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THE ECONOMIC
CONSEQUENCES OF BREXIT:
A TAXING DECISION
27 April 2016
http://www.oecd.org/economy/the-economic-consequences...
Key results
2
Impact of Brexit in the United Kingdom
through channels and over time
Source: OECD calculations.
Difference in real GDP re...
The context
4
Since EU membership in 1973, UK living
standards have risen more than in peers
1. In constant purchasing power parities.
S...
1. Data for GDP adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP) refer to 2014. Data for population refer to 2013. Population fi...
Uncertainty has started to affect the economy
7
People’s voting intentions are neck and neck
Source: Polling agencies and ECO calculations.
Weighted average of available ...
Economic policy uncertainty is increasing1
1. The newspaper-based Economic Policy Uncertainty Index for the United Kingdom...
Brexit risk has begun to affect financial markets in
the United Kingdom and the euro area
1. Five-year senior debt, mid-ra...
Uncertainty about Brexit has led to capital outflows
and a weaker exchange rate
Source: Datastream.
11
Brexit generates an important interest in the
United Kingdom and beyond
Adjusted for population size.
Source: Google Trend...
Near-term consequences of Brexit
13
1. All data are three month moving averages, ending in the current month. The corporate bond spread is the spread between ...
Financing of the large current account deficit of
the United Kingdom requires substantial inflows
As a percentage of GDP1
...
1. European Union excluding the United Kingdom.
2. The balance on primary income shows net primary income flows between re...
UK exports of financial services are large
Exports of financial services, as a percentage of GDP1
EBOPS: extended balance ...
Possible post-Brexit arrangements with the
European Union
Source: OECD compilation.
18
Arrangement Example Characteristics...
Length of Free Trade Agreement negotiations,
examples
Source: OECD compilation.
19
Negotiation Time (years)
Switzerland – ...
MFN rules for trade with the EU and other
countries
FTA with the EU and MFN rules for
trade with other countries
Total UK ...
Near-term effects of Brexit on real GDP in the
United Kingdom and the European Union
Source: OECD calculations.
21
Differe...
Longer-term consequences of Brexit
22
Immigration from the European Union
has been rising
Inflows of migrants to the United Kingdom in thousands1
1. Rolling ann...
European Union immigrants are well attached
to the job market and have good skills
1. PAK: Pakistan. BGD: Bangladesh. Afri...
Immigration is an important driver of employment
and GDP growth in the United Kingdom
1. The sum of contributions of emplo...
Immigrant households make a positive net
contribution to public finances
Average net direct fiscal contribution of househo...
The United Kingdom is an attractive destination
for foreign direct investment (FDI)
1. EU15 refers to Austria, Belgium, De...
Estimated gains to the level of labour productivity
from reforms related to managerial quality
Percentage points
Source: A...
Regulation of network industries is low in the United
Kingdom, leaving little scope for further reductions
Index scale of ...
Source: OECD calculations.
Assumptions for longer-term scenarios
30
Optimistic Central Pessimistic
Trade % -10 -15 -20
Inw...
Longer-term effects of Brexit on real GDP in the
United Kingdom
Difference from baseline, 2030
Source: OECD calculations.
...
Longer-term effects of Brexit on UK net worth
Difference from baseline, in 2005 prices, 2030
Source: OECD calculations.
32...
Conclusion
33
Comparison of recent studies on the impact of
Brexit on the United Kingdom
Source: OECD calculations; CBI/PwC study: PwC (...
35
For more information
Underlying data is available from within the Policy paper
document at the following web page.
Disc...
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Economic consequences of brexit OECD April 2016

  1. 1. THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF BREXIT: A TAXING DECISION 27 April 2016 http://www.oecd.org/economy/the-economic-consequences-of-brexit-a-taxing-decision.htm @OECD @OECDeconomy
  2. 2. Key results 2
  3. 3. Impact of Brexit in the United Kingdom through channels and over time Source: OECD calculations. Difference in real GDP relative to the UK staying in the EU 3 GDP (%) GBP cost equivalent per household Risk premia Confidence Trade FDI Skills Immigration Deregulation Near term:2020 -3.3% -2200 x x x x Central -5.1% -3200 x x x x x Optimistic -2.7% -1500 x x x x x Pessimistic -7.7% -5000 x x x x Longer term:2030 Scenarios Outcomes Channels
  4. 4. The context 4
  5. 5. Since EU membership in 1973, UK living standards have risen more than in peers 1. In constant purchasing power parities. Source: OECD (2016), OECD National Accounts Statistics (database), April. Real GDP1 per capita, percentage change between 1973 and 2014 5
  6. 6. 1. Data for GDP adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP) refer to 2014. Data for population refer to 2013. Population figures for Canada and the European Union refers to 2012. Data for trade (i.e. sum of exports and imports of goods and services) refer to 2014. Trade data for the United Kingdom and the European Union exclude intra-EU trade. Data for territory refer to 2015. Source: IMF (2015), World Economic Outlook Database, October 2015, International Monetary Fund; OECD (2016), OECD Population Statistics (database), April; and World Bank (2016), World Development Indicators (database), April. Percentage share of world total1 Global economic power of the United Kingdom is greater through the European Union 6
  7. 7. Uncertainty has started to affect the economy 7
  8. 8. People’s voting intentions are neck and neck Source: Polling agencies and ECO calculations. Weighted average of available opinion polls, percentage 8
  9. 9. Economic policy uncertainty is increasing1 1. The newspaper-based Economic Policy Uncertainty Index for the United Kingdom is constructed based on articles drawn from two newspapers: The Times of London and Financial Times. The number of newspaper articles containing the terms uncertain or uncertainty, economic or economy, and one or more policy-relevant terms are counted and then scaled by a measure of the number of articles in the same newspaper and month. Newspaper-level monthly series are standardised to unit standard deviation prior to 2011. The country-level index is calculated as an unweighted average of the standardised newspaper-level monthly series, which is then normalised to a mean of 100 prior to 2011. Source: NIESR (2016), “April 2016 GDP estimates”, Press Release, National Institute of Economic and Social Research; and www.policyuncertainty.com. 9
  10. 10. Brexit risk has begun to affect financial markets in the United Kingdom and the euro area 1. Five-year senior debt, mid-rate credit default swap (CDS) spreads for sovereign bonds. Source: Datastream. 10
  11. 11. Uncertainty about Brexit has led to capital outflows and a weaker exchange rate Source: Datastream. 11
  12. 12. Brexit generates an important interest in the United Kingdom and beyond Adjusted for population size. Source: Google Trends. 12
  13. 13. Near-term consequences of Brexit 13
  14. 14. 1. All data are three month moving averages, ending in the current month. The corporate bond spread is the spread between 10-year BBB corporate bonds and the 10-year government bond rate. Policy uncertainty is measured by the Economic policy Uncertainty Index. Source: OECD calculations based on Datastream and www.policyuncertainty.com/. Corporate bond spreads are correlated with policy uncertainty and equity volatility 14
  15. 15. Financing of the large current account deficit of the United Kingdom requires substantial inflows As a percentage of GDP1 1. Figures refer to half-yearly data that is calculated as an average of two quarters. 2. Other investment includes portfolio investment, financial derivatives, trade credit, loans, currency and deposits and other assets and liabilities as well as reserve assets. Source: OECD (2016), OECD Economic Outlook: Statistics and Projections (database), April and ONS (2016), "Balance of Payments: Oct to Dec and annual 2015", Office for National Statistics, March. 15
  16. 16. 1. European Union excluding the United Kingdom. 2. The balance on primary income shows net primary income flows between resident and non-resident institutional units. Primary income captures returns for the provision of labour and financial assets and renting of natural resources. The balance on secondary income captures further redistribution of income through current transfers, such as by governments or charitable organisations. Whereas primary income affects national income, secondary income, together with primary income, affects gross national disposable income. Source: ONS (2016), "Balance of Payments: Oct to Dec and annual 2015", Office for National Statistics, March; and Eurostat (2016), Annual National Accounts (database), April. The United Kingdom and the European Union are important trade partners 16
  17. 17. UK exports of financial services are large Exports of financial services, as a percentage of GDP1 EBOPS: extended balance of payments services (classification). Source: OECD (2016), "Trade in services by partner country", in OECD International Trade and Balance of Payments (database), April. 17
  18. 18. Possible post-Brexit arrangements with the European Union Source: OECD compilation. 18 Arrangement Example Characteristics - contributions to the EU budget - free movement of goods, capital, services and people - outside the EU Customs Union - very limited influence on regulation - contributions to the EU budget - requires trade agreements with individual EU countries and across industry sectors - no passporting rights for banks - outside the EU Customs Union - very limited influence on regulation - tariff-free access to most of the EU Single Market, except for financial services - adoption of EU external tariffs for non-EU trade - very limited influence on regulation - mostly tariff-free Single Market access, but compliance needed with EU standards and product regulations - no full access for services and no automatic passporting rights for banks World Trade Organization - Most-Favoured Nation - trade with the EU subject to the EU’s common external tariff Free Trade Agreement European Economic Area (EEA) Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein European Free Trade Association (EFTA) Switzerland Customs union Turkey
  19. 19. Length of Free Trade Agreement negotiations, examples Source: OECD compilation. 19 Negotiation Time (years) Switzerland – China 4 EU – Korea 4 EU – Mexico 4 US – Australia 3 EU – Canada 5 (not yet in force) EU – Switzerland 10
  20. 20. MFN rules for trade with the EU and other countries FTA with the EU and MFN rules for trade with other countries Total UK exports -8.1% -6.4% Intermediates UK exports -8.4% -6.4% UK exports to the EU -5.8% -3.1% UK imports from the EU -9.4% -6.3% Final private consumption goods UK exports -8.2% -6.9% UK exports to the EU 0.9% -5.9% UK imports from the EU -9.7% -5.6% Capital goods UK exports -6.1% -5.6% UK exports to the EU 6.4% 0.3% UK imports from the EU -1.1% 2.2% Source: OECD compilation. Decomposition of the near-term trade shock 20
  21. 21. Near-term effects of Brexit on real GDP in the United Kingdom and the European Union Source: OECD calculations. 21 Difference from baseline, per cent
  22. 22. Longer-term consequences of Brexit 22
  23. 23. Immigration from the European Union has been rising Inflows of migrants to the United Kingdom in thousands1 1. Rolling annual data. 2. EU15 estimates are for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. EU8 estimates are for Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. EU2 estimates are for Bulgaria and Romania. There is a structural break in the data in 2010. The source for the figures for the period prior to 2010 is the International Passenger Survey, while after 2010 it is the Long-Term International Migration Statistics. Source: ONS (2016), "Migration Statistics Quarterly Report: February 2016", Office for National Statistics. 23
  24. 24. European Union immigrants are well attached to the job market and have good skills 1. PAK: Pakistan. BGD: Bangladesh. Africa excluding South Africa. RoW: Rest of the World. EU27 consists of all 27 EU member states excluding the UK. EU14 refers to Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. EU8 refers to Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovak Republic and Slovenia. EU refers to Romania and Bulgaria. 2. Data refer to population aged between 15 and 64. Source: ONS (2016), "Labour Market Statistics, March 2016", Office for National Statistics; and Eurostat (2016), "Distribution of the population by educational attainment level", in Migration Integration Indicators (database), January. 24
  25. 25. Immigration is an important driver of employment and GDP growth in the United Kingdom 1. The sum of contributions of employment growth by country of birth does not equal the sum of total employment as the series for total employment also includes people who do not state their country of birth or nationality. Source: ONS (2016), "UK Labour Market: March 2016", Statistical Bulletin, Office for National Statistics; and OECD (2016), OECD Economic Outlook: Statistics and Projections (database), April. 25
  26. 26. Immigrant households make a positive net contribution to public finances Average net direct fiscal contribution of households by migration status of the household head, 2007-2009 average, EUR (PPP adjusted) thousand Source: OECD (2013), International Migration Outlook 2013. . 26
  27. 27. The United Kingdom is an attractive destination for foreign direct investment (FDI) 1. EU15 refers to Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom. Source: UNCTAD (2016), Foreign Direct Investment (database), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, April and ONS (2015), "Foreign Direct Investment, 2014", Office for National Statistics, December. 27
  28. 28. Estimated gains to the level of labour productivity from reforms related to managerial quality Percentage points Source: Adalet McGowan, M. and D. Andrews (2015), "Labour Market Mismatch and Labour Productivity: Evidence from PIAAC Data", OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 1209, OECD Publishing. 28
  29. 29. Regulation of network industries is low in the United Kingdom, leaving little scope for further reductions Index scale of 0-6 from least to most restrictive Source: OECD (2013), OECD Product Market Regulation Database. 29
  30. 30. Source: OECD calculations. Assumptions for longer-term scenarios 30 Optimistic Central Pessimistic Trade % -10 -15 -20 Inward FDI stock % -10 -30 -45 Annual net immigration In thousands -56 -84 -116 Business R&D % of GDP -0.11 -0.29 -0.48 ETCR reduction ETCR index -0.4 -0.2 0 Decline in management quality % -5 -10 -20 Unit Scenarios
  31. 31. Longer-term effects of Brexit on real GDP in the United Kingdom Difference from baseline, 2030 Source: OECD calculations. 31 -6 000 -5 000 -4 000 -3 000 -2 000 -1 000 0 Optimistic scenario Central scenario Pessimistic scenario B. GBP cost equivalent per household -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 Optimistic scenario Central scenario Pessimistic scenario A. Impact on real GDP Per cent
  32. 32. Longer-term effects of Brexit on UK net worth Difference from baseline, in 2005 prices, 2030 Source: OECD calculations. 32 -6 000 -5 000 -4 000 -3 000 -2 000 -1 000 0 Optimistic scenario Central scenario Pessimistic scenario B. Impact on net worth per capita In GBP -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 Optimistic scenario Central scenario Pessimistic scenario A. Impact on real net worth Per cent
  33. 33. Conclusion 33
  34. 34. Comparison of recent studies on the impact of Brexit on the United Kingdom Source: OECD calculations; CBI/PwC study: PwC (2016), “Leaving the EU: Implications for the UK economy”, PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) report commissioned by The Confederation of British Industry (CBI).; LSE/CEP study: Dhingra, S., G. Ottaviano, T. Sampson and J. Van Reenen (2016), “The consequences of Brexit for UK trade and living standards”, Centre for Economic Performance (CEP), London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE); and Treasury: HM Treasury (2016), "HM Treasury analysis: the long-term economic impact of EU membership and the alternatives", April 2016. 34 OECD WTO/FTA FTA WTO Optimistic ("FTA") Pessimistic ("WTO") EEA FTA WTO Near term 2020 GDP (% ) -3.3% -3.1% -5.5% -1.3% -2.6% GBP cost equivalent per household -2200 -2100 -3700 -900 -1700 Longer term 2030 GDP (% ) -5.1% -1.2% -3.5% -3.8% -6.2% -7.5% Range -2.7% to -7.7% -6.3% to -9.5% -3.4% to -4.3% -4.6% to -7.8% -5.4% to -9.5% GBP cost equivalent per household -3200 -600 -1800 -2600 -4300 -5200 Range -1520 to -5000 -4200 to -6400 -2400 to -2900 -3200 to -5400 -3700 to -6600 Uncertainty in short-term x x x Tariffs on goods trade with the EU until 2023 x x x Non-tariff barriers on trade with the EU x x x x x x x Current FTAs with non-EU countries maintained/replaced x from 2026 x x Fall in migration x x x Fall in FDI x x x x x X Lower private R&D spending x x x X Lower managerial skills x Deregulation x x x Lower or zero contributions to EU budget x x x x x X x X CBI / Pw C LSE/ CEP Treasury Outcomes 2020 Static 2030 Dynamic Impact of leaving the EU after 15 years Channels gradually replaced
  35. 35. 35 For more information Underlying data is available from within the Policy paper document at the following web page. Disclaimers: The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law. This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. http://www.oecd.org/economy/the-economic-consequences-of-brexit-a-taxing-decision.htm
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Economic consequences of brexit OECD April 2016

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