should preferably appear in red,
but could alternatively
appear in black, grey, or
Uncovering the research process
white, if necessary.
Version 1 in red is the pre-
ferred version and should School of
Comparisons of Canadian & Japanese students in Canadian universities
be used whenever possible.
This version appears on the
University’s official letterhead
and business cards.
Version 2 is to be used only for
publications destined for distant
Yusuke Ishimura (Ph.D. candidate) | Joan C. Bartlett (Assistant Professor) places where it is believed that
the word “University” is neces-
sary for recognition.
School of Information Studies, McGill University
Other symbols of the Using the Signature,
Background Approach to the Questions Preliminary Results: Group Differences
University Coat of Arms, or Shield
Over time, a number of symbols, It is important that the full
logos, or marks have been used University signature (the shield
to identify McGill University. plus the wordmark) appear on
The coat of arms, shield, and the front cover of brochures, fly-
In order to investigate students’ research process, this study combines information behaviour models and Another ﬁnding is that Canadian students’ information behaviour is inﬂuenced by
signature illustrated above are
the only versions sanctioned for
ers, folders, newsletters, and
other printed materials produced
current use. Consult the by the University for dissemina-
information literacy. Some information behaviour models8 consider each process (i.e., information needs, personality (e.g., high motivation for research) and past experience conducting
Secretary-General for permis-
sion to use any other graphic
tion outside the University.
In instances where a document
The number of international students in Canada has greatly increased in seeking, and use) as interdependent, but do not address the quality of the process. Information literacy is research. This often results in trial and error behaviour with regard to research.
identity. Final approval rests
with the Board of Governors.
is for internal use only, or is
clearly associated with McGill,
1 the last decade. The population growth of non-American and non-
the coat of arms or shield alone
concerned with the “quality” of each behaviour in relation to its desired outcomes.9 Each step is considered Japanese students’ behaviour is often inﬂuenced by Canadian peers who they try to
may provide sufficient identifi-
European students (e.g., China, India, South Korea) is particularly as independent. This does not answer the question of how the entire process determines the quality of imitate. 6
signiﬁcant1 students’ output. Thus, combining information behaviour models and information literacy theories will
complement existing research and reveal a more complete picture of students’ information literacy. Writing Library
Using library’s Advanced
subject guides search features
Over the last 20 years, many researchers have investigated relationships Past
Information behaviour model !
between international students and information literacy skills in North experience
2 American libraries. However, academic libraries struggle to determine
how they can provide better services to international students who have
Trial & error
diverse needs, experience, and expectations2 Information Information Information " Personality
needs! seeking! use!
Users’ context! Browsing Using
- Cultural! Interest in
Academic libraries, as research centres, need to satisfy students’ unique Motivation research process
Potential! - Educational!
needs and provide them with assistance in developing the information
Corresponds with! - Linguistic!
literacy skills needed for academic success. Previous research has effects!
focused on librarians’ opinions, perceptions, and experience3 and is - Psychological! Understanding of Searching
often based on students’ self-assessment of information literacy skills4 - Social ! academic integrity catalogue
Outcomes! Outcomes! Outcomes!
Information literacy standards! Imitation
Before planning strategies to improve
Understanding of Searching
skills, it is necessary to understand how academic expectations Google
students conduct research & to what
extent they are information literate Preliminary Results: Behaviour & IL Skills
In order to complete their assignment tasks, both student groups (Canadian & Japanese) showed an Implications
iterative information behaviour process. Often, each element of the process (information needs, seeking, and
Research Questions use) inﬂuences the others during research tasks. Students who have lower information literacy (IL) skills have
weaker feedback and tend to demonstrate “linear” information behaviour. Students who have higher IL skills
‣ A focus on the iterative process is needed to improve students’ information literacy
What are Japanese students’ information behaviours during their have a stronger feedback process and their information behaviour overlaps in its sequence. ‣ Many students develop skills by themselves; they need more active support from
research tasks as compared to North American students? faculty and librarians
Another ﬁnding is that students with lower IL skills tend to spend more time in the information seeking stage ‣ Interaction between Japanese and Canadian students affects information literacy skills
‣ What factors (e.g., personal, social, and linguistic) are involved in while higher IL skills students spent more time for using information. This demonstrate that students’s main development
information behaviour during the research task? focus of their research behaviour is dependent on their IL skills. It seems that this is also associated with
students’ ability to prioritise the elements and allocate their time.
‣ This interaction is NOT necessarily effective for information literacy skills development
‣ What are their actual behaviours in relation to information literacy
‣ What differences and similarities in behaviour exist between the two groups Contact
Low IL skills!
of students? needs! use! Yusuke Ishimura: email@example.com
Information Information Joan C. Bartlett : firstname.lastname@example.org
‣ Research related behaviour
‣ Drafts and ﬁnal product 1 StatisticsCanada, "University Enrolments for International Students, by Institution, and by Country of Citizenship, Annual
‣ Email correspondence (Number), 1995/1996 to 2004/2005," Postsecondary Student Information System (PSIS).
2 Society of College, National and University Libraries, "Library Services for International Students," http://www.sconul.ac.uk/
3 Ann Curry and Deborah Copeman, "Reference Service to International Students: A Field Stimulation Research Study." Journal of
Information Academic Librarianship 31, no. 5 (2005): 409-20.
‣ Reveal context of information behaviour Information
High IL skills!
use! 4 Yusuke Ishimura, Vivian Howard, and Haidar Moukdad, "Information Literacy in Academic Libraries: Assessment of Japanese
‣ Focus on past and present experience needs! Students' Needs for Successful Assignment Completion in Two Halifax Universities," Canadian Journal of Information and Library
Science 31, no. 1 (2008): 1-26.
‣ Elicit reﬂections on the experience Information Information Information
5 John Salvia, James E. Ysseldyke, and Sara Bolt, Assessment in Special and Inclusive Education, 10th ed. (Boston: Houghton
needs! seeking! use! 6 Irving Seidman, Interviewing as Qualitative Research: A Guide for Researchers in Education and the Social Sciences, 3rd ed. (New
York: Teachers College Press, 2006).
Flowcharts7 Information 7 Carol C. Kuhlthau, Seeking Meaning: A Process Approach to Library and Information Services. 2nd ed, (Norwood, NJ: Ablex,
‣ Visualisation of entire research and decision-making seeking! 2004).
8 Tom D. Wilson, "Models in Information Behaviour Research," Journal of Documentation 55, no. 3 (1999): 249-70.
process 9 Association of College and Research Libraries. Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (Chicago: