OER data to other linked open data.
  47. 47. The State of the LOD Cloud 2014 document provides statistics about the structure and content of the crawlable subset of the LOD cloud in April 2014. LInked OER Data & LOD-CLOUD
  48. 48. @nopiedra2015 Extracción Mapeo Transformación Publicación Photo: iStock Información no estructurada Datos estructurados from WIKIPEDIA to DBPEDIA
  49. 49. Webpage: Cordillera de Los Andes http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cordillera_de_los_Andes Resource: Cordillera de Los Andes http://es-la.dbpedia.org/resource/Cordillera_de_los_Andes @nopiedra2015 SPARQL endpoint: http://es-la.dbpedia.org/sparql graph:http://es-la.dbpedia.org/graph/data
  50. 50. Case of Use 1. Interoperability of Open Access Repositories
  51. 51. Open Educational Resources Ecosystem OER Repository OER metadata/data as Linked Open Data Extraction, Data Preprocessing, Vocabulary Modeling, RDF Transformation, Data Linking, Publication and Maintenance OER APPs and Mashups OER Search and Discovery Productivity and data integration Access Interface Federated SPARQL endpoint Ad hoc queries User Interface & OER App Methodology Input LOD4OER Transformation ⚙ LD Consume OutputSemantic Interoperability Guidelines to contribute to the convergence of interoperable OER services.
  52. 52. OAI-PMH vs Linked Data Data Provider Data Provider Data Provider Harvester Requests (OAI “verbs”): Identify, ListMetadataFormats; ListSets; ListRecords; ListIdentifiers Responses: General Information; Metadata formats; Set structure; Record identifier; Metadata Web OAI-PMHOAI-PMHOAI-PMH Data Provider Data Provider Data Provider Federated SPARQL endpoint Web SPARQL endpoint SPARQL endpoint SPARQL endpoint a. Approach Using OAI-PMH. The Web is an transport infrastructure of data and metadata. b. Approach based on Linked Open Data The data and metadata are part of the same web. Fedora, DSpace, and EPrints implement the OAI-PMH protocol by default. Service Provider SPARQL endpoint @nopiedra2015 Data integrator
  53. 53. OER about a specific subject SPARQL endpoint: http://data.utpl.edu.ec/serendipity/oar/sparql Graph: http://data.utpl.edu.ec/serendipity/oar SELECT DISTINCT ?bibresource ?title WHERE { ?bibresource a <http://purl.org/dc/terms/BibliographicResource> . ?bibresource <http://purl.org/dc/terms/title> ?title . ?bibresource <http://purl.org/dc/terms/subject> ?subject . ?bibresource <http://purl.org/dc/terms/description> ?desc . FILTER ( REGEX(?title, "Accesibilidad", "i") || REGEX(?desc, "Accesibilidad ", "i") || REGEX(?subject, "Accesibilidad", "i")) } bibresource title http://data.utpl.edu.ec/serendipity/oar/resource/ 41219a41e42cec29b7ff332ff2dd6cea "Análisis de la atención a las personas con discapacidad a través de los programas y servicios de accesibilidad y recreación, para grupos de atención prioritaria en la Provincia de Cotopaxi en el año 2012"http://data.utpl.edu.ec/serendipity/oar/resource/ 0fc11a4209b97e27186c9b70aaf0a12b "Medios de comunicación y el trabajo en la red con herramientas web 2.0"
  54. 54. Case of Use 2. Global Discovery and Reuse of OER for MOOC/courseware design
  55. 55. Prototype: • The framework provides an approach that allows to Courseware Designers to discover and access open educational resources that are extracted from open repositories distributed. • Therefore, a challenge for the community is promoting OER initiatives with channels that facilitate the discovery, use and reuse for teachers, students and self-learners incorporate them in the educative practice. • From a technical point of view, the openness of OERs covers issues such as interoperability and discovery. In previous work we have presented how these features can be enhanced by applying Semantic Web technologies and Linked Data.
  56. 56. The education is seen as an essential, shared, re- used, adapted, and collaborative social good. OER movement envisions a world where everyone, everywhere, anytime has access to the high quality education and training they desire Conceptual View
  57. 57. Technical View
  58. 58. Conclusions • Linked Data technologies can also help to integrate the work of disperse institutions producing diverse linked data. • Linked Open Data (LOD) is well known for providing a extensive amount of detailed and structured information. • Linked Data vision enables a new generation of open educational resources that can be semantically described and connected with other data and discoverable sources.
  59. 59. gracias! @nopiedra nopiedra@utpl.edu.ec The Open Education Global Conference 2016 Kraków, Poland from the 12th to 14th of April 2016, at the AGH University of Science and Technology. The theme of #oeglobal is Convergence Through Collaboration. from local/regional OER Silos towards an OER Global Dataspace
  60. 60. References [1] I. E. Allen, & J. Seaman. (2014). Opening the curriculum: Open educational resources in US higher education, 2014. Pearson: Babson Survey Research Group. [2] Bowen, W. G., Chingos, M. M., Lack, K. A., & Nygren, T. I. (2014). Interactive learning online at public universities: Evidence from a six-campus randomized trial. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 33(1), 94–111. [3] D. R. Garrison, N. D. Vaughan, N. D. (2008). Blended learning in higher education: Framework, principles, and guidelines. John Wiley & Sons. [4] C. Dziuban, P. Moskal, & J. Hartman. (2005). Higher education, blended learning, and the generations: Knowledge is power: No more. Elements of quality online education: Engaging communities. Needham, MA: Sloan Center for Online Education. [5] Hewlett (2013). Open educational resources. http://www.hewlett.org/programs/education-program/open-educational-resources [6] Hilton III, J. L., & Laman, C. (2012). One college’s use of an open psychology textbook. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 27(3), 265–272. [7] Hilton III, J. L., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four ‘R’s of openness and ALMS analysis: Frameworks for open educational resources. Open Learning, 25(1), 37–44. [8] J. Kenney, & E. Newcombe. (2011). Adopting a Blended Learning Approach: Challenges Encountered and Lessons Learned in an Action Research Study. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 15(1), 45-57. [9] M. Lovett, O. Meyer, & C. & Thille. (2010). JIME-The open learning initiative: Measuring the effectiveness of the OLI statistics course in accelerating student learning. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2008(1), Art-13. [10] ICESC (1976). International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/cescr.aspx [11] J. Chicaiza, N. Piedra, J. López-Vargas, & E. Tovar. Domain Categorization of Open Educational Resources Based on Linked Data Sources. Communications in Computer and Information Science, Springer Verlag, 2014 [12] United Nations (1948). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). United Nations General Assembly. 10 December 1948. Paris. 1948. http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/ [13] UNESCO. (2000). The Dakar framework for action. Paris: UNESCO. 2000 http://www.unesco.org/education/wef/en-conf/dakframeng.shtm [14] UNESCO (2002). UNESCO Promotes New Initiative for Free Educational Resources on the Internet. Retrieved 29/06/2010 from: http://www.unesco.org/education/news_en/080702_free _edu_ress.shtml. [15] A. G. Picciano. (2011). Introduction to the special issue on transitioning to blended learning. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 15(1). [16] Wiley, D., Bliss, T. J., & McEwen, M. (2014). Open educational resources: A review of the literature. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 781–789). New York: Springer. [17] R. Kaleta, K. Skibba, & T. Joosten (2007). Discovering, designing, and delivering hybrid courses. Blended learning: Research perspectives, 111-143. [18] N. D. Vaughan. (2010). A blended community of inquiry approach: Linking student engagement and course redesign. The Internet and Higher Education, 13(1), 60-65. [19] Vignare, K. (2007). Review of literature, blended learning: Using ALN to change the classroom–will it work. Blended learning: Research perspectives, 37-63. [20] S. Wilson Future VLE —the visual version; 2005. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/scott/blogview?entry1⁄420050125170206 [21] S. Wilson. Patterns of personal learning environments. Interact Learn Env. 2008;16(1):17–34. [22] Heath, T. & Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Synthesis Lectures on the Semantic Web: Theory and Technology, 1(1), pp. 1-136, Morgan & Claypool. 2011. [23] A. Romero Peláez, N. Piedra Pullaguari, E. Tovar Caro. (2011) Quality model proposal for educational material production in OCW sites. IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON 2011. 1074-1080; Amman; Jordan; 4 April 2011 DOI: 10.1109/ EDUCON.2011.5773281. [24] Abeywardena, I. S. (2012) The Re-use and Adaptation of Open Educational: Resources (OER). An Exploration of Technologies Availables. Commonwealth of Learning. [25] M. Abrams. (1998) World Wide Web - Beyond the Basics, Prentice Hall, 1998. Disponible en http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~wwwbtb/book/. [26] J. Lopez-Vargas, N. Piedra, J. Chicaiza, E. Tovar. (2015) OER Recommendation for Entrepreneurship Using a Framework Based on Social Network Analysis. Revista Iberoamericana de Tecnologias del Aprendizaje; (RITA). Volume 10, Issue 4, 1 November 2015, 262-268. DOI: 10.1109/RITA.2015.2486387. [27] Berners-Lee, T. (1989) Information Management: A Proposal. 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  61. 61. • Good practice: Identify with URIs. To benefit from and increase the value of the World Wide Web, agents should provide URIs as identifiers for resources. • Constraint: URIs Identify a Single Resource. Assign distinct URIs to distinct resources. • Good practice: Avoiding URI aliases. A URI owner SHOULD NOT associate arbitrarily different URIs with the same resource. • Good practice: Reuse URI schemes. A specification SHOULD reuse an existing URI scheme (rather than create a new one) when it provides the desired properties of identifiers and their relation to resources.

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