ODDC at ICTD2013 - Research methods discussion - Media Monitoring


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At ICTD2013 the Exploring the Emerging Impacts of Open Data in Developing Countries (ODDC) network discussed different methods for open data research.

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ODDC at ICTD2013 - Research methods discussion - Media Monitoring

  1. 1. MEDIA MONITORING IN THE ODDC CASE STUDY: Investigation of the Use of the Online National Budget of Nigeria BY ODDC Research team: (University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria) Dr. Omenogo Veronica MEJABI; Dr. Adesina L. AZEEZ; Mr. Adeyinka ADEDOYIN; and Mr. Muhtahir O. OLOYEDE
  2. 2. What does this method help us to understand? • • • In Nigeria government data, including budget data is increasingly available online, direct from government or through intermediaries. It is not yet clear how aware the public are of this budget data, or how it affects budget governance. Media monitoring allows us to determine:  how the public engage in the discussions of the national budget,  their awareness of open data,  its potential to drive good governance, and  the challenges to effective use of such open budget data.
  3. 3. The Major Approach Analysis of content published in Newspapers in Nigeria Analysis of discourse around key search phrases on Online Social Networking sites
  4. 4. Why Newspapers and Social Media? Newspapers are the only traditional media that provide access to the majority of Nigerian citizens, particularly the middle (elite) class, without the barrier of powering a television (poor electricity)  Social media are the most uncensored public domains (Emerging Public Sphere) for discussion of governance and public issues  Television and radio are left out because it will be difficult to obtain past recordings of shows as it might also be difficult to monitor live television broadcast 
  5. 5. Rationale for content analysis    This method (Content Analysis) is “a research technique for the objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication” (Berelson, 1952, p.18). In relation to the purpose of this study, content analysis is “a research method that uses a set of procedures to make a valid inferences from text” (Weber, 1990, p. 9). It is “the systematic and replicable examination of symbols of communication, which have been assigned numeric values according to valid measurement rules, and the analysis of relationships involving those values using statistical methods, in order to describe the communication, draw inferences about its meanings, or infer from the communication to its context, bot of production and consumption (Riffe, Lacy and Fico, 1998, p. 20).
  6. 6. Procedures for the Newspaper Content Analysis    Selection of Newspapers - Six Nigerian national Newspapers from over 40 national daily newspapers were purposively selected using the criteria of circulation, readership status, and geographical location. Sample size and sampling technique – all newspaper editions from December of the preceding year to May of the following year (6 months) to cover news items on the annual budgets of Nigeria from 2009 to 2013 (5 years) – this is the period from formulation of the budget to presentation to the National Assembly for debate and passing into an appropriation bill and when it is finally presented to the public after Presidential accent. This amounts to about 180 editions for each newspaper per year. Units of Analysis - all forms of news items on the annual budget of Nigeria: News story, Columns (opinions), Editorials, Articles/Features, News analysis, News Supplements, Cartoons, Graphics, Interviews, Reviews
  7. 7. Variables of Concern The analysis of the newspapers is to determine:  Depth of the report on the annual budget  Prominence given to the coverage or report of the annual budget  News items for the reports or coverage of the annual budget  Direction (whether favourable or otherwise) of the reports on the annual budget  Tone (whether harsh, soft, or critical) of the reports on the annual budget  Major Themes or focus of the budget in the reports  Sources of the reports (whether government officials, experts, civil society organisations, open data community, etc (This will help in making inferences on the access and use of online version of the annual budget)
  8. 8. Coding Schedule (summarized in an Excel spreadsheet): Name of Analyst : Click the arrow, then click the entry you want. Use Scroll if needed. S Newspa Year Da Month Them Pro Direc ToneQuality Assumed or Page Headlin Lead Depth in Summary N per Publish y es mine tion of Established Nos e Inches of Story O Name ed nce Report Sources 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Story Story Author Authors Contact Name
  9. 9. Procedures for Social Media Analysis Process  Conversations/debates around 2012 & 2013 annual budget on different Nigerian online forums were searched and pulled out for analysis with a view to establishing the level of civic engagements that the process of the formulation as well as the release of the budget had stimulated (2014 is now being monitored)  The search was carried out on the two social media platforms - FACEBOOK and TWITTER  Search tools - Social Mention and Google were used, with the search phrase “Nigeria 2013 Budget” leading to links on Facebook forums and Tweets where Nigeria 2013 budget was mentioned. For example: http://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?id=10000046543935 1&v=wall&story_fbid=726217430737098
  10. 10. Data Analysis     Data from the newspaper analysis are being summarized with descriptive statistics and correlation statistics to establish relationships among some variables of concern From the social media, extracted content are being manually re-categorized into categories or themes Content from both the newspapers & social media are being grouped into emerging categories or themes Identification of traceable contributors to newspaper publications and online discussions
  11. 11. Preliminary Findings – Newspaper Analysis Proportion of Analysed Newspapers with story items related to Nigeria's budget is 50% or less  Analysed newspapers have 60% average page 51% 50% number’s of: 45% ◦  0% This Day The Guardian Daily Trust Tribune The Punch (72) ◦ 10% Tribune (56) ◦ 20% Daily Trust (60) ◦ 30% The Guardian (72) ◦ 36% This Day (60) ◦ 39% 40% The Nation (64) The Punch and The Nation are still being collated. Total editions scanned so far: This Day (714), The Guardian (869), Daily Trust (702), Tribune (613) 11
  12. 12. Assumed or established sources for the news items SOURCE Top Government Officials National Assembly Others Open Data Community Government Spokespersons Minister of Finance Budget Office Ministry of Finance Officials Total No. of stories 760 224 204 165 90 49 38 36 1566 % 24.27 7.15 6.51 5.27 2.87 1.56 1.21 1.15 100.00
  13. 13. More from Newspapers – top 3 …       Relevant news items were: News stories (63%), Features (10%), Opinions (6%), News Commentaries (5%) … Themes were mostly Fiscal Policies in the Budget (28%), Capital Projects/Expenditure (21%), Recurrent Expenditure (7%) … Prominence given - Inside Page Minor (42%), Inside Page Major (40%), Front Page Major (6%) … Direction of stories – Informing (41%), Critical (24%), Favourable (22%) Tone of the stories were: 45.4% Soft, 44.8% Moderate, and 9.7% Harsh Quality of the reports: Comprehensive (53%), Scanty (24%), Expert analysis (23%)
  14. 14. Preliminary Findings – Social Media Search phrase: Nigeria 2013 budget  Twitter: Criticism of sectoral • implement the budget allocations in the budget ◦ Our great country spent only 3.2% of its national budget on health at the federal level in 2010. Of this, 83% was spent on paying salaries! - EiE Nigeria(@EiENigeria) ◦ A country that spends 5% of its budget on education and 30% on security is doomed. But common sense isn't so common. #publicaffairs - VEEG Communications (@VEEGGroup) ◦ Shocking: 23 per cent of National Budget Spent on Salaries/Allowances of 18,000 Top Government Officials... http://fb.me/1chL7vb8g Information Nigeria(@infonaija) Facebook: Distrust of govt, to Prompter – Announcement of 2013 budget presentation by Dr Okonjo-Iweala, Minister of Finance attracted 210 Likes Comments: - Budget is well planned,it requires sincere implementaction & God's approval. Nwabam Ugochukwu Goodluck - ds may be bugdet of hope,if implimented.Adeniyi Olusegun Godwin - Well presented.This is paper work.Nigerians are expecting the action part of it.-Paul Owojori Olugbenga 14
  15. 15. Challenges with the Method Newspaper analysis:  Absence of online archives of the newspapers dating back to 2009 – only available for The Punch  We therefore had no alternative other than to go through the hard copy editions of each of the newspapers one by one  Problems with locating every edition in the sample due to inconsistent archiving in the libraries consulted – the solution is to visit the newspaper headquarters in the hope that they have good archiving and retrieval systems. Social Media analysis:  Not all discussions/tweets are visible to the search engines  The search phrase may not necessarily capture all related conversations  Are all conversations/comments to be taken seriously?
  16. 16. Conclusion  Media analysis is a good methodology for examining discourse around a subject of interest and therefore is invaluable in our quest to answer the direct questions on citizen engagement with the national budget of Nigeria and indirectly, the related questions on the use of open data to drive transparency and good governance.
  17. 17. References    Berelson, B. (1952). Content Analysis in Communication. Research. New York: Hafner. Weber, R.P. (1990). Basic Content Analysis (2nd ed.) Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Riffe, Daniel, Lacy, & Fico, Fredrick, G. (1998). Analysing Media Messages: Using Quantitative Content Analysis in Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  18. 18. THANK YOU