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Designing MOOCs to Support Use of Different Types of Knowledge Resources in Learning Anytime, Anywhere


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Esther Tan & Christian M. Stracke

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Designing MOOCs to Support Use of Different Types of Knowledge Resources in Learning Anytime, Anywhere

  1. 1. Designing MOOCs to Support Use of Different Types of Knowledge Resources in Learning Anytime, Anywhere OE Global Conference 2016 Krakow, Poland Esther Tan & Christian M. Stracke
  2. 2. 1. Research Context 2. Theoretical Framework 3. Case Study § Research design § Data analysis § Data findings 4. Discussion & Conclusion Presentation Outline
  3. 3. Explore MOOC to support learning anytime, anywhere Harness affordances of MOOCs & mobile technologies to connect remote learners & learners on location to contextualize and concretize the learning experience. (Sharples, Kloos, Dimitriadis, Garlatti & Specht, 2015) Research Context
  4. 4. 1. Outdoor Learning as Environmental Interaction & Situated Learning § Technological affordances redefines learning spaces: “…learning anytime, anywhere” (Milrad & Spikol, 2007) § The situatedness of the learning experience in Outdoor learning (Kerawalla et al., 2012) & Mobile learning (Sharples, Taylor & Vavoula, 2007) § “knowing as activity by specific people in specific circumstances” (Lave & Wenger, p. 52) ***The criticality of understanding learners’ interaction with the specific learning context to create and construct knowledge in the meaning-making process. Theoretical Framework
  5. 5. 2. Knowledge Resources for Situated Learning Theoretical Framework Prior knowledge New Conceptual Knowledge Contextual knowledge Figure 1: Knowledge resources in collaborative meaning-making process (Fischer & Mandl, 2005) Learning materials & information on a given topic Existing knowledge learners possess on a given topic New theoretical concepts owing to interaction with the situated learning context
  6. 6. Participants (Future School @ Singapore Project) § School of Science & Technology § 2 classes of secondary two students § High ability (Group A) & mixed ability (Group B) Case Study
  7. 7. Process-oriented design to frame learners’ discourse and interaction with the environment and with peers 1. Learning objectives 2. Task Type 3. Level of pre-structuring 4. Technology mediation Research Design
  8. 8. 1. Learning objectives: § Inquiry-based Learning: BIG Question (BIG: Beyond Information Given) § Collaborative Knowledge Building § Integrated conceptual understanding (History, Geography & Biology) Research Design
  9. 9. BIG Question: Why does civilisation begin at the mouth of a river? Research Design Figure 2: Singapore River Mystery Trail
  10. 10. 2. Task Type: § Task structuredness: well-structured to ill-structured task Research Design Task type Description of tasks Performative 1. Measure the river water conditions Knowledge Generative 2. Describe the ideal water conditions Knowledge Synthesis 3. Discuss the importance of water quality
  11. 11. 3. Level of pre-structuring § Position the learning trail as part of formal curriculum with pre & post-trail phase § Provide an unstructured activity for small groups to pursue their own research inquiries after the completion of all trail activities Research Design Pre-Trial Tune-in Activity In-Trail Activities Post-Trial Summary of learning
  12. 12. 4. Technology mediation § Web-based platform hosting trail activities § Virtual facilitation: broadcast alert & feedback § Data-loggers & iPad with embedded apps Research Design Figure 3: Students measure water conditions and enter responses in the web-based platform
  13. 13. 1a. What types of knowledge resources do learners use in the meaning-making process in a situated learning context? 1b. How can we design MOOCs to support the meaning-making process and to enhance the quality of the learning experiences of ‘anytime, anywhere’? Research Questions
  14. 14. Data Source § Audio footage: verbatim transcription § Video footage § Field notes Data Analysis § Content analysis: use of semantic boundaries, i.e., discussion threads, ideas and turn of talks to define an unit of analysis (Chi, 1997) § Coding scheme on content dimension (Fischer & Mandl, 2005) to investigate the use of different knowledge resource types Data Source & Analysis
  15. 15. Data Findings Figure 4: Frequency of Knowledge Resources Types Used in Group Discourse Note: CR= Contextual Resources, NCR= New Conceptual Resources, CR & NCR = Relations between Contextual Resources and New Conceptual Resources, PKR = Prior Knowledge Resources, CR & PKR = Relations between Contextual Resources & Prior Knowledge Resources.
  16. 16. § Both groups showed high usage of CR as compared to other knowledge resource types § Both groups generated higher number of CR & NCR statements than CR & PKR statements § Both groups showed that CR & interaction with the physical environment play a significant role in learners’ ability to develop NCR § Development of NCR is contingent on the interaction with the rich physical affordances Data Findings
  17. 17. 1. Learning Anytime, Anywhere (Situated Learning) § Involves (environmental) interaction with a specific context § Involves re-contextualisation & concretising the different types of knowledge resources in that specific context 2. Design MOOCs to support situated learning context, i.e., to connect MOOCs learners & learners on site § Includes provision of a baseline contextual resources § Includes supporting development of new contextual resources § Includes scaffolding development of new conceptual resources to facilitate the co-construction of new knowledge and/ or advancing knowledge Discussion & Conclusion
  18. 18. § Fischer, F. & Mandl, H. (2005). Knowledge Convergence in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: the Role of External Representation Tools. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 14 (3), 405-441. § Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. § Milrad, M., & Spikol, D. (2007). Anytime, anywhere learning supported by smart phones: Experiences and results from the MUSIS project. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 10(4), 62-70. Reference
  19. 19. § Orion, N., & Hofstein, A. (1994). Factoring that influence learning during a scientific field trip in a natural environment. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31(10), 1097-1119. § Sharples, M., Taylor, J., & Vavoula, G. (2007). A Theory of Learning for the Mobile Age. In R. Andrews and C. Haythornthwaite (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Elearning Research (pp. 221-247). London: Sage, § Sharples, M., Kloos, C. D., Dimitriadis, Y., Garlatti, S., & Specht, M. (2015). Mobile and Accessible Learning for MOOCs. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2015 (1). Reference
  20. 20. Asst. Prof. Dr. Esther Tan Assoc. Prof. Dr. Christian M. Stracke Contact Information
  21. 21. Thank you... Questions & Discussion